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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835152

RESUMO

In Italy, at the end of 2020, a voluntary immunization plan against COVID-19 was introduced, involving elderly among the first target categories. The aim of this study was to assess, through an online questionnaire, the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination in a sample of older adults from southern Italy. Of a total of 1041 respondents (41.7% males, mean age 76.6 ± 6.5), 965 (92.7%) were vaccinated or willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19, although less than half of the sample was favorable to vaccinations and agreed with mandatory immunization. Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination was found to be positively related with higher educational level (OR = 1.875, CI95% = 1.113-3.161; p = 0.018) and having social/mass media as a main source of information (OR = 2.415 CI95% = 1.358-4.296, p = 0.003). On the contrary, an inverse relationship was found between acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination and having fulfilled the questionnaire after the introduction of green pass (OR = 0.218, CI95% = 0.129-0.369; p < 0.001). Therefore, although this evidence needs to be further confirmed, it is possible to agree with previous studies reporting that compulsory measures, such as green pass implementation, must be accompanied by effective education and information strategies of the target population.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769932

RESUMO

Although direct contact is considered the main mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, environmental factors play an important role. In this study, we evaluated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 on bus and train surfaces. From the buses, we took samples from the following areas: handrails used to enter or exit the bus, stop request buttons and handles next to the seats. From the trains, the sampled surfaces were handrails used to enter or exit the train, door open/close buttons, handles next to the seats, tables and toilet handles. SARS-CoV-2 was detected on 10.7% of the tested surfaces overall, 19.3% of bus surfaces and 2% of train surfaces (p < 0.0001). On the buses, the most contaminated surfaces were the handles near the seats (12.8%), followed by door open/close buttons (12.5%) and handrails (10.5%). Of the five analyzed transport companies, bus companies were the most contaminated, in particular, companies C (40%) and B (23.3%). A greater number of positive samples were found among those taken at 10:00 a.m. and 10:55 a.m. (45% and 40%, respectively). The presence of the virus on many bus surfaces highlights how the sanitation systems on public transport currently in use are not sufficient to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Saneamento , Transportes
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639592

RESUMO

As a complement to clinical disease surveillance, the monitoring of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater can be used as an early warning system for impending epidemics. This study investigated the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in untreated wastewater with respect to the trend of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevalence in Southern Italy. A total of 210 wastewater samples were collected between May and November 2020 from 15 Apulian wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The samples were concentrated in accordance with the standard of World Health Organization (WHO, Geneva, Switzerland) procedure for Poliovirus sewage surveillance, and molecular analysis was undertaken with real-time reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-(q) PCR). Viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) was found in 12.4% (26/210) of the samples. The virus concentration in the positive samples ranged from 8.8 × 102 to 6.5 × 104 genome copies/L. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve modeling showed that at least 11 cases/100,000 inhabitants would occur after a wastewater sample was found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 (sensitivity = 80%, specificity = 80.9%). To our knowledge, this is the first study in Italy that has applied wastewater-based epidemiology to predict COVID-19 prevalence. Further studies regarding methods that include all variables (meteorological phenomena, characteristics of the WWTP, etc.) affecting this type of wastewater surveillance data would be useful to improve data interpretation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Control measures adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic had a considerable impact on human daily life and lifestyles. Adherence to the recommended measures is influenced by knowledge and attitudes towards the disease. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of knowledge regarding COVID-19, the related control measures, and lifestyle behaviors adopted during the pandemic in a sample of elderly Italian people. METHODS: A web-based questionnaire investigating socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of COVID-19, the related preventive measures, and lifestyle changes that occurred during the pandemic, were distributed to ≥65 years old people living in South Italy. RESULTS: A satisfactory level of knowledge about COVID-19 and the related control measures has been found in the enrolled sample. However, a decrease in physical activity, as well as worsening sleeping and dietary habits, were found in roughly 60% of participants. Females were impacted greater by these lifestyle changes. CONCLUSIONS: Participants in this study showed a good level of knowledge regarding COVID-19 and its prevention. Nevertheless, they reported an increase in unhealthy habits that may have important health consequences in the long term and should be addressed by public health interventions targeted at older people.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501993

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in March 2020 in Italy, leading to the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that continues to cause high global morbidity and mortality in human populations. Numerous studies have focused on the spread and persistence of the virus in the hospital setting. New scientific evidence shows that SARS-CoV-2 is present in different community environments. Although aerosol is one of the main routes of transmission for SARS-CoV-2, indirect contact through virus-contaminated surfaces could also play a key role. The survival and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces appear to be influenced by the characteristics of the material, temperature, and humidity. In this study, we investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on surfaces in 20 supermarkets throughout the Apulia region during the lockdown period. We collected a total of 300 swab samples from various surfaces including supermarket scales, trolley handles, refrigerator and freezer handles, and keyboards. In total, 13 (4.3%) surfaces were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA contamination, with shopping trolley handles being the most frequently contaminated. This study showed that contamination in public spaces can occur, so we remark the importance to adopt adequate preventive measures, including environment ventilation, careful surfaces sanitation, hand hygiene, and correct usage of masks, to reduce the likelihood of virus transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , RNA Viral , Supermercados
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501822

RESUMO

Tattooing and piercing may lead to health complications. The present multicenter cross-sectional study aimed to assess awareness and knowledge of health risks related to body art and to identify their possible determinants among a large sample of undergraduates in Italy. A web-based questionnaire collecting information on socio-demographic characteristics, awareness, knowledge, and some potential predictors was administered to undergraduates attending twelve Italian universities. The level of knowledge was expressed as the number of correct answers (0-11 for tattooing, 0-14 for piercing). A total of 2985 participants (mean age 23.15 ± 3.99, 73.9% F) participated in the study. Although 95.4% of the respondents were aware of possible health consequences of body art, a low level of specific knowledge was registered for both tattooing (mean number of correct answers 5.38 ± 2.39) and piercing (5.93 ± 3.12) consequences. Lower knowledge was associated with the attendance of non-life science course and with lower duration of academic education for both tattoo and piercing. Lower knowledge of tattooing risks was related with commuter status, while lower knowledge of piercing risks was associated with lower father's education. These findings highlight the need to enhance information campaigns targeted to youths to increase their awareness of possible health risk of body art.


Assuntos
Piercing Corporal , Tatuagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Itália , Percepção , Estudantes , Tatuagem/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578882

RESUMO

Data concerning overweight and obesity in children and adolescent populations are alarming and represent one of the most serious public health problems of our time. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the school environment may play an important role in health promotion with regard to nutritional aspects. This article reports the results of a study conducted in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), aimed at providing an integrated surveillance of the behaviors related to nutrition habits in students and the hygienic and nutritional conditions of the school's canteens attended by enrolled students. To this purpose, a sample of 501 students attending primary school (third class-children approximately eight years old) replied to a validated questionnaire, and official controls (OC), of both food and nutritional safety, were performed in 22 primary schools. A team of healthcare professionals carried out the study, and the implementation of all the prescribed improvement actions were subsequently verified through follow-up OC. The results of our study show a critical situation in the student sample, with 41.3% of children having a weight excess (overweight or obesity). With regard to the children's behaviors, only 59.8% of children ate at least one fruit or had a fruit juice for breakfast, and 10.8% did not have breakfast at all. Overall, 40.1% of the total children played outdoors the afternoon before the survey and 45% reported going to school on foot or by bicycle. During the afternoon, 83.5% of the sample watched television or used video games/tablets/mobile phones, while 42.3% played sports. The schools had an internal canteen with on-site preparation of meals in 36.4%, the remaining 63.6% received meals from external food establishments. With regard to OC, for the hygienic-sanitary section, eleven prescriptions were issued, in the great part related to the structure and organization of the canteen. For the nutritional section, nine corrective actions were prescribed, mainly related to official documents and management. The follow-up OC showed that all prescriptions were subsequently addressed. Eating at school was less frequent among obese and overweight students compared with those with normal weight. Although this evidence needs to be further confirmed, it highlights the potential role that the school canteens may play in health promotion and prevention of nutritional disorders. On the other hand, in order to fulfill its health promotion task, the school canteens have to comply with official regulations and guidelines; therefore, OC during the management of the food service at school are needed.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica , Controle de Qualidade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Saúde da Criança , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Higiene , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Refeições , Política Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Controle Social Formal , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574734

RESUMO

Serratia marcescens (SM) is a Gram-negative bacterium that is frequently found in the environment. Since 1913, when its pathogenicity was first demonstrated, the number of infections caused by SM has increased. There is ample evidence that SM causes nosocomial infections in immunocompromised or critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs), but also in newborns admitted to neonatal ICUs (NICUs). In this study, we evaluated the possible genetic correlation by PFGE between clinical and environmental SM strains from NICU and ICU and compared the genetic profile of clinical strains with strains isolated from patients admitted to other wards of the same hospital. We found distinct clonally related groups of SM strains circulating among different wards of a large university hospital. In particular, the clonal relationship between clinical and environmental strains in NICU and ICU 1 was highlighted. The identification of clonal relationships between clinical and environmental strains in the wards allowed identification of the epidemic and rapid implementation of adequate measures to stop the spread of SM.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Infecções por Serratia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Infecções por Serratia/epidemiologia , Serratia marcescens/genética
9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200835

RESUMO

At the end of 2020, the Italian Ministry of Health launched a national vaccination campaign to counteract the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study aimed at appraising levels of knowledge about and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination in a sample of Italian undergraduates during the first phase of the immunization plan. A web-based questionnaire was administered to students attending universities in Bari, Naples, and Rome during the period February-April 2021. Of the total of 3226 participants, 91.9% were keen to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. More than 80% gave correct answers to questions about COVID-19 vaccine administration, functioning, and effects on community health. However, only 63.8% identified the correct composition of the available vaccines. Knowledge was found to be related to sociodemographic features and COVID-19 vaccination acceptance (p < 0.05). COVID-19 vaccination acceptance was found to be related to having a previous vaccination against influenza (OR 3.806, CI 95% 1.181-12.267; p = 0.025) and knowledge (OR 4.759, CI 95% 2.106-10.753; p = 0.000). These results show a good level of awareness about COVID-19 vaccination in this population, which may indicate the effectiveness of communication strategies accompanying the COVID-19 immunization campaign in Italy.

10.
Environ Res ; 202: 111649, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252427

RESUMO

Legionellosis is a severe pneumonia caused by the inhalation of aerosols containing Legionella, Gram-negative bacteria present in the water systems of touristic-recreational facilities. The purpose of this study was to develop a scoring tool to predict the risk of both environmental contamination and Legionnaires' disease cases in such facilities in the Apulia region of southern Italy. We analyzed 47 structural and management parameters/risk factors related to the buildings, water systems, and air conditioning at the facilities. A Poisson regression model was used to compute an overall risk score for each facility with respect to three outcomes: water samples positive for Legionella (risk score range: 7-54), water samples positive for Legionella with an average load exceeding 1000 colony-forming units per liter (CFU/L) (risk score range: 22-179,871), and clinical cases of Legionnaire's disease (risk score range: 6-31). The cut-off values for three outcomes were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves (first outcome, samples positive for Legionella in a touristic-recreational facility: 19; second outcome, samples positive for Legionella in a touristic-recreational facility with an average load exceeding 1000 CFU/L: 2062; third outcome, clinical cases of Legionnaire's disease in a touristic-recreational facility: 22). Above these values, there was a significant probability of observing the outcome. We constructed this predictive model using 70% of a large dataset (18 years of clinical and environmental surveillance) and tested the model on the remaining 30% of the dataset to demonstrate its reliability. Our model enables the assessment of risk for a touristic facility and the creation of a conceptual framework to link the risk analysis with prevention measures.


Assuntos
Legionella pneumophila , Legionella , Legionelose , Doença dos Legionários , Humanos , Legionelose/epidemiologia , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Microbiologia da Água
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806848

RESUMO

The awareness of citizens concerning the health risks caused by environmental pollution is growing, but studies on determinants of pro-environmental behaviors have rarely examined health-related aspects. In this study, we investigated these determinants using data from a large survey among Italian university students (15 Universities: 4778 filled questionnaires). Besides the health-related aspects, represented by environmental health risk perception and functional health literacy, we considered social and demographic characteristics (gender, area of residence, sources of information, trust in institutional and non-institutional subjects, and students' capacity of positive actions, indicated as internal locus of control). The attitudes towards pro-environmental behaviors were positive for more than 70% of students and positively related with health risk perception, internal locus of control, and health literacy. The correspondence between the positive attitudes towards pro-environmental behaviors and the real adoption of such behaviors was approximately 20% for most behaviors, except for the separate collection of waste (60%). Such a discrepancy can be attributable to external obstacles (i.e., lack of time, costs, lack of support). The health-related aspects were linked to the pro-environmental attitudes, but to a lesser extent to pro-environmental behaviors, owing to the complexity of their determinants. However, they should be taken in account in planning education interventions.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Universidades , Atitude , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801099

RESUMO

A Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by a new virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), spreads via direct contact through droplets produced by infected individuals. The transmission of this virus can also occur via indirect contact if objects and surfaces are contaminated by secretions from individuals with COVID-19 or asymptomatic carriers. Environmental contamination with SARS-CoV-2 is high in hospital settings; on the contrary, surface contamination in non-healthcare settings is still poorly studied. In this study, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 on the surfaces of 20 tourist-recreational facilities was investigated by performing a total of 100 swabs on surfaces, including refrigerator handles, handrails, counters, tables, and bathroom access doors. Six (6%) swabs from four (20%) tourist-recreational facilities tested positive for SARS-CoV-2; the surfaces that were involved were toilet door handles, refrigerator handles, handrails, and bar counters. This study highlights that SARS-CoV-2 is also present in non-healthcare environments; therefore, in order to limit this worrying pandemic, compliance with behavioral rules and the adoption of preventive and protective measures are of fundamental importance not only in healthcare or work environments but also in life environments.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Pathogens ; 10(1)2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467059

RESUMO

The good installation, as well as commissioning plan, of a water network is a crucial step in reducing the risk of waterborne diseases. The aim of this study was to monitor the microbiological quality of water from a newly built pavilion before it commenced operation. Overall, 91 water samples were tested for coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella at three different times: T0 (without any water treatment), T1 (after treatment with hydrogen peroxide and silver ions at initial concentration of 20 mg/L and after flushing of water for 20 min/day for seven successive days) and T2 (15 days later). Coliforms were detected in 47.3% of samples at T0, 36.3% at T1 and 4.4% at T2. E. coli was isolated in 4.4% of the samples only at T1, while enterococci appeared in 12.1% of the samples at T1 and in 2.2% at T2. P. aeruginosa was isolated in 50.5% of the samples at T0, 29.7% at T1 and 1.1% at T2. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 was isolated in 80.2% of the samples at T0, 36.3% at T1 and 2.2% at T2. Our results confirmed the need for a water safety plan in new hospital pavilions to prevent the risk of waterborne diseases.

15.
Pathogens ; 9(12)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266323

RESUMO

This study investigated the environmental contamination of groundwater as a consequence of the discharge of treated wastewater into the soil. The investigation focused on a wastewater treatment plant located in an area fractured by karst in the Salento peninsula (Apulia, Italy). Water samples were collected at four sites (raw wastewater, treated wastewater, infiltration trench, and monitoring well), monthly from May to December 2019 (with the exception of August), and were tested for (1) panel of bacteria; (2) enteric viruses; and (3) chemical substances. A gradual reduction in the concentration of bacteria, viruses and contaminants of emerging concern was observed across the profile of soil fissured by karst. All monitored bacteria were absent from the monitoring well, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pepper mild mottle virus and adenovirus were detected at all sampling sites. Personal care products and X-ray contrast media showed the greatest decrease in concentration from infiltration trench to the monitoring well, while the highest residual concentrations in the monitoring well were found for anticonvulsants (78.5%), antimicrobials (41.3%), and antipsychotic drugs (38.6%). Our results show that parameters provided by current law may not always be sufficient to evaluate the sanitary risk relating to the discharge of treated wastewater to the soil.

16.
Microorganisms ; 8(10)2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053645

RESUMO

Scientific studies show that urban wastewater treatment plants (UWWTP) are among the main sources of release of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) into the environment, representing a risk to human health. This review summarizes selected publications from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2019, with particular attention to the presence and treatment of ARG and ARB in UWWTPs in Italy. Following a brief introduction, the review is divided into three sections: (i) phenotypic assessment (ARB) and (ii) genotypic assessment (ARG) of resistant microorganisms, and (iii) wastewater treatment processes. Each article was read entirely to extract the year of publication, the geographical area of the UWWTP, the ARB and ARG found, and the type of disinfection treatment used. Among the ARB, we focused on the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococci in UWWTP. The results show that the information presented in the literature to date is not exhaustive; therefore, future scientific studies at the national level are needed to better understand the spread of ARB and ARG, and also to develop new treatment methods to reduce this spread.

17.
Pathogens ; 9(10)2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987845

RESUMO

Since the last decade, attention towards the occurrence of fungi in potable water has increased. Commensal and saprophytic microorganisms widely distributed in nature are also responsible for causing public health problems. Fungi can contaminate hospital environments, surviving and proliferating in moist and unsterile conditions. According to Italian regulations, the absence of fungi is not a mandatory parameter to define potable water, as a threshold value for the fungal occurrence has not been defined. This study evaluated the occurrence of fungi in potable water distribution systems in hospitals. The frequency of samples positive for the presence of fungi was 56.9%; among them, filamentous fungi and yeasts were isolated from 94.2% and 9.2% of the samples, respectively. The intensive care unit (87.1%) had the highest frequency of positive samples. Multivariable model (p < 0.0001), the variables of the period of the year (p < 0.0001) and type of department (p = 0.0002) were found to be statistically significant, suggesting a high distribution of filamentous fungi in the potable water of hospitals. Further studies are necessary to validate these results and identify the threshold values of fungi levels for different types of water used for various purposes to ensure the water is safe for consumption and protect public health.

18.
Environ Res ; 191: 110231, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976823

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic started in China in early December 2019, and quickly spread around the world. The epidemic gradually started in Italy at the end of February 2020, and by May 31, 2020, 232,664 cases and 33,340 deaths were confirmed. As a result of this pandemic, the Italian Ministerial Decree issued on March 11, 2020, enforced lockdown; therefore, many social, recreational, and cultural centers remained closed for months. In Apulia (southern Italy), all non-urgent hospital activities were suspended, and some wards were closed, with a consequent reduction in the use of the water network and the formation of stagnant water. This situation could enhance the risk of exposure of people to waterborne diseases, including legionellosis. The purpose of this study was to monitor the microbiological quality of the water network (coliforms, E. coli, Enterococci, P. aeruginosa, and Legionella) in three wards (A, B and C) of a large COVID-19 regional hospital, closed for three months due to the COVID-19 emergency. Our study revealed that all three wards' water network showed higher contamination by Legionella pneumophila sg 1 and sg 6 at T1 (after lockdown) compared to the period before the lockdown (T0). In particular, ward A at T1 showed a median value = 5600 CFU/L (range 0-91,000 CFU/L) vs T0, median value = 75 CFU/L (range 0-5000 CFU/L) (p-value = 0.014); ward B at T1 showed a median value = 200 CFU/L (range 0-4200 CFU/L) vs T0, median value = 0 CFU/L (range 0-300 CFU/L) (p-value = 0.016) and ward C at T1 showed a median value = 175 CFU/L (range 0-22,000 CFU/L) vs T0, median value = 0 CFU/L (range 0-340 CFU/L) (p-value < 0.001). In addition, a statistically significant difference was detected in ward B between the number of positive water samples at T0 vs T1 for L. pneumophila sg 1 and sg 6 (24% vs 80% p-value < 0.001) and for coliforms (0% vs 64% p-value < 0.001). Moreover, a median value of coliform load resulted 3 CFU/100 ml (range 0-14 CFU/100 ml) at T1, showing a statistically significant increase versus T0 (0 CFU/100 ml) (p-value < 0.001). Our results highlight the need to implement a water safety plan that includes staff training and a more rigorous environmental microbiological surveillance in all hospitals before occupying a closed ward for a longer than one week, according to national and international guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Legionella pneumophila , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Água , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água
19.
Nurs Open ; 7(5): 1578-1587, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802379

RESUMO

Aim: To develop an instrument to investigate knowledge and predictive factors of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs) in nursing students during clinical placements. Design: Instrument development and cross-sectional study for psychometric testing. Methods: A self-administered instrument including demographic data, injury epidemiology and predictive factors of NSIs was developed between October 2018-January 2019. Content validity was assessed by a panel of experts. The instrument's factor structure and discriminant validity were explored using principal components analysis. The STROBE guidelines were followed. Results: Evidence of content validity was found (S-CVI 0.75; I-CVI 0.50-1.00). A three-factor structure was shown by exploratory factor analysis. Of the 238 participants, 39% had been injured at least once, of which 67.3% in the second year. Higher perceptions of "personal exposure" (4.06, SD 3.78) were reported by third-year students. Higher scores for "perceived benefits" of preventive behaviours (13.6, SD 1.46) were reported by second-year students.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854414

RESUMO

Background: From March to May 2020, lockdown measures were adopted in Italy to contain the epidemic of the novel Coronavirus. People were forced to restrict their movement and social contacts, therefore having a higher risk of inactivity. This study, carried out among Italian undergraduates, explored their sedentary and physical activities (PA) during the lockdown with respect to their previous habits. Methods: An electronic questionnaire was administered once to students attending three Italian universities after the end of lockdown. Results: A total of 1430 students (mean age 22.9 ± 3.5 years, 65.5% females) completed the questionnaire. All the sedentary behaviors increased significantly, and all the physical activities decreased significantly during the lockdown. Time spent using electronic devices showed the highest increase (+52.4 min/day), and walking the greatest decrease (-365.5 min/week). Being younger than 22 years old, female, and previously active, attending the universities of Naples and Rome and having at least one graduate parent were associated with the achievement of recommended levels of PA even during the lockdown. Conclusions: This study highlights the reduction of PA among Italian undergraduates in the course of home-confinement due to the CoViD-19 pandemic. The practice of adequate PA during the lockdown was mainly associated with the previous adoption of an active lifestyle. Promoting active lifestyles during the non-pandemic period may have had positive effects also in case of lockdown.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pandemias , Cidade de Roma , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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