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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Study aim was to evaluate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), its association with clinical disease and its predictive ability with mortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients from the European Scleroderma Trials and Research Group (EUSTAR) database. METHODS: SSc patients from the EUSTAR database with available items for calculation of eGFR at baseline visit and with a second follow-up visit were included. A cut-off of 60 ml/min was chosen for all SSc patients and 30 ml/min for scleroderma renal crisis (SRC). Cox regression and competing risk analysis were performed to evaluate the role of eGFR as predictive factor of mortality. RESULTS: 3650 SSc patients were included. Mean serum level of creatinine and eGFR were 0.8 mg/dl (IQR 0.6-0.9) and 86.6 ± 23.7 ml/min. The eGFR was significantly lower in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Overall survival (OS) was significantly reduced in SSc patients with eGFR <60 ml/min respect to patients with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min [OS at five years 0.763 (CI 95%: 0.700-0.814) vs 0.903 (CI 95%: 0.883-0.919 p< 0.001)]. In multivariable analysis, OS was associate with male gender (p< 0.01), systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP) (p< 0.001) and eGFR (p< 0.001). Cumulative incidence of deaths due to SSc was associate with increased sPAP (p< 0.001) and reduced eGFR (p< 0.05). OS at five years of 53 SRC patients was not significantly different in SSc patients with eGFR > 30 ml/min or eGFR < 30 ml/min. CONCLUSION: eGFR represents a predictive risk factor of overall survival in SSc. The eGFR is not a risk factor for death in SRC.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725262

RESUMO

The concern about the offspring's health is one of the reasons for a reduced family size of women with rheumatic diseases (RD). Increased risk of autoimmune diseases (AD) and neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) has been reported in children born to patients with RD. Within a nationwide survey about reproductive issues of women with RD, we aimed at exploring the long-term outcome of their children. By surveying 398 patients who received their diagnosis of RD during childbearing age (before the age of 45), information about the offspring were obtained from 230 women who declared to have had children. A total of 148 (64.3%) patients were affected by connective tissue diseases (CTD) and 82 (35.7%) by chronic arthritis. Data on 299 children (156 males, 52.1%; mean age at the time of interview 17.1 ± 9.7 years) were collected. Twelve children (4.0%), who were born to patients with CTD in 75% of the cases, were affected by AD (8 cases of celiac disease). Eleven children had a certified diagnosis of ND (3.6%; 6 cases of learning disabilities); 9 of them were born to mothers with CTD (5 after maternal diagnosis). No association was found between ND and prenatal exposure to either maternal autoantibodies or anti-rheumatic drugs. Absolute numbers of offspring affected by AD and ND were low in a multicentre cohort of Italian women with RD. This information can be helpful for the counselling about reproductive issues, as the health outcomes of the offspring might not be an issue which discourage women with RD from having children.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess available evidence from randomized controlled studies (RCT) and observational studies including a control group regarding the role of trimethoprim/sulfametoxazole (TMP/SMX) in reducing the relapse rate in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and the risk of infections in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library databases, Scopus, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception until the 15th of January 2020 to identify controlled studies assessing the role of TMP/SMX in reducing the rate of relapse in patients with GPA (primary outcome) and the number and/or severity of infections in patients with AAV (secondary outcome). Two reviewers independently selected eligible studies and extracted data. Cumulative risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random effect meta-analysis. RESULTS: Eight studies were selected out of 2907 records. Seven studies (520 patients) (of which two RCT) assessed the role of TMP/SMX on the relapse rate in patients with GPA. TMP/SMX was not associated with a reduced risk of relapse (RR 1.15; 95% CI 0.51-2.55; I2=78.5%, p< 0.001). Sensitivity analysis according to the dose of TMP/SMX (960 mg twice daily vs three-times/week) confirmed the results. One retrospective cohort study (192 patients) was identified demonstrating a significant reduction of severe infections in patients with AAV receiving prophylaxis with TMP/SMX in association with rituximab. CONCLUSION: TMP/SMX was not associated with a reduced risk of relapse in patients with GPA. TMP/SMX might be useful in the reduction of infectious complications.

5.
J Reprod Immunol ; 145: 103304, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677238

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the rate of obstetric complications and the burden of obstetric outcomes in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), non-criteria APS and asymptomatic antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) carriers. From 2013-2018, 163 pregnant subjects with aPL antibodies and 785 controls were enrolled. Penalized logistic regression was used to compare obstetric complications. Cases included 62 complete APS (38 %), 48 non-criteria APS (29.4 %) and 53 (32.5 %) asymptomatic aPL-carriers. Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) were diagnosed in 31.3 % of cases. The rate of high-risk aPL profile was higher (p < .01) in APS (67.7 %) compared to non-criteria (14.6 %) and aPL-carriers (9.4 %). Double/triple positivity was 33.9 % (p < .05 compared to non-criteria and aPL-carriers) in APS, 10.4 % in non-criteria and 9.4 % in aPL-carriers. The rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes were 5.6 % in controls, 41.9 % (adj.OR = 6.95 %CI = 2.7-13.5) in APS, 25 % (adj.OR = 4.4,95 %CI = 2-9.4) in non-criteria and 28.3 % (OR = 4.95 %CI = 1.8-8.8) in aPL-carriers. CTDs were independently associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes (OR = 2.8,95 %CI = 1.36-5.89). The attributable fraction (AF) of adverse obstetric events was higher among low-risk antibodies compared to high-risk (AF = 0.27,95 %CI = 0.22-0.31 vs AF = 0.16,95 %CI = 0.16-0.2,p < .01) and among single positivity compared to double/triple positivity (AF = 0.32,95 %CI = 0.26-0.37 vs AF = 0.11,95 %CI = 0.09-0.13,p < .01) suggesting that low-risk subjects are responsible for a high burden of obstetric complications.

6.
Lancet ; 397(10271): 305-317, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although targeted biological treatments have transformed the outlook for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 40% of patients show poor clinical response, which is mechanistically still unexplained. Because more than 50% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis have low or absent CD20 B cells-the target for rituximab-in the main disease tissue (joint synovium), we hypothesised that, in these patients, the IL-6 receptor inhibitor tocilizumab would be more effective. The aim of this trial was to compare the effect of tocilizumab with rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) stratified for synovial B-cell status. METHODS: This study was a 48-week, biopsy-driven, multicentre, open-label, phase 4 randomised controlled trial (rituximab vs tocilizumab in anti-TNF inadequate responder patients with rheumatoid arthritis; R4RA) done in 19 centres across five European countries (the UK, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, and Spain). Patients aged 18 years or older who fulfilled the 2010 American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis and were eligible for treatment with rituximab therapy according to UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines were eligible for inclusion in the trial. To inform balanced stratification, following a baseline synovial biopsy, patients were classified histologically as B-cell poor or rich. Patients were then randomly assigned (1:1) centrally in block sizes of six and four to receive two 1000 mg rituximab infusions at an interval of 2 weeks (rituximab group) or 8 mg/kg tocilizumab infusions at 4-week intervals (tocilizumab group). To enhance the accuracy of the stratification of B-cell poor and B-cell rich patients, baseline synovial biopsies from all participants were subjected to RNA sequencing and reclassified by B-cell molecular signature. The study was powered to test the superiority of tocilizumab over rituximab in the B-cell poor population at 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was defined as a 50% improvement in Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI50%) from baseline. The trial is registered on the ISRCTN database, ISRCTN97443826, and EudraCT, 2012-002535-28. FINDINGS: Between Feb 28, 2013, and Jan 17, 2019, 164 patients were classified histologically and were randomly assigned to the rituximab group (83 [51%]) or the tocilizumab group (81 [49%]). In patients histologically classified as B-cell poor, there was no statistically significant difference in CDAI50% between the rituximab group (17 [45%] of 38 patients) and the tocilizumab group (23 [56%] of 41 patients; difference 11% [95% CI -11 to 33], p=0·31). However, in the synovial biopsies classified as B-cell poor with RNA sequencing the tocilizumab group had a significantly higher response rate compared with the rituximab group for CDAI50% (rituximab group 12 [36%] of 33 patients vs tocilizumab group 20 [63%] of 32 patients; difference 26% [2 to 50], p=0·035). Occurrence of adverse events (rituximab group 76 [70%] of 108 patients vs tocilizumab group 94 [80%] of 117 patients; difference 10% [-1 to 21) and serious adverse events (rituximab group 8 [7%] of 108 vs tocilizumab group 12 [10%] of 117; difference 3% [-5 to 10]) were not significantly different between treatment groups. INTERPRETATION: The results suggest that RNA sequencing-based stratification of rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue showed stronger associations with clinical responses compared with histopathological classification. Additionally, for patients with low or absent B-cell lineage expression signature in synovial tissue tocilizumab is more effective than rituximab. Replication of the results and validation of the RNA sequencing-based classification in independent cohorts is required before making treatment recommendations for clinical practice. FUNDING: Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation programme from the UK National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Biópsia , Método Duplo-Cego , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 17(3): 177-184, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408338

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the need to provide high-level care for a large number of patients with COVID-19 has affected resourcing for, and limited the routine care of, all other conditions. The impact of this health emergency is particularly relevant in the rare connective tissue diseases (rCTDs) communities, as discussed in this Perspective article by the multi-stakeholder European Reference Network on Rare and Complex Connective Tissue and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ERN ReCONNET). The clinical, organizational and health economic challenges faced by health-care providers, institutions, patients and their families during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak have demonstrated the importance of ensuring continuity of care in the management of rCTDs, including adequate diagnostics and monitoring protocols, and highlighted the need for a structured emergency strategy. The vulnerability of patients with rCTDs needs to be taken into account when planning future health policies, in preparation for not only the post-COVID era, but also any possible new health emergencies.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias , Comorbidade , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/terapia , Humanos
8.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 290, 2020 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence and outcomes of coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 in relation to immunomodulatory medications are still unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents on COVID-19 in a large cohort of patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis. METHODS: The study was conducted in the arthritis outpatient clinic at two large academic hospitals in the COVID-19 most endemic area of Northern Italy (Lombardy). We circulated a cross-sectional survey exploring the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 nasopharyngeal swab positivity and the occurrence of acute respiratory illness (fever and/or cough and/or dyspnea), administered face-to-face or by phone to consecutive patients from 25 February to 20 April 2020. COVID-19 cases were defined as confirmed or highly suspicious according to the World Health Organization criteria. The impact of medications on COVID-19 development was evaluated. RESULTS: The study population included 2050 adults with chronic inflammatory arthritis receiving glucocorticoids, conventional-synthetic (cs), or targeted-synthetic/biological (ts/b) disease-modifying drugs (DMARDs). Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and highly suspicious infection were recorded in 1.1% and 1.4% of the population, respectively. Treatment with glucocorticoids was independently associated with increased risk of COVID-19 (adjusted OR [95% CI] ranging from 1.23 [1.04-1.44] to 3.20 [1.97-5.18] depending on the definition used). Conversely, patients treated with ts/bDMARDs were at reduced risk (adjusted OR ranging from 0.46 [0.18-1.21] to 0.47 [0.46-0.48]). No independent effects of csDMARDs, age, sex, and comorbidities were observed. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, treatment with immunomodulatory medications appears safe. Conversely, glucocorticoids, even at low-dose, may confer increased risk of infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered. Not applicable.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite/diagnóstico , Artrite/epidemiologia , /epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy in SSc is burdened with an increased risk of obstetric complications. Little is known about the underlying placental alterations. This study aimed to better understand pathological changes and the role of inflammation in SSc placentas. Leucocyte infiltration, inflammatory mediators and atypical chemokine receptor 2 (ACKR2) expression in SSc placentas were compared with those in other rheumatic diseases (ORD) and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on eight pregnant SSc patients compared with 16 patients with ORD and 16 HC matched for gestational age. Clinical data were collected. Placentas were obtained for histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistry (CD3, CD20, CD11c, CD68, ACKR2). Samples from four SSc, eight ORD and eight HC were analysed by qPCR for ACKR2 expression and by multiplex assay for cytokines, chemokines and growth factors involved in angiogenesis and inflammation. RESULTS: The number of placental CD3, CD68 and CD11 cells was significantly higher in patients affected by rheumatic diseases (SSc+ORD) compared with HC. Hepatocyte growth factor was significantly increased in the group of rheumatic diseases patients (SSc+ORD) compared with HC, while chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) was significantly higher in SSc patients compared with ORD and HC. CCL5 levels directly correlated with the number of all local inflammatory cells and higher levels were associated with histological villitis. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory alterations characterize placentas from rheumatic disease patients and could predispose to obstetric complications in these subjects.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Only a third of patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) are ANCA-positive, mainly directed against MPO. ANCA directed against PR3 are rarely found in EGPA. We aimed to examine the significance of PR3-ANCA in EGPA. METHODS: We set up a retrospective European multicentre cohort including 845 patients. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were analysed and compared according to ANCA status. RESULTS: ANCA status was available for 734 patients: 508 (69.2%) ANCA-negative, 210 (28.6%) MPO-ANCA and 16 (2.2%) PR3-ANCA. At baseline, PR3-ANCA patients, compared with those with MPO-ANCA and ANCA-negative, less frequently had active asthma (69% vs 91% and 93%, P = 0.003, respectively) and peripheral neuropathy (31% vs 71% and 47%, P < 0.0001), more frequently had cutaneous manifestations (63% vs 38% and 34%, P = 0.03) and pulmonary nodules (25% vs 10% and 8%, P = 0.046), and lower median eosinophil count (1450 vs 5400 and 3224/mm3, P < 0.0001). Vasculitis relapse-free survival was shorter for PR3-ANCA (hazard ratio 6.05, P = 0.005) and MPO-ANCA patients (hazard ratio 1.88, P = 0.0002) compared with ANCA-negative patients. CONCLUSION: PR3-ANCA EGPA patients differ from those with MPO-ANCA and negative ANCA, and share clinical features with granulomatosis with polyangiitis. This suggests that PR3-ANCA EGPA could be a particular form of PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Circulating anti-ENO1 and anti-H2A IgG2 have been identified as specific signatures of LN in a cross-over approach. We sought to show whether the same antibodies identify selected population of patients with LN with potentially different clinical outcomes. METHODS: Here we report the prospective analysis over 36 months of circulating IgG2 levels in patients with newly diagnosed LN (n=91) and SLE (n=31) and in other patients with SLE recruited within 2 years from diagnosis (n=99). Anti-podocyte (ENO1), anti-nucleosome (DNA, histone 2 A, histone 3) and anti-circulating proteins (C1q, AnnexinA1-ANXA1) IgG2 antibodies were determined by home-made techniques. RESULTS: LN patients were the main focus of the study. Anti-ENO1, anti-H2A and anti-ANXA1 IgG2 decreased in parallel to proteinuria and normalized within 12 months in the majority of patients while anti-dsDNA IgG2 remained high over the 36 months. Anti-ENO1 and anti-H2A had the highest association with proteinuria (Heat Map) and identified the highest number of patients with high proteinuria (68% and 71% respectively) and/or with reduced estimated glomerula filtration rate (eGFR) (58% for both antibodies) compared with 23% and 17% of anti-dsDNA (agreement analysis). Anti-ENO1 positive LN patients had higher proteinuria than negative patients at T0 and presented the maximal decrement within 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-ENO1, anti-H2A and anti-ANXA1 antibodies were associated with high proteinuria in LN patients and Anti-ENO1 also presented the maximal reduction within 12 months that paralleled the decrease of proteinuria. Anti-dsDNA were not associated with renal outcome parameters. New IgG2 antibody signatures should be utilized as tracers of personalized therapies in LN. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Zeus study was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov (study number: NCT02403115).

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Serum anti-dsDNA and anti-nucleosome IgGs have been proposed as signatures for SLE and LN in limited numbers of patients. We sought to show higher sensitivity and specificity of the same antibodies with the IgG2 isotype and included IgG2 antibodies vs specific intracellular antigens in the analysis. METHODS: A total of 1052 SLE patients with (n = 479) and without (n = 573) LN, recruited at different times from the beginning of symptoms, were included in the study. Patients with primary APS (PAPS, n = 24), RA (RA, n = 24) and UCTD (UCTD, n = 96) were analysed for comparison. Anti-nucleosome (dsDNA, Histone2A, Histone3), anti-intracellular antigens (ENO1), anti-annexin A1 and anti-C1q IgG2 were determined by non-commercial techniques. RESULTS: The presence in the serum of the IgG2 panel was highly discriminatory for SLE/LN vs healthy subjects. Serum levels of anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q IgG2 were more sensitive than those of IgGs (Farr radioimmunoassay/commercial assays) in identifying SLE patients at low-medium increments. Of more importance, serum positivity for anti-ENO1 and anti-H2A IgG2 discriminated between LN and SLE (ROC T0-12 months), and high levels at T0-1 month were detected in 63% and 67%, respectively, of LN, vs 3% and 3%, respectively, of SLE patients; serum positivity for each of these was correlated with high SLEDAI values. Minor differences existed between LN/SLE and the other rheumatologic conditions. CONCLUSION: Nephritogenic IgG2 antibodies represent a specific signature of SLE/LN, with a few overlaps with other rheumatologic conditions. High levels of anti-ENO1 and anti-H2A IgG2 correlated with SLE activity indexes and were discriminatory between SLE patients limited to the renal complication and other SLE patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Zeus study was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02403115.

13.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the delay between the disease onset and the beginning of methotrexate (MTX) treatment in RA patients and to evaluate the Italian rheumatologists' adherence to the EULAR 2013 recommendations. METHODS: MITRA is an Italian multicentre observational study carried out on DMARD-naïve RA patients recruited in an 18-month period starting from 2015. The data related to the patients' characteristics at baseline will be presented. RESULTS: 332 patients from 13 Italian centres were recruited: the median delay between the onset of symptoms and the beginning of MTX was 197 days (102-431); in 20% of patients a treatment with DMARDs was started within the first 90 days from the onset of symptoms. The clinical target selected was DAS28 remission in 64.2% of cases and low disease activity in 35.8%. Among patients in DAS28 high disease activity, 92.6% received a control visit which was rescheduled within the first 3 months, similarly to those in DAS28 moderate disease activity (91.6%). A DMARD monotherapy was prescribed in 319 patients, while a combined therapy of DMARDs was preferred in 13 cases; 282 patients were treated with MTX. Glucocorticoids were prescribed in 229 patients: the median dosage was of 5 mg (IQR 5-7.5) of prednisone equivalent/day. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic delay in RA patients continues to be longer than expected. The choice of low disease activity as a target is still very frequent and tight control does not seem to be based on disease activity. This paper offers a realistic and detailed picture of the clinical practice among Italian rheumatologists.

14.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38(6): 1056-1067, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite availability of efficacious treatments, unmet needs still exist, preventing optimal and comprehensive management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Evolving the management of RA (eRA) is a European-wide educational initiative aiming to support improved patient care through practical and educational tools addressing specific unmet needs. METHODS: A multidisciplinary Steering Committee (17 members, 12 countries) identified unmet needs within the management of RA and prioritised those with the greatest impact on patient outcomes. Practical educational tools addressing priority needs were then developed for dissemination and implementation by the rheumatology community across Europe. RESULTS: Five areas of priority need were identified: increasing early recognition of RA and treatment initiation; treating RA to target; optimal, holistic approach to selection of treatment strategy, including shared decision-making; improving identification and management of comorbidities; and non-pharmacological patient management. A suite of 14 eRA tools included educational slides, best-practice guidance, self­assessment questionnaires, clinical checklists, a multidisciplinary team training exercise, an interactive patient infographic, and case scenarios. By April 2020, rheumatology professionals in 17 countries had been actively engaged in the eRA programme; in 11 countries, eRA tools were selected by national leaders in rheumatology and translated for local dissemination. A web platform, with country-specific pages, was developed to support access to the translated tools (https://www.evolvingthemanagementofra.com/). CONCLUSIONS: The eRA programme supports comprehensive management of RA across Europe through development and dissemination of practical educational tools. The eRA tools address priority needs and are available free of charge to the rheumatology community.

15.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Great interest has been raised by the possible protective role of vitamin D in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but objective data on 25(OH)vitamin D deficiency in hospitalized COVID-19 patients are not conclusive. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of 25(OH)vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 patients admitted to an Italian referral hospital and explore its association with clinical outcomes and the markers of disease severity. METHODS: In this single-center cohort study, 129 consecutive adult COVID-19 patients hospitalized in an Italian referral center were enrolled from March to April 2020. 25(OH)Vitamin D serum levels were assessed 48 h since hospital admission and categorized into: normal (≥30 ng/mL), insufficient (<30 - ≥20 ng/mL), moderately deficient (<20 - ≥10 ng/mL), severely deficient (<10 ng/mL). RESULTS: The prevalence of 25(OH)vitamin D insufficiency, moderate deficiency and severe deficiency was 13.2%, 22.5% and 54.3%, respectively. 25(OH)Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) was not associated with COVID-19 clinical features and outcomes. Unexpectedly, after adjusting for major confounders, a significant positive association between increasing 25(OH)vitamin D levels and in-hospital mortality (on a continuous logarithmic scale, odds ratio = 1.73 [95% CI, 1.11 to 2.69]; P = .016) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Very low 25(OH)vitamin D levels were highly prevalent and suggestive of deficiency among our hospitalized severe COVID-19 patients, but low 25(OH)vitamin D levels were not associated with outcome variables. Whether 25(OH)vitamin D adequacy may influence clinical outcomes in COVID-19 and the unexpected correlation between higher 25(OH)vitamin D levels and mortality require further investigations by large intervention trials.

17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 572635, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123149

RESUMO

The effects of cytokine inhibition in the different phases of the severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are currently at the center of intense debate, and preliminary results from observational studies and case reports offer conflicting results thus far. The identification of the correct timing of administration of anti-cytokine therapies and other immunosuppressants in COVID-19 should take into account the intricate relationship between the viral burden, the hyperactivation of the innate immune system and the adaptive immune dysfunction. The main challenge for effective administration of anti-cytokine therapy in COVID-19 will be therefore to better define a precise "window of therapeutic opportunity." Only considering a more specific set of criteria able to integrate information on direct viral damage, the cytokine burden, and the patient's immune vulnerability, it will be possible to decide, carefully balancing both benefits and risks, the appropriateness of using immunosuppressive drugs even in patients affected primarily by an infectious disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Carga Viral/imunologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has imposed considerable restrictions on people's mobility, which affects the referral of chronically ill patients to health care structures. The emerging need for alternative ways to follow these patients up is leading to a wide adoption of telemedicine. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach for our cohort of patients with CTDs, investigating their attitude to adopting telemedicine, even after the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a telephonic survey among consecutive patients referred to our CTD outpatients' clinic, evaluating their capability and propensity for adopting telemedicine and whether they would prefer it over face-to-face evaluation. Demographical and occupational factors were also collected, and their influence on the answers has been evaluated by a multivariate analysis. RESULTS: A total of 175 patients answered our survey (M/F = 28/147), with a median age of 62.5 years [interquartile range (IQR) 53-73]. About 80% of patients owned a device allowing video-calls, and 86% would be able to perform a tele-visit, either alone (50%) or with the help of a relative (36%). Telemedicine was considered acceptable by 78% of patients and 61% would prefer it. Distance from the hospital and patient's educational level were the strongest predictive factors for the acceptance of telemedicine (P < 0.05), whereas age only affected the mastering of required skills (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Telemedicine is a viable approach to be considered for routine follow-up of chronic patients, even beyond the pandemic. Our data showed that older patients would be willing to use this approach, although a proper guide for them would be required.

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