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1.
Lancet HIV ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to now, immunisation regimens that have been assessed for development of HIV vaccines have included purified envelope (Env) protein among the boosting components of the regimen. We postulated that co-administration of Env protein with either a DNA or NYVAC vector during priming would result in early generation of antibody responses to the Env V1/V2 region, which are important markers for effective protection against infection. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a multivalent HIV vaccine including either DNA or NYVAC vectors alone or in combination with Env glycoprotein (gp120) followed by a co-delivered NYVAC and Env protein boost. METHODS: We did a single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1b trial at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (Lausanne, Switzerland). We included healthy volunteers aged 18-50 years who were at low risk of HIV infection. We randomly allocated participants using computer-generated random numbers to one of four vaccination schedules or placebo (4:1), and within these schedules participants were allocated either active treatment (T1, T2, T3, and T4) or placebo (C1, C2, C3, and C4). T1 consisted of two doses of NYVAC vector followed by two doses of NYVAC vector and gp120 Env protein; T2 comprised four doses of NYVAC vector and gp120 Env protein; T3 was two doses of DNA vector followed by two doses of NYVAC vector and gp120 Env protein; and T4 was two doses of DNA vector and gp120 Env protein followed by two doses of NYVAC vector and gp120 Env protein. Placebo injections were matched to the corresponding active treatment group. Doses were administered by injection at months 0, 1, 3, and 6. Primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine schedules. Immune response measures included cross-clade and epitope-specific binding antibodies, neutralising antibodies, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity measured 2 weeks after the month 1, 3, and 6 vaccinations. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01799954. FINDINGS: Between Aug 23, 2012, and April 18, 2013, 148 healthy adult volunteers were screened for the trial, of whom 96 participants were enrolled. 20 individuals were allocated to each active treatment group (groups T1-4; n=80) and four were assigned to each placebo group (groups C1-4; n=16). Vaccines containing the NYVAC vector (groups T1 and T2) were associated with more frequent severe reactogenicity and more adverse events than were vaccines containing the DNA vector (groups T3 and T4). The most frequent adverse events judged related to study product were lymphadenopathy (n=9) and hypoaesthesia (n=2). Two participants, one in the placebo group and one in the DNA-primed T3 group, had serious adverse events that were judged unrelated to study product. One participant in the T3 group died from cranial trauma after a motor vehicle accident. Across the active treatment groups, IgG responses 2 weeks after the 6-month dose of vaccine were 74-95%. Early administration of gp120 Env protein (groups T2 and T4) was associated with a substantially earlier and higher area under the curve for gp120 Env binding, production of anti-V1/V2 and neutralising antibodies, and better antibody-response coverage over a period of 18 months, compared with vaccination regimens that delayed administration of gp120 Env protein until the 3-month vaccination (groups T1 and T3). INTERPRETATION: Co-administration of gp120 Env protein components with DNA or NYVAC vectors during priming led to early and potent induction of Env V1/V2 IgG binding antibody responses. This immunisation approach should be considered for induction of preventive antibodies in future HIV vaccine efficacy trials. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566579

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDRV144 is the only preventive HIV vaccine regimen demonstrating efficacy in humans. Attempting to build upon RV144 immune responses, we conducted a phase 1, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of regimens substituting the DNA-HIV-PT123 (DNA) vaccine for ALVAC-HIV in different sequences or combinations with AIDSVAX B/E (protein).METHODSOne hundred and four HIV-uninfected participants were randomized to 4 treatment groups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) and received intramuscular injections at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months (M): T1 received protein at M0 and M1 and DNA at M3 and M6; T2 received DNA at M0 and M1 and protein at M3 and M6; T3 received DNA at M0, M1, M3, and M6 with protein coadministered at M3 and M6; and T4 received protein and DNA coadministered at each vaccination visit.RESULTSAll regimens were well tolerated. Antibodies binding to gp120 and V1V2 scaffold were observed in 95%-100% of participants in T3 and T4, two weeks after final vaccination at high magnitude. While IgG3 responses were highest in T3, a lower IgA/IgG ratio was observed in T4. Binding antibodies persisted at 12 months in 35%-100% of participants. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and tier 1 neutralizing-antibody responses had higher response rates for T3 and T4, respectively. CD4+ T cell responses were detectable in all treatment groups (32%-64%) without appreciable CD8+ T cell responses.CONCLUSIONThe DNA/protein combination regimens induced high-magnitude and long-lasting HIV V1V2-binding antibody responses, and early coadministration of the 2 vaccines led to a more rapid induction of these potentially protective responses.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT02207920.FUNDINGNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) grants UM1 AI068614, UM1 AI068635, UM1 AI068618, UM1 AI069511, UM1 AI069470, UM1 AI069534, P30 AI450008, UM1 AI069439, UM1 AI069481, and UM1 AI069496; the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, NIH (grant UL1TR001873); and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (grant OPP52845).

3.
Immunity ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586542

RESUMO

HIV- and SIV-envelope (Env) trimers are both extensively glycosylated, and antibodies identified to date have been unable to fully neutralize SIVmac239. Here, we report the isolation, structure, and glycan interactions of antibody ITS90.03, a monoclonal antibody that completely neutralized the highly neutralization-resistant isolate, SIVmac239. The co-crystal structure of a fully glycosylated SIVmac239-gp120 core in complex with rhesus CD4 and the antigen-binding fragment of ITS90.03 at 2.5-Å resolution revealed that ITS90 recognized an epitope comprised of 45% glycan. SIV-gp120 core, rhesus CD4, and their complex could each be aligned structurally to their human counterparts. The structure revealed that glycans masked most of the SIV Env protein surface, with ITS90 targeting a glycan hole, which is occupied in ∼83% of SIV strains by glycan N238. Overall, the SIV glycan shield appears to functionally resemble its HIV counterpart in coverage of spike, shielding from antibody, and modulation of receptor accessibility.

4.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(9): e1008026, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527908

RESUMO

The CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein is susceptible to multiple lineages of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that are attractive to elicit with vaccines. The CH235 lineage (VH1-46) of CD4bs bnAbs is particularly attractive because the most mature members neutralize 90% of circulating strains, do not possess long HCDR3 regions, and do not contain insertions and deletions that may be difficult to induce. We used virus neutralization to measure the interaction of CH235 unmutated common ancestor (CH235 UCA) with functional Env trimers on infectious virions to guide immunogen design for this bnAb lineage. Two Env mutations were identified, one in loop D (N279K) and another in V5 (G458Y), that acted synergistically to render autologous CH505 transmitted/founder virus susceptible to neutralization by CH235 UCA. Man5-enriched N-glycans provided additional synergy for neutralization. CH235 UCA bound with nanomolar affinity to corresponding soluble native-like Env trimers as candidate immunogens. A cryo-EM structure of CH235 UCA bound to Man5-enriched CH505.N279K.G458Y.SOSIP.664 revealed interactions of the antibody light chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR L3) with the engineered Env loops D and V5. These results demonstrate that virus neutralization can directly inform vaccine design and suggest a germline targeting and reverse engineering strategy to initiate and mature the CH235 bnAb lineage.

5.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(510)2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534016

RESUMO

One of the most successful HIV vaccines to date, the RV144 vaccine tested in Thailand, demonstrated correlates of protection including cross-clade V1V2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) breadth, Env-specific CD4+ T cell polyfunctionality, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vaccinees with low IgA binding. The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) 097 trial evaluated this vaccine regimen in South Africa, where clade C HIV-1 predominates. We compared cellular and humoral responses at peak and durability immunogenicity time points in HVTN 097 and RV144 vaccinee samples, and evaluated vaccine-matched and cross-clade immune responses. At peak immunogenicity, HVTN 097 vaccinees exhibited significantly higher cellular and humoral immune responses than RV144 vaccinees. CD4+ T cell responses were more frequent in HVTN 097 irrespective of age and sex, and CD4+ T cell Env-specific functionality scores were higher in HVTN 097. Env-specific CD40L+ CD4+ T cells were more common in HVTN 097, with individuals having this pattern of expression demonstrating higher median antibody responses to HIV-1 Env. IgG and IgG3 binding antibody rates and response magnitude to gp120 vaccine- and V1V2 vaccine-matched antigens were higher or comparable in HVTN 097 than in RV144 ADCC, and ADCP functional antibody responses were elicited in HVTN 097. Env-specific IgG and CD4+ Env responses declined significantly over time in both trials. Overall, cross-clade immune responses associated with protection were better than expected in South Africa, suggesting wider applicability of this regimen.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4272, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537780

RESUMO

The development of native-like HIV-1 envelope (Env) trimer antigens has enabled the induction of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses against neutralization-resistant HIV-1 strains in animal models. However, NAb responses are relatively weak and narrow in specificity. Displaying antigens in a multivalent fashion on nanoparticles (NPs) is an established strategy to increase their immunogenicity. Here we present the design and characterization of two-component protein NPs displaying 20 stabilized SOSIP trimers from various HIV-1 strains. The two-component nature permits the incorporation of exclusively well-folded, native-like Env trimers into NPs that self-assemble in vitro with high efficiency. Immunization studies show that the NPs are particularly efficacious as priming immunogens, improve the quality of the Ab response over a conventional one-component nanoparticle system, and are most effective when SOSIP trimers with an apex-proximate neutralizing epitope are displayed. Their ability to enhance and shape the immunogenicity of SOSIP trimers make these NPs a promising immunogen platform.

8.
J Virol ; 93(20)2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375582

RESUMO

Immune complex (IC) vaccines have been successfully used to increase immune responses against various pathogens, including HIV-1. Additionally, IC vaccines can induce qualitatively different antibody responses, with distinct antigenic specificities compared to the same antigens used alone. Here we measured the HIV-1-specific antibody responses in female New Zealand White rabbits after immunization with ICs made from BG505 SOSIP.664 trimers (BG505 trimers) and three rabbit monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with different neutralization profiles. Two of the MAbs were specific for a hole in the glycan shield of the BG505 trimer, while the third, which bound less avidly, was specific for determinants at the gp41-gp120 interface. We found that immunization with one of the glycan-hole-specific ICs resulted in lower levels of trimer-binding antibodies compared to vaccination with the uncomplexed trimer, and that ICs made using either of the glycan-hole-specific MAbs resulted in lower rates of anti-trimer antibody decay. We concluded that ICs based on MAbs that bound to the immunodominant glycan hole epitope likely diverted antibody responses, to some extent, away from this site and to other regions of the trimer. However, this outcome was not accompanied by a widening of the breadth or an increase in the potency of neutralizing antibody responses compared with uncomplexed trimers.IMPORTANCE Immunodominant epitopes may suppress immune responses to more desirable determinants, such as those that elicit potentially protective neutralizing antibody responses. To overcome this problem, we attempted to mask immunodominant glycan holes by immunizing rabbits with ICs consisting of the BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140 trimer and MAbs that targeted the glycan holes. We found that IC vaccination likely diverted antibody responses, to some extent, away from the glycan holes and toward other regions of the trimer. IC vaccination resulted in slower decay of HIV-1-specific antibodies than did immunization with uncomplexed trimer. We did not observe a widening of the breadth or an increase in the potency of neutralizing antibody responses compared to uncomplexed trimers. Our results suggest that selective epitope dampening of BG505 trimers by ICs is rather ineffective. However, IC vaccination may represent a novel means of increasing the duration of vaccine-induced antibody responses.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2898, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263112

RESUMO

The HIV-1 envelope (Env) is the target for neutralizing antibodies and exists on the surface of virions in open or closed conformations. Difficult-to-neutralize viruses (tier 2) express Env in a closed conformation antigenic for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) but not for third variable region (V3) antibodies. Here we show that select V3 macaque antibodies elicited by Env vaccination can neutralize 26% of otherwise tier 2 HIV-1 isolates in standardized virus panels. The V3 antibodies only bound to Env in its open conformation. Thus, Envs on tier 2 viruses sample a state where the V3 loop is not in its closed conformation position. Envelope second variable region length, glycosylation sites and V3 amino acids were signatures of neutralization sensitivity. This study determined that open conformations of Env with V3 exposed are present on a subset of otherwise neutralization-resistant virions, therefore neutralization of tier 2 HIV-1 does not always indicate bnAb induction.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Glicosilação , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/química , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Testes de Neutralização , Conformação Proteica , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química
10.
J Virol ; 93(20)2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341049

RESUMO

The RV144 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine trial showed a strong association between anti-gp70 V1V2 scaffold (V1V2) and anti-V2 hot spot peptide (V2 HS) antibody responses and reduced risk of HIV infection. Accordingly, a primary goal for HIV vaccines is to enhance the magnitude and breadth of V1V2 and V2 HS antibody responses in addition to neutralizing antibodies. Here, we tested the immunogenicity and efficacy of HIV-1 C.1086 gp140 boosts administered sequentially after priming with CD40L-adjuvanted DNA/simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) and boosting with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-SHIV vaccines in rhesus macaques. The DNA/MVA vaccination induced robust vaccine-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses with a polyfunctional profile. Two gp140 booster immunizations induced very high levels (∼2 mg/ml) of gp140 binding antibodies in serum, with strong reactivity directed against the homologous (C.1086) V1V2, V2 HS, V3, and gp41 immunodominant (ID) proteins. However, the vaccine-induced antibody showed 10-fold (peak) and 32-fold (prechallenge) weaker binding to the challenge virus (SHIV1157ipd3N4) V1V2 and failed to bind to the challenge virus V2 HS due to a single amino acid change. Point mutations in the immunogen V2 HS to match the V2 HS in the challenge virus significantly diminished the binding of vaccine-elicited antibodies to membrane-anchored gp160. Both vaccines failed to protect from infection following repeated SHIV1157ipd3N4 intrarectal challenges. However, only the protein-boosted animals showed enhanced viral control. These results demonstrate that C.1086 gp140 protein immunizations administered following DNA/MVA vaccination do not significantly boost heterologous V1V2 and V2 HS responses and fail to enhance protection against heterologous SHIV challenge.IMPORTANCE HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is responsible for millions of infections and deaths annually. Despite intense research for the past 25 years, there remains no safe and effective vaccine available. The significance of this work is in identifying the pros and cons of adding a protein boost to an already well-established DNA/MVA HIV vaccine that is currently being tested in the clinic. Characterizing the effects of the protein boost can allow researchers going forward to design vaccines that generate responses that will be more effective against HIV. Our results in rhesus macaques show that boosting with a specific HIV envelope protein does not significantly boost antibody responses that were identified as immune correlates of protection in a moderately successful RV144 HIV vaccine trial in humans and highlight the need for the development of improved HIV envelope immunogens.

11.
Cell Rep ; 27(9): 2593-2607.e5, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141685

RESUMO

The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) maintains a delicate balance between mediating viral entry and escaping antibody neutralization. Adaptation during transmission of neutralization-sensitive Envs with an "open" conformation remains poorly understood. By passaging a replication-competent simian-human immunodeficiency virus carrying a highly neutralization-sensitive Env (SHIVCNE40) in rhesus macaques, we show that SHIVCNE40 develops enhanced replication kinetics associated with neutralization resistance against antibodies and autologous serum. A gp41 substitution, E658K, functions as the major determinant for these properties. Structural modeling and functional verification indicate that the substitution disrupts an intermolecular salt bridge with the neighboring protomer, thereby promoting fusion and facilitating immune evasion. This effect is applicable across diverse HIV-1 subtypes. Our results highlight the critical role of gp41 in shaping the neutralization profile and the overall conformation of Env during viral adaptation. The unique intermolecular salt bridge could potentially be utilized for rational vaccine design involving more stable HIV-1 envelope trimers.

12.
Mol Syst Biol ; 15(5): e8747, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048360

RESUMO

Characterizing the antigen-binding and innate immune-recruiting properties of the humoral response offers the chance to obtain deeper insights into mechanisms of protection than revealed by measuring only overall antibody titer. Here, a high-throughput, multiplexed Fab-Fc Array was employed to profile rhesus macaques vaccinated with a gp120-CD4 fusion protein in combination with different genetically encoded adjuvants, and subsequently subjected to multiple heterologous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenges. Systems analyses modeling protection and adjuvant differences using Fab-Fc Array measurements revealed a set of correlates yielding strong and robust predictive performance, while models based on measurements of response magnitude alone exhibited significantly inferior performance. At the same time, rendering Fab-Fc measurements mathematically independent of titer had relatively little impact on predictive performance. Similar analyses for a distinct SIV vaccine study also showed that Fab-Fc measurements performed significantly better than titer. These results suggest that predictive modeling with measurements of antibody properties can provide detailed correlates with robust predictive power, suggest directions for vaccine improvement, and potentially enable discovery of mechanistic associations.

13.
Nature ; 570(7762): 468-473, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142836

RESUMO

Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies protect against infection with HIV-1 in animal models, suggesting that a vaccine that elicits these antibodies would be protective in humans. However, it has not yet been possible to induce adequate serological responses by vaccination. Here, to activate B cells that express precursors of broadly neutralizing antibodies within polyclonal repertoires, we developed an immunogen, RC1, that facilitates the recognition of the variable loop 3 (V3)-glycan patch on the envelope protein of HIV-1. RC1 conceals non-conserved immunodominant regions by the addition of glycans and/or multimerization on virus-like particles. Immunization of mice, rabbits and rhesus macaques with RC1 elicited serological responses that targeted the V3-glycan patch. Antibody cloning and cryo-electron microscopy structures of antibody-envelope complexes confirmed that immunization with RC1 expands clones of B cells that carry the anti-V3-glycan patch antibodies, which resemble precursors of human broadly neutralizing antibodies. Thus, RC1 may be a suitable priming immunogen for sequential vaccination strategies in the context of polyclonal repertoires.

14.
J Virol ; 93(14)2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068425

RESUMO

The benefits of mucosal vaccines over injected vaccines are difficult to ascertain, since mucosally administered vaccines often induce serum antibody responses of lower magnitude than those induced by injected vaccines. This study aimed to determine if mucosal vaccination using a modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 (MVAgp120) prime and a HIV-1 gp120 protein boost could be optimized to induce serum antibody responses similar to those induced by an intramuscularly (i.m.) administered MVAgp120 prime/gp120 boost to allow comparison of an i.m. immunization regimen to a mucosal vaccination regimen for the ability to protect against a low-dose rectal simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. A 3-fold higher antigen dose was required for intranasal (i.n.) immunization with gp120 to induce serum anti-gp120 IgG responses not significantly different than those induced by i.m. immunization. gp120 fused to the adenovirus type 2 fiber binding domain (gp120-Ad2F), a mucosal targeting ligand, exhibited enhanced i.n. immunogenicity compared to gp120. MVAgp120 was more immunogenic after i.n. delivery than after gastric or rectal delivery. Using these optimized vaccines, an i.n. MVAgp120 prime/combined i.m. (gp120) and i.n. (gp120-Ad2F) boost regimen (i.n./i.m.-plus-i.n.) induced serum anti-gp120 antibody titers similar to those induced by the intramuscular prime/boost regimen (i.m./i.m.) in rabbits and nonhuman primates. Despite the induction of similar systemic anti-HIV-1 antibody responses, neither the i.m./i.m. nor the i.n./i.m.-plus-i.n. regimen protected against a repeated low-dose rectal SHIV challenge. These results demonstrate that immunization regimens utilizing the i.n. route are able to induce serum antigen-specific antibody responses similar to those induced by systemic immunization.IMPORTANCE Mucosal vaccination is proposed as a method of immunization able to induce protection against mucosal pathogens that is superior to protection provided by parenteral immunization. However, mucosal vaccination often induces serum antigen-specific immune responses of lower magnitude than those induced by parenteral immunization, making the comparison of mucosal and parenteral immunization difficult. We identified vaccine parameters that allowed an immunization regimen consisting of an i.n. prime followed by boosters administered by both i.n. and i.m. routes to induce serum antibody responses similar to those induced by i.m. prime/boost vaccination. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential benefit of mucosal immunization for HIV-1 and other mucosally transmitted pathogens.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2355, 2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142746

RESUMO

Stabilized HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) that resemble the native Env are utilized in vaccination strategies aimed at inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). To limit the exposure of rare isolate-specific antigenic residues/determinants we generated a SOSIP trimer based on a consensus sequence of all HIV-1 group M isolates (ConM). The ConM trimer displays the epitopes of most known bNAbs and several germline bNAb precursors. The crystal structure of the ConM trimer at 3.9 Å resolution resembles that of the native Env trimer and its antigenic surface displays few rare residues. The ConM trimer elicits strong NAb responses against the autologous virus in rabbits and macaques that are significantly enhanced when it is presented on ferritin nanoparticles. The dominant NAb specificity is directed against an epitope at or close to the trimer apex. Immunogens based on consensus sequences might have utility in engineering vaccines against HIV-1 and other viruses.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Animais , Sequência Consenso , Macaca , Multimerização Proteica , Coelhos
16.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 15: 36-47, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974332

RESUMO

Despite the enormous effort in the development of effective vaccines against HIV-1, no vaccine candidate has elicited broadly neutralizing antibodies in humans. Thus, generation of more effective anti-HIV vaccines is critically needed. Here we characterize the immune responses induced by nucleoside-modified and purified mRNA-lipid nanoparticle (mRNA-LNP) vaccines encoding the clade C transmitted/founder HIV-1 envelope (Env) 1086C. Intradermal vaccination with nucleoside-modified 1086C Env mRNA-LNPs elicited high levels of gp120-specific antibodies in rabbits and rhesus macaques. Antibodies generated in rabbits neutralized a tier 1 virus, but no tier 2 neutralization activity could be measured. Importantly, three of six non-human primates developed antibodies that neutralized the autologous tier 2 strain. Despite stable anti-gp120 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, tier 2 neutralization titers started to drop 4 weeks after booster immunizations. Serum from both immunized rabbits and non-human primates demonstrated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity. Collectively, these results are supportive of continued development of nucleoside-modified and purified mRNA-LNP vaccines for HIV. Optimization of Env immunogens and vaccination protocols are needed to increase antibody neutralization breadth and durability.

17.
J Virol ; 93(10)2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842326

RESUMO

Studies in animal models are essential prerequisites for clinical trials of candidate HIV vaccines. Small animals, such as rabbits, are used to evaluate promising strategies prior to further immunogenicity and efficacy testing in nonhuman primates. Our goal was to determine how HIV-specific vaccine-elicited antibody responses, epitope specificity, and Fc-mediated functions in the rabbit model can predict those in the rhesus macaque (RM) model. Detailed comparisons of the HIV-1-specific IgG response were performed on serum from rabbits and RM given identical modified vaccinia virus Ankara-prime/gp120-boost immunization regimens. We found that vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody, gp120-binding antibody levels and immunodominant specificities, antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis of HIV-1 virions, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses against gp120-coated target cells were similar in rabbits and RM. However, we also identified characteristics of humoral immunity that differed across species. ADCC against HIV-infected target cells was elicited in rabbits but not in RM, and we observed differences among subdominantly targeted epitopes. Human Fc receptor binding assays and analysis of antibody-cell interactions indicated that rabbit vaccine-induced antibodies effectively recruited and activated human natural killer cells, while vaccine-elicited RM antibodies were unable to activate either human or RM NK cells. Thus, our data demonstrate that both Fc-independent and Fc-dependent functions of rabbit antibodies can be measured with commonly used in vitro assays; however, the ability of immunogenicity studies performed in rabbits to predict responses in RM will vary depending on the particular immune parameter of interest.IMPORTANCE Nonneutralizing antibody functions have been associated with reduced infection risk, or control of virus replication, for HIV-1 and related viruses. It is therefore critical to evaluate development of these responses throughout all stages of preclinical testing. Rabbits are conventionally used to evaluate the ability of vaccine candidates to safely elicit antibodies that bind and neutralize HIV-1. However, it remained unexplored how effectively rabbits model the development of nonneutralizing antibody responses in primates. We administered identical HIV-1 vaccine regimens to rabbits and rhesus macaques and performed detailed comparisons of vaccine-induced antibody responses. We demonstrated that nonneutralizing HIV-specific antibody responses can be studied in the rabbit model and have identified aspects of these responses that are common, and those that are unique, to rabbits and rhesus macaques. Our findings will help determine how to best utilize preclinical rabbit and rhesus macaque models to accelerate HIV vaccine candidate testing in human trials.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 798, 2019 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778066

RESUMO

The oral mucosa is an attractive site for mucosal vaccination, however the thick squamous epithelium limits antigen uptake. Here we utilize a modified needle-free injector to deliver immunizations to the sublingual and buccal (SL/B) tissue of rhesus macaques. Needle-free SL/B vaccination with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and a recombinant trimeric gp120 protein generates strong vaccine-specific IgG responses in serum as well as vaginal, rectal and salivary secretions. Vaccine-induced IgG responses show a remarkable breadth against gp70-V1V2 sequences from multiple clades of HIV-1. In contrast, topical SL/B immunizations generates minimal IgG responses. Following six intrarectal pathogenic SHIV-SF162P3 challenges, needle-free but not topical immunization results in a significant delay of acquisition of infection. Delay of infection correlates with non-neutralizing antibody effector function, Env-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, and gp120 V2 loop specific antibodies. These results demonstrate needle-free MVA/gp120 oral vaccination as a practical and effective route to induce protective immunity against HIV-1.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Administração Sublingual , Animais , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/genética , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Injeções/instrumentação , Injeções/métodos , Macaca mulatta , Agulhas , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/patogenicidade , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação/instrumentação , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem
20.
Viruses ; 11(2)2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30769947

RESUMO

A chimeric vesicular stomatitis virus with the glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, VSV-GP, is a potent viral vaccine vector that overcomes several of the limitations of wild-type VSV. Here, we evaluated the potential of VSV-GP as an HIV vaccine vector. We introduced genes for different variants of the HIV-1 envelope protein Env, i.e., secreted or membrane-anchored, intact or mutated furin cleavage site or different C-termini, into the genome of VSV-GP. We found that the addition of the Env antigen did not attenuate VSV-GP replication. All HIV-1 Env variants were expressed in VSV-GP infected cells and some were incorporated very efficiently into VSV-GP particles. Crucial epitopes for binding of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 such as MPER (membrane-proximal external region), CD4 binding site, V1V2 and V3 loop were present on the surface of VSV-GP-Env particles. Binding of quaternary antibodies indicated a trimeric structure of VSV-GP incorporated Env. We detected high HIV-1 antibody titers in mice and showed that vectors expressing membrane-anchored Env elicited higher antibody titers than vectors that secreted Envs. In rabbits, Tier 1A HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies were detectable after prime immunization and titers further increased after boosting with a second immunization. Taken together, VSV-GP-Env is a promising vector vaccine against HIV-1 infection since this vector permits incorporation of native monomeric and/or trimeric HIV-1 Env into a viral membrane.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Vetores Genéticos , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , HIV-1/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/genética , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Coelhos , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana , Replicação Viral
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