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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e019650, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228447

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which has posed a significant threat to global health. Although the infection is frequently asymptomatic or associated with mild symptoms, in a small proportion of patients it can produce an intense inflammatory and prothrombotic state that can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure, and death. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), highly expressed in the respiratory system, has been identified as a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Notably, ACE2 is also expressed in the cardiovascular system and there are multiple cardiovascular implications of COVID-19. Cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease have been associated with severe manifestations and poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19. Importantly, patients with COVID-19 may have thrombotic and coagulation abnormalities promoting a hypercoagulable state, resulting in an increased rate of thrombotic and thromboembolic events. This review will describe the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular involvement following infection by SARS-CoV-2, with a focus on thrombotic and thromboembolic manifestations and implications for antithrombotic management.

2.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199208

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing an international outbreak of respiratory illness described as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 infects human cells by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Small studies suggest that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers may upregulate the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, affecting susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. This may be of great importance considering the large number of patients worldwide who are treated with RAS blockers, and the well-proven clinical benefit of these treatments in several cardiovascular conditions. In contrast, RAS blockers have also been associated with better outcomes in pneumonia models, and may be beneficial in COVID-19. This review sought to analyse the evidence regarding RAS blockers in the context of COVID-19 and to perform a pooled analysis of the published observational studies to guide clinical decision making. A total of 21 studies were included, comprising 11,539 patients, of whom 3417 (29.6%) were treated with RAS blockers. All-cause mortality occurred in 587/3417 (17.1%) patients with RAS blocker treatment and in 982/8122 (12.1%) patients without RAS blocker treatment (odds ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.69-1.45; P=0.49; I2=84%). As several hypotheses can be drawn from experimental analysis, we also present the ongoing randomized studies assessing the efficacy and safety of RAS blockers in patients with COVID-19. In conclusion, according to the current data and the results of the pooled analysis, there is no evidence supporting any harmful effect of RAS blockers on the course of patients with COVID-19, and it seems reasonable to recommend their continuation.

3.
Lancet ; 396(10264): 1737-1744, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related myonecrosis is frequent and can affect the long-term prognosis of patients. To our knowledge, ticagrelor has not been evaluated in elective PCI and could reduce periprocedural ischaemic complications compared with clopidogrel, the currently recommended treatment. The aim of the ALPHEUS study was to examine if ticagrelor was superior to clopidogrel in reducing periprocedural myocardial necrosis in stable coronary patients undergoing high-risk elective PCI. METHODS: The ALPHEUS study, a phase 3b, randomised, open-label trial, was done at 49 hospitals in France and Czech Republic. Patients with stable coronary artery disease were eligible for the study if they had an indication for PCI and at least one high-risk characteristic. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose, 90 mg twice daily thereafter for 30 days) or clopidogrel (300-600 mg loading dose, 75 mg daily thereafter for 30 days) by use of an interactive web response system, and stratified by centre. The primary outcome was a composite of PCI-related type 4 (a or b) myocardial infarction or major myocardial injury and the primary safety outcome was major bleeding, both of which were evaluated within 48 h of PCI (or at hospital discharge if earlier). The primary analysis was based on all events that occurred in the intention-to-treat population. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02617290. FINDINGS: Between Jan 9, 2017, and May 28, 2020, 1910 patients were randomly assigned at 49 sites, 956 to the ticagrelor group and 954 to the clopidogrel group. 15 patients were excluded from the ticagrelor group and 12 from the clopidogrel group. At 48 h, the primary outcome was observed in 334 (35%) of 941 patients in the ticagrelor group and 341 (36%) of 942 patients in the clopidogrel group (odds ratio [OR] 0·97, 95% CI 0·80-1·17; p=0·75). The primary safety outcome did not differ between the two groups, but minor bleeding events were more frequently observed with ticagrelor than clopidogrel at 30 days (105 [11%] of 941 patients in the ticagrelor group vs 71 [8%] of 942 patients in the clopidogrel group; OR 1·54, 95% CI 1·12-2·11; p=0·0070). INTERPRETATION: Ticagrelor was not superior to clopidogrel in reducing periprocedural myocardial necrosis after elective PCI and did not cause an increase in major bleeding, but did increase the rate of minor bleeding at 30 days. These results support the use of clopidogrel as the standard of care for elective PCI. FUNDING: ACTION Study Group and AstraZeneca.

5.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 179, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with both diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are a subpopulation characterized by ultrahigh ischemic and bleeding risk after percutaneous coronary intervention. There are limited data on the impact of ticagrelor monotherapy among these patients. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of the GLOBAL-LEADERS trial, the treatment effects of the experimental (one-month dual-antiplatelet therapy [DAPT] followed by 23-month ticagrelor monotherapy) versus the reference regimen (12-month DAPT followed by 12-month aspirin alone) were analyzed according to DM/CKD status. The primary endpoint was a composite endpoint of all-cause death or new Q-wave myocardial infarction at 2-years. The patient-oriented composite endpoint (POCE) was defined as the composite of all-cause death, any stroke, site-reported MI and any revascularization, whereas net adverse clinical events (NACE) combined POCE with BARC type 3 or 5 bleeding events. RESULTS: At 2 years, the DM + /CKD + patients had significantly higher incidences of the primary endpoint (9.5% versus 3.1%, adjusted HR 2.16; 95% CI [1.66-2.80], p < 0.001), BARC type 3 or 5 bleeding events, stroke, site-reported myocardial infraction, all revascularization, POCE, and NACE, compared with the DM-/CKD- patients. Among the DM + /CKD + patients, after adjustment, there were no significant differences in the primary endpoints between the experimental and reference regimen; however, the experimental regimen was associated with lower rates of POCE (20.6% versus 25.9%, HR 0.74; 95% CI [0.55-0.99], p = 0.043, pinteraction = 0.155) and NACE (22.7% versus 28.3%, HR 0.75; 95% CI [0.56-0.99], p = 0.044, pinteraction = 0.310), which was mainly driven by a lower rate of all revascularization, as compared with the reference regimen. The landmark analysis showed that while the experimental and reference regimen had similar rates of all the clinical endpoints during the first year, the experimental regimen was associated with significantly lower rates of POCE (5.8% versus 11.0%, HR 0.49; 95% CI [0.29-0.82], p = 0.007, pinteraction = 0.040) and NACE (5.8% versus 11.2%, HR 0.48; 95% CI [0.29-0.82], p = 0.007, pinteraction = 0.013) in the second year. CONCLUSION: Among patients with both DM and CKD, ticagrelor monotherapy was not associated with lower rates of all-cause death or new Q-wave, or major bleeding complications; however, it was associated with lower rates of POCE and NACE. These findings should be interpreted as hypothesis-generating. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01813435).

7.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the overall neutral results of the GLOBAL-LEADERS trial, results from a prespecified subgroup analysis showed that patients from Western Europe had a significantly lower rate of the primary endpoint when treated with ticagrelor monotherapy. Therefore, we aimed to examine the regional disparities in patients' baseline characteristics and their response to ticagrelor monotherapy. METHODS: Patients' baseline characteristics and the treatment effects of ticagrelor combined with aspirin for 1 month, followed by ticagrelor monotherapy for 23-months versus 12-months of standard dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) were compared according to participating countries. The primary endpoint was a composite endpoint of all-cause death or new Q-wave myocardial infarction at two years. RESULTS: Significant variances in patients' baseline characteristics were found between participating countries. The primary endpoint varied significantly according to the country (Pinteraction = 0.027). Patients from France (1.6% versus 5.2%, HR: 0.31, 95%CI: 0.13-0.73) and The Netherlands (2.4% versus 4.8%, HR, 0.50, 95%CI: 0.26-0.94) had lower rates of the primary endpoint when allocated to ticagrelor monotherapy, compared with the standard DAPT regimen. Of the 26 baseline and post-randomization factors explored, variance in the rate of complex PCI between countries was identified as the top contributor to this regional interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Patients' baseline characteristics varied between participating countries in the GLOBAL-LEADERS trial. There is a significant regional variance in the treatment effect of ticagrelor monotherapy, which could partly be explained by the differences in complex PCI being performed. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01813435).

8.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(9): e009562, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock is highly complex, and outcomes may depend on the time of hospital admission and subsequent intervention (ie, ON-hours versus OFF-hours). The CULPRIT-SHOCK trial (Culprit Lesion Only PCI Versus Multivessel PCI in Cardiogenic Shock) demonstrated superior outcome for culprit-lesion-only versus immediate multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction, multivessel disease, and cardiogenic shock. However, it is unknown whether the time of hospital admission affects the overall outcome of these high-risk patients. METHODS: We analyzed patients from the CULPRIT-SHOCK trial with respect to the time of hospital admission. We divided patients in ON-hours and OFF-hours groups and further stratified them according to their individual revascularization strategy. Outcome measures consisted of a composite end point of death or renal-replacement therapy within 30 days and mortality within 1 year. RESULTS: Out of 686 patients randomized in the CULPRIT-SHOCK trial, 444 patients (64.7%) presented during ON-hours, whereas 242 patients (35.3%) presented during OFF-hours. Death or renal-replacement therapy at 30 days occurred to a similar extent in patients admitted during ON-hours (51.0%) and OFF-hours (50.0%; P=0.80). Similarly, 1-year mortality was not affected by the time of hospital admission (54.4% ON-hours versus 51.7% OFF-hours, P=0.49). Regardless of admission time, patients had a benefit from culprit-lesion-only as compared to immediate multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention. The composite end point at 30 days occurred in 45.1% versus 57.6% of patients admitted ON-hours and in 47.7% versus 51.9% of patients admitted OFF-hours (Pinteraction=0.29). Death within 1 year occurred in 49.4% versus 60.0% of patients admitted during ON-hours and in 51.4% versus 51.9% of patients admitted OFF-hours (Pinteraction=0.20). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock, the risk of death or renal-replacement therapy at 30 days, and mortality at 1 year did not differ significantly according to the time of hospital admission. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01927549.

9.
EuroIntervention ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894227

RESUMO

AIMS: Critical culprit lesion locations (CCLL) such as left main (LM) and proximal left anterior descending (LAD) are associated with worse clinical outcome in myocardial infarction without cardiogenic shock (CS). We aimed to assess whether CCLL identifies a subgroup of patients at poorer prognosis when presenting with CS. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the CULPRIT-SHOCK trial, a core-laboratory reviewed all coronary angiograms to identify CCLL. CCLL was defined as a culprit lesion realizing a >70% diameter stenosis of LM, LM equivalent (>70% diameter stenoses of both proximal LAD and proximal circumflex), proximal LAD or, last remaining vessel. We evaluated the primary study endpoint of the CULPRIT-SHOCK trial according to CCLL. A total of 269 (43%) out of 626 patients eligible for this analysis had a CCLL. Death or renal replacement therapy within 30 days, death within 30 days and within 1 year were significantly higher in CCLL than in non-CCLL group (58.4% vs. 43.4%, p<0.001, 55.8% vs . 39.5%, p<0.001, 61.0% vs. 44.5%, p<0.001, respectively). It was consistent after adjustment for baseline and angiographic characteristics. No interaction with the randomization group (culprit lesion-only or immediate multivessel PCI) was found. CONCLUSIONS: CCLL is frequent in CS and independently associated with worse clinical outcome irrespective of the revascularization strategy.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(15): 1763-1773, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the interleukin (IL)-1ß innate immunity pathway is associated with anti-inflammatory effects and a reduced risk of recurrent cardiovascular events in stable patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the association between IL-1ß level with all-cause mortality in patients with acute ST-segment elevation MI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention and the interplay between IL-1ß and hs-CRP concentrations on the risk of premature death. METHODS: IL-1ß concentration was measured in 1,398 patients with ST-segment elevation MI who enrolled in a prospective cohort. Crude and hazard ratios for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were analyzed at 90 days and 1 year using multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) were analyzed. RESULTS: IL-1ß concentration measured at admission was associated with all-cause mortality at 90 days (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR]: 1.47 per 1 SD increase; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16 to 1.87; p < 0.002). The relation was nonlinear, and the highest tertile of IL-1ß was associated with higher mortality rates at 90 days (adjHR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.61 to 4.79; p = 0.0002) and at 1 year (adjHR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.21 to 3.06; p = 0.005), regardless of the hs-CRP concentration. Significant relationships were equally observed when considering cardiovascular mortality and MACEs at 90 days (adjHR: 2.42; 95% CI: 1.36 to 4.28; p = 0.002, and adjHR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.31 to 4.01; p = 0.004, respectively) and at 1 year (adjHR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.36 to 3.97; p = 0.002, and adjHR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.39 to 3.96; p = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: IL-1ß measured at admission in patients with acute MI was independently associated with the risk of mortality and recurrent MACEs.

11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845312

RESUMO

Importance: Myocardial infarction with a culprit lesion located in the left main or proximal left anterior descending artery compared with other coronary segments is associated with more myocardium at risk and worse clinical outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the association of culprit lesion location with outcomes of culprit-lesion-only percutaneous coronary intervention with optional staged revascularization vs immediate multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with multivessel disease, myocardial infarction, and cardiogenic shock. Design, Setting, and Participants: Post hoc analysis of the Culprit Lesion Only Coronary Intervention vs Multivessel Coronary Intervention in Cardiogenic Shock (CULPRIT-SHOCK), an investigator-initiated randomized, open-label clinical trial. Patients with multivessel disease, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiogenic shock were enrolled at 83 European centers from April 2013 through April 2017. Interventions: Patients were randomized to culprit-lesion-only percutaneous coronary intervention with optional staged revascularization or immediate multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (1:1). For this analysis, patients were stratified by culprit lesion location in the left main or proximal left anterior descending artery group and other-culprit-lesion location group. Main Outcomes and Measures: End points included a composite of death or kidney replacement therapy at 30 days and death at 1 year. Results: The median age of the study population was 70 (interquartile range, 60-78 years) and 524 of the study participants were men (76.4%). Of the 685 patients, 33.4% constituted the left main or proximal left anterior descending artery group and 66.6% the other-culprit-lesion location group. The left main or proximal left anterior descending artery group had worse outcomes compared with the other-culprit-lesion location group (56.8% vs 47.5%; P = .02 for the composite end point at 30 days and 59.8% vs 50.1%; P = .02 for death at 1 year). In both groups, culprit-lesion-only vs immediate multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention was associated with a reduced risk of the composite end point at 30 days (49.1% vs 64.3% and 44.1% vs 50.9%; P for interaction = .27). At 1 year, culprit-lesion-only vs immediate multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention was associated with a significantly reduced risk of death in the left main or proximal left anterior descending artery but not the other-culprit-lesion location group (50.0% vs 69.6%; P = .003 and 49.8% vs 50.4%; P = .89; P for interaction = 0.02). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with multivessel disease with myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock, a culprit lesion located in the left main or proximal left anterior descending artery vs other coronary segments was associated with worse outcomes. These patients may especially benefit from culprit-lesion-only percutaneous coronary intervention with optional staged revascularization, although further investigation is needed to confirm this finding. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01927549.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652000

RESUMO

In 2019, the European Society of Cardiology and European Atherosclerosis Society released a new guideline document with substantial changes regarding the assessment of cardiovascular risk and treatments. The update of high-risk criteria and categories led to a better detection and primary prevention of patients at risk of a first cardiovascular event. Nonetheless, additional efforts are needed for a better inclusion of risk modifiers, especially specific to women, to improve risk stratification and direct primary prevention. Eventually, we discuss how these new guidelines implement PCSK9 inhibitors for very-high risk individuals and the evidence supporting new LDL-C goals below such as 55 mg/dL and 40 mg/dL.

13.
EuroIntervention ; 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624460

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the prognostic impact of pre and post-PCI TIMI Flow Grade (TIMI) and TIMI Myocardial Perfusion (TMPG) in a well-defined group of patients with cardiogenic shock due to acute myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with infarct-related cardiogenic shock randomized into the CULPRIT-SHOCK trial were included in the angiographic predictor analysis whenever their TIMI or TMPG was available in the Corelab database (96.9% of cases). A multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusted on non-angiographic covariates, was performed to investigate if TIMI or TMPG, were independently associated with all-cause mortality or renal replacement therapy up to 1 year. Pre-PCI TIMI and TMPG did not impact mortality. When analyzed in separate multivariable models, post-PCI TIMI 3 and TMPG grade 3 were both significantly associated with reduced risk of 30-day mortality: aOR 0.61 (95%CI: 0.38-0.97, p=0.037) and 0.46 (95%CI: 0.29-0.72, p<0.001), respectively. When considered in the same multivariable model, only TMPG was significantly associated with 30-day mortality (aOR 0.38 [0.20-0.71], p=0.002), 30-day composite of all-cause mortality and renal replacement therapy (aOR 0.34 [0.18-0.66], p=0.001) and mortality at 1-year follow-up (aOR 0.46 [0.24-0.88], p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Post-PCI TIMI and TMPG are associated with mortality after PCI. TMPG is a better discriminator, supporting microcirculation rather than epicardial reperfusion for prognosis estimation.

14.
Am Heart J ; 227: 19-30, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend anticoagulation therapy during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, whether anticoagulation should be continued after pPCI has not been well investigated. METHODS/DESIGN: The RIGHT trial is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in STEMI patients treated with pPCI evaluating the prolongation of anticoagulation after the procedure. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 fashion to receive either prolonged anticoagulant or matching placebo (no anticoagulation) for at least 48 hours after the procedure. When randomized to anticoagulation prolongation, the patient is assigned to intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH) or subcutaneous enoxaparin or intravenous bivalirudin (same drug and same regimen at each center). The primary efficacy endpoint is the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, stent thrombosis (definite) or urgent revascularization (any vessel) at 30 days. The primary safety endpoint is major bleeding (BARC 3-5) at 30 days. Based on a superiority design and assuming a 35% relative risk reduction (from 7% to 4.5%), 2856 patients will be enrolled, accounting for a 5% drop-out rate (α = 0.05 and power = 80%). CONCLUSION: The RIGHT trial tests the hypothesis that post-procedural anticoagulation is superior to no anticoagulation in reducing ischemic events in STEMI patients undergoing pPCI.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Hirudinas/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487320943001, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718236

RESUMO

AIMS: Limited data exist regarding the incidence and aetiology of life-threatening events such as major cardiac events or exertional heat stroke during long-distance races. We aimed to provide an updated incidence, etiology and prognosis of life-threatening events during long-distance races. METHODS: The prospective RACE PARIS registry recorded all life-threatening events/fatal events occurring during 46 marathons, half-marathons and other long-distance races in the Paris area between 2006 and 2016, comprising 1,073,722 runners. Event characteristics were determined by review of medical records and interviews with survivors. RESULTS: The incidence of life-threatening events, exertional heat stroke and major cardiac events was 3.35 per 100,000, 1.02 per 100,000 and 2.33 per 100,000, respectively, including 18 sudden cardiac arrests (1.67 per 100,000). The main aetiology of sudden cardiac arrest was myocardial ischaemia (11/18), due to acute coronary thrombosis (6/11), stable atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (2/11), coronary dissection (1/11), anomalous connection (1/11) or myocardial bridging (1/11). A third of participants with ischaemia-related major cardiac events presented with pre-race clinical symptoms. Major cardiac events were more frequent in the case of a high pollution index (6.78 per 100,000 vs. 2.07 per 100,000, odds ratio 3.27, 95% confidence interval 1.12-9.54). Case fatality was low (0.19 per 100,000). Similarly, we report in a meta-analysis of eight long-distance race registries comprising 16,223,866 runners a low incidence of long-distance race-related sudden cardiac arrest (0.82 per 100,000) and fatality (0.39 per 100,000). Death following sudden cardiac arrest was strongly associated with initial asystole or pulseless rhythm. CONCLUSION: Long-distance race-related life-threatening events remain rare although serious events. Better information for runners on the risk of pre-race clinical symptoms, outside air pollution and temperature may reduce their incidence.

17.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(7): e008481, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) exposes to the risk of device thrombosis in patients with atrial fibrillation who frequently have a contraindication to full anticoagulation. Thereby, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is usually preferred. No randomized study has evaluated nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant after LAAC, and we decided to evaluate the efficacy and safety of reduced doses of rivaroxaban after LAAC. METHODS: ADRIFT (Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Versus Rivaroxaban in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Treated With Left Atrial Appendage Closure) is a multicenter, phase IIb study, which randomized 105 patients after successful LAAC to either rivaroxaban 10 mg (R10, n=37), rivaroxaban 15 mg (R15, n=35), or DAPT with aspirin 75 mg and clopidogrel 75 mg (n=33). The primary end point was thrombin generation (prothrombin fragments 1+2) measured 2 to 4 hours after drug intake, 10 days after treatment initiation. Thrombin-antithrombin complex, D-dimers, rivaroxaban concentrations were also measured at 10 days and 3 months. Clinical end points were evaluated at 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: The primary end point was reduced with R10 (179 pmol/L [interquartile range (IQR), 129-273], P<0.0001) and R15 (163 pmol/L [IQR, 112-231], P<0.0001) as compared with DAPT (322 pmol/L [IQR, 218-528]). We observed no significant reduction of the primary end point between R10 and R15 while rivaroxaban concentrations increased significantly from 184 ng/mL (IQR, 127-290) with R10 to 274 ng/mL (IQR, 192-377) with R15, P<0.0001. Thrombin-antithrombin complex and D-dimers were numerically lower with both rivaroxaban doses than with DAPT. These findings were all confirmed at 3 months. The clinical end points were not different between groups. A device thrombosis was noted in 2 patients assigned to DAPT. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombin generation measured after LAAC was lower in patients treated by reduced rivaroxaban doses than DAPT, supporting an alternative to the antithrombotic regimens currently used after LAAC and deserves further evaluation in larger studies. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03273322.

19.
Am Heart J ; 225: 60-68, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use and impact of transradial artery access (TRA) compared to transfemoral artery access (TFA) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS) remain unclear. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the CULPRIT-SHOCK trial where patients presenting with MI and multivessel disease complicated by CS were randomized to a strategy of culprit-lesion-only or immediate multivessel PCI. Arterial access was left at operator's discretion. Adjudicated outcomes of interest were the composite of death or renal replacement therapy (RRT) at 30 days and 1 year. Multivariate logistic models were used to assess the association between the arterial access and outcomes. RESULTS: Among the 673 analyzed patients, TRA and TFA were successfully performed in 118 (17.5%) and 555 (82.5%) patients, respectively. Compared to TFA, TRA was associated with a lower 30-day rate of death or RRT (37.3% vs 53.2%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.96), a lower 30-day rate of death (34.7% vs 49.7%; aOR: 0.56; 95% CI 0.33-0.96), and a lower 30-day rate of RRT (5.9% vs 15.9%; aOR: 0.40; 95% CI 0.16-0.97). No significant differences were observed regarding the 30-day risks of type 3 or 5 Bleeding Academic Research Consortium bleeding and stroke. The observed reduction of death or RRT and death with TRA was no longer significant at 1 year (44.9% vs 57.8%; aOR: 0.85; 95% CI 0.50-1.45 and 42.4% vs 55.5%, aOR: 0.78; 95% CI 0.46-1.32, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing PCI for acute MI complicated by CS, TRA may be associated with improved early outcomes, although the reason for this finding needs further research.


Assuntos
Artéria Femoral , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Artéria Radial , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(10): 1182-1193, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine frequency, associated factors, and impact of bleeding in infarct-related cardiogenic shock. BACKGROUND: Early revascularization is associated with improved survival in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. On the downside, invasive treatment and accompanying antithrombotic therapies are associated with an increased bleeding risk. Prospective data assessing the incidence, severity, risk factors, and prognostic implication of bleeding in patients with cardiogenic shock are scarce. METHODS: As a pre-defined subanalysis of the CULPRIT-SHOCK (PCI Strategies in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock) randomized trial, we examined distribution of bleeding events in 684 patients with infarct-related cardiogenic shock and compared patients with any bleeding to those without. RESULTS: A total of 21.5% patients experienced at least 1 bleeding event until 30 days after randomization. The vast majority of bleeding (57%) occurred within the first 2 days of hospitalization. Patients with bleeding had prolonged catecholamine treatment and mechanical ventilation and there was a significant association with sepsis, peripheral ischemic complications, new atrial fibrillation, and ventricular fibrillation. In multivariable analysis, bleeding was associated with a significantly higher mortality (hazard ratio: 2.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.63 to 2.75; p < 0.0001). Treatment with active mechanical support by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or Impella emerged as the major risk factor for bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of bleeding in infarct-related cardiogenic shock is high and associated with increased mortality.

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