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1.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e0850, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886821

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Electron microscopy (EM) is a rapid and effective tool that can be used to create images of a whole spectrum of virus-host interactions and, as such, has long been used in the discovery and description of viral mechanisms. METHODS: Electron microscopy was used to evaluate the pulmonary pathologies of postmortem lung sections from three patients who died from infection with SARS-associated coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a new member of the Coronaviridae family. RESULTS: Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was predominant in all three patients. The early exudative stage was characterized principally by edema and extravasation of red blood cells into the alveolar space with injury to the alveolar epithelial cells; this was followed by detachment, apoptosis, and necrosis of type I and II pneumocytes. The capillaries exhibited congestion, exposure of the basement membrane from denuded endothelial cells, platelet adhesion, fibrin thrombi, and rupture of the capillary walls. The proliferative stage was characterized by pronounced proliferation of type II alveolar pneumocytes and multinucleated giant cells. The cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 was observed both in degenerated type II pneumocytes and freely circulating in the alveoli, with components from virions, macrophages, lymphocytes, and cellular debris. CONCLUSIONS: Viral particles consistent with the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 were observed mainly in degenerated pneumocytes, in the endothelium, or freely circulating in the alveoli. In the final stage of illness, the alveolar spaces were replaced by fibrosis.


Assuntos
Brasil , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Pulmão , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
3.
Malar J ; 20(1): 146, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vivax malaria diagnosis remains a challenge in malaria elimination, with current point of care rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) missing many clinically significant infections because of usually lower peripheral parasitaemia. Haemozoin-detecting assays have been suggested as an alternative to immunoassay platforms but to date have not reached successful field deployment. Haemozoin is a paramagnetic crystal by-product of haemoglobin digestion by malaria parasites and is present in the food vacuole of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic capability of a new haemozoin-detecting platform, the Gazelle™ device with optical microscopy, RDT and PCR in a vivax malaria-endemic region. METHODS: A comparative, double-blind study evaluating symptomatic malaria patients seeking medical care was conducted at an infectious diseases reference hospital in the western Brazilian Amazon. Optical microscopy, PCR, RDT, and Gazelle™ were used to analyse blood samples. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and Kappa values were calculated. RESULTS: Out of 300 patients, 24 test results were excluded from the final analysis due to protocol violation (6) and inconclusive and/or irretrievable results (18). Gazelle™ sensitivity was 96.1 % (91.3-98.3) and 72.1 % (65.0-78.3) when compared to optical microscopy and PCR, respectively whereas it was 83.9 % and 62.8 % for RDTs. The platform presented specificity of 100 % (97.4-100), and 99.0 % (94.8-99.9) when compared to optical microscopy, and PCR, respectively, which  was the same for RDTs. Its correct classification rate was 98.2 % when compared to optical microscopy and 82.3 % for PCR; the test's accuracy when compared to optical microscopy was 98.1 % (96.4-99.7), when compared to RDT was 95.2 % (93.0-97.5), and when compared to PCR was 85.6 % (82.1-89.1). Kappa (95 % CI) values for Gazelle™ were 96.4 (93.2-99.5), 88.2 (82.6-93.8) and 65.3 (57.0-73.6) for optical microscopy, RDT and PCR, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Gazelle™ device was shown to have faster, easier, good sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy when compared to microscopy and was superior to RDT, demonstrating to be an alternative for vivax malaria screening particularly in areas where malaria is concomitant with other febrile infections (including dengue fever, zika, chikungunya, Chagas, yellow fever, babesiosis).

4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009245, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661895

RESUMO

Access to antivenoms is not guarranteed for vulnerable populations that inhabit remote areas in the Amazon. The study of therapeutic itineraries (TI) for treatment of snakebites would support strategies to provide timely access to users. A TI is the set of processes by which individuals adhere to certain forms of treatment, and includes the path traveled in the search for healthcare, and practices to solve their health problems. This study aims to describe TIs of snakebite patients in the Brazilian Amazon. This study was carried out at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado, in Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The itinerary from the moment of the bite to the patient's admission to the reference unit was analyzed. Sample size was defined by saturation. After an exploratory survey to collect epidemiological variables, in-depth interviews were conducted following a semi-structured guide. Patients originated from rural areas of 11 different municipalities, including ones located >500 kilometers from Manaus. A great fragmentation was observed in the itineraries, marked by several changes of means of transport along the route. Four themes emerged from the analysis: exposure to snakebite during day-to-day activities, use of traditional therapeutic practices, and personal perception of the severity, as well as the route taken and its contingencies. Access to healthcare requires considerable effort on the part of snakebite patients. Major barriers were identified, such as the low number of hospitals that offer antivenom treatment, poor access to healthcare due to long distances and geographic barriers, low acceptability of healthcare offered in countryside, lack of use of personal protective equipment, common use of ineffective or deleterious self-care practices, late recognition of serious clinical signs and resistance to seeking medical assistance. Health education, promotion of immediate transport to health centers and decentralization of antivenom from reference hospitals to community healthcare centers in the Brazilian Amazon are more effective strategies that would to maximize access to antivenom treatment.

5.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e03742020, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656146

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon are caused mostly by snakes from the Bothrops genus and envenomated patients may suffer from tissue complications. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for severe tissue complications (STC) in patients with Bothrops snakebite in the Amazonas state, Brazil. RESULTS: Snakebites that were classified as severe and affected female patients with comorbidities presented greater risks of developing STCs. In addition, hospitalizations of patients with STC exceeded 5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and epidemiological characteristics can prove essential for assessing the evolution of STC and clinical prognosis of patients with Bothrops snakebites.


Assuntos
Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Antivenenos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Mordeduras de Serpentes/diagnóstico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Serpentes
7.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200513, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes. OBJECTIVES: Here we tested Malaria Box compounds in order to evaluate their activity against male and female gametocytes in Plasmodium berghei, mosquito infection in P. vivax and ookinete formation in both species. METHODS/FINDINGS: The membrane feeding assay and the development of ookinetes by a 24 h ex vivo culture and the ookinete yield per 1000 erythrocytes were used to test transmission-blocking potential of the Malaria Box compounds in P. vivax. For P. berghei we used flow cytometry to evaluate male and female gametocyte time course and fluorescence microscopy to check the ookinete development. The two species used in this study showed similar results concerning the compounds' activity against gametocytes and ookinetes, which were different from those in P. falciparum. In addition, from the eight Malaria Box compounds tested in both species, compounds MMV665830, MMV665878 and MMV665941 were selected as a hit compounds due the high inhibition observed. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that P. berghei is suitable as an initial screening system to test compounds against P. vivax.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Vivax/transmissão
8.
Acta Trop ; 215: 105819, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406443

RESUMO

The outbreaks caused by the Aedes aegypti-transmitted dengue virus (DENV), zakat virus (ZIKV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) result in a significant impact to the health systems of tropical countries. Furthermore, the occurrence of patients coinfected by at least two of these arboviruses is an aggravating factor in that scenario. On this basis, surveillance tools such as the Rapid Index Survey for Aedes aegypti (LIRAa) are used to estimate vector infestation in order to improve the prediction of human outbreaks. Ae. aegypti eggs were collected in the city of Vitória da Conquista, in Bahia State, Brazil, and subsequently hatched into larvae, which were analyzed in pools or individually for the presence of DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV by molecular biology methods. The detection data for arboviruses were crossed with the LIRAa obtained in each region of the study city. Thirty larvae pools were analyzed, and fourteen (46.6%) of them were detected positive for DENV, ZIKV, and/or CHIKV. Among the individually analyzed larvae (n = 30), nine (30%) were positive for any of these arboviruses, and four (13.3%) were simultaneously coinfected by DENV and ZIKV. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the detection of circulating arboviruses and LIRAa. The simultaneous Ae. aegypti larvae infection by two different arboviruses is an unprecedented finding. This result suggests the occurrence of a vertical arboviruses co-transmission from the female mosquito to its offspring in nature. The occurrence of concomitant circulation of DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV in Ae. aegypti from a single study region is another finding of this article. Finally, LIRAa seems to not only estimate vector infestation but also to predict circulation of arboviruses.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/transmissão , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/virologia
9.
Anal Chem ; 93(4): 2471-2479, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471512

RESUMO

COVID-19 is still placing a heavy health and financial burden worldwide. Impairment in patient screening and risk management plays a fundamental role on how governments and authorities are directing resources, planning reopening, as well as sanitary countermeasures, especially in regions where poverty is a major component in the equation. An efficient diagnostic method must be highly accurate, while having a cost-effective profile. We combined a machine learning-based algorithm with mass spectrometry to create an expeditious platform that discriminate COVID-19 in plasma samples within minutes, while also providing tools for risk assessment, to assist healthcare professionals in patient management and decision-making. A cross-sectional study enrolled 815 patients (442 COVID-19, 350 controls and 23 COVID-19 suspicious) from three Brazilian epicenters from April to July 2020. We were able to elect and identify 19 molecules related to the disease's pathophysiology and several discriminating features to patient's health-related outcomes. The method applied for COVID-19 diagnosis showed specificity >96% and sensitivity >83%, and specificity >80% and sensitivity >85% during risk assessment, both from blinded data. Our method introduced a new approach for COVID-19 screening, providing the indirect detection of infection through metabolites and contextualizing the findings with the disease's pathophysiology. The pairwise analysis of biomarkers brought robustness to the model developed using machine learning algorithms, transforming this screening approach in a tool with great potential for real-world application.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Metabolômica , Adulto , Idoso , Automação , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , /isolamento & purificação
10.
Toxicon ; 192: 66-73, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497746

RESUMO

In the Amazon, around 90% of snakebites are caused by the Bothrops genus. Complications arising from Bothrops envenomations result from the inflammatory and coagulotoxic activities of the venom. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a biomarker of severity in Bothrops snakebites. Patients were treated at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), Manaus, in the Brazilian Amazon. cfDNA plasma levels were measured by amplifying the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) sequence using quantitative RT-PCR. Median levels of cfDNA were compared between envenomed and healthy volunteers and among patients presenting different complications, such as renal failure, bleeding and infection. Of the 76 patients included, 82.9% were male, with a mean age of 32.8 years, and envenomations were mainly classified as severe (39.5%). ROC curve analysis showed a good accuracy of cfDNA levels (AUROC of 0.745) in envenomation diagnosis. A correlation analysis using laboratory variables showed positive correlation with lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.033) and platelet count (p = 0.003). When cfDNA levels were compared with clinical complications, significant statistical differences were only found among individuals with mild and severe pain (p < 0.05). In summary, our results demonstrated that cfDNA levels are sufficiently accurate for discriminating between envenomed and non-envenomed patients, but are not able to distinguish different complications and the level of severity among envenomed patients. Thus, the role of cfDNA in the pathogenesis of the snakebite envenomations needs to be further investigated.

11.
Malar J ; 20(1): 13, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria and HIV are two important public health issues. However, evidence on HIV-Plasmodium vivax co-infection (HIV/PvCo) is scarce, with most of the available information related to Plasmodium falciparum on the African continent. It is unclear whether HIV can change the clinical course of vivax malaria and increase the risk of complications. In this study, a systematic review of HIV/PvCo studies was performed, and recent cases from the Brazilian Amazon were included. METHODS: Medical records from a tertiary care centre in the Western Brazilian Amazon (2009-2018) were reviewed to identify HIV/PvCo hospitalized patients. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcomes are reported. Also, a systematic review of published studies on HIV/PvCo was conducted. Metadata, number of HIV/PvCo cases, demographic, clinical, and outcome data were extracted. RESULTS: A total of 1,048 vivax malaria patients were hospitalized in the 10-year period; 21 (2.0%) were HIV/PvCo cases, of which 9 (42.9%) had AIDS-defining illnesses. This was the first malaria episode in 11 (52.4%) patients. Seven (33.3%) patients were unaware of their HIV status and were diagnosed on hospitalization. Severe malaria was diagnosed in 5 (23.8%) patients. One patient died. The systematic review search provided 17 articles (12 cross-sectional or longitudinal studies and 5 case report studies). A higher prevalence of studies involved cases in African and Asian countries (35.3 and 29.4%, respectively), and the prevalence of reported co-infections ranged from 0.1 to 60%. CONCLUSION: Reports of HIV/PvCo are scarce in the literature, with only a few studies describing clinical and laboratory outcomes. Systematic screening for both co-infections is not routinely performed, and therefore the real prevalence of HIV/PvCo is unknown. This study showed a low prevalence of HIV/PvCo despite the high prevalence of malaria and HIV locally. Even though relatively small, this is the largest case series to describe HIV/PvCo.

12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200319, 2021. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1143888

RESUMO

Abstract Bee venom is a natural toxin composed of several peptides. Massive envenoming causes severe local and systemic reactions. We report two cases of severe bee envenomation, of which one was fatal. We also describe clinical characteristics and immune markers. Both victims suffered from respiratory distress, renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, and shock. They required invasive mechanical ventilation, vasoactive drugs, and renal replacement therapy. Moreover, serum levels of chemokines, cytokines, and cell-free circulating nucleic acids demonstrated an intense inflammatory process. Massive envenoming produced systemic injury in the victims, with an uncontrolled inflammatory response, and a more significant chemotactic response in the fatal case.

13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200513, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes. OBJECTIVES Here we tested Malaria Box compounds in order to evaluate their activity against male and female gametocytes in Plasmodium berghei, mosquito infection in P. vivax and ookinete formation in both species. METHODS/FINDINGS The membrane feeding assay and the development of ookinetes by a 24 h ex vivo culture and the ookinete yield per 1000 erythrocytes were used to test transmission-blocking potential of the Malaria Box compounds in P. vivax. For P. berghei we used flow cytometry to evaluate male and female gametocyte time course and fluorescence microscopy to check the ookinete development. The two species used in this study showed similar results concerning the compounds' activity against gametocytes and ookinetes, which were different from those in P. falciparum. In addition, from the eight Malaria Box compounds tested in both species, compounds MMV665830, MMV665878 and MMV665941 were selected as a hit compounds due the high inhibition observed. CONCLUSION Our results showed that P. berghei is suitable as an initial screening system to test compounds against P. vivax.

14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0374, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155569

RESUMO

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon are caused mostly by snakes from the Bothrops genus and envenomated patients may suffer from tissue complications. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for severe tissue complications (STC) in patients with Bothrops snakebite in the Amazonas state, Brazil. RESULTS: Snakebites that were classified as severe and affected female patients with comorbidities presented greater risks of developing STCs. In addition, hospitalizations of patients with STC exceeded 5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and epidemiological characteristics can prove essential for assessing the evolution of STC and clinical prognosis of patients with Bothrops snakebites.

15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop., v. 54, e0585-2020, mar. 2021
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-3643
16.
Plos Negl. Trop. Dis., v. 15, n. 3, e0009245, mar. 2021
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-3626

RESUMO

Access to antivenoms is not guarranteed for vulnerable populations that inhabit remote areas in the Amazon. The study of therapeutic itineraries (TI) for treatment of snakebites would support strategies to provide timely access to users. A TI is the set of processes by which individuals adhere to certain forms of treatment, and includes the path traveled in the search for healthcare, and practices to solve their health problems. This study aims to describe TIs of snakebite patients in the Brazilian Amazon. This study was carried out at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado, in Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The itinerary from the moment of the bite to the patient’s admission to the reference unit was analyzed. Sample size was defined by saturation. After an exploratory survey to collect epidemiological variables, in-depth interviews were conducted following a semi-structured guide. Patients originated from rural areas of 11 different municipalities, including ones located >500 kilometers from Manaus. A great fragmentation was observed in the itineraries, marked by several changes of means of transport along the route. Four themes emerged from the analysis: exposure to snakebite during day-to-day activities, use of traditional therapeutic practices, and personal perception of the severity, as well as the route taken and its contingencies. Access to healthcare requires considerable effort on the part of snakebite patients. Major barriers were identified, such as the low number of hospitals that offer antivenom treatment, poor access to healthcare due to long distances and geographic barriers, low acceptability of healthcare offered in countryside, lack of use of personal protective equipment, common use of ineffective or deleterious self-care practices, late recognition of serious clinical signs and resistance to seeking medical assistance. Health education, promotion of immediate transport to health centers and decentralization of antivenom from reference hospitals to community healthcare centers in the Brazilian Amazon are more effective strategies that would to maximize access to antivenom treatment.

18.
Toxicon ; 191: 44-47, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359389

RESUMO

We characterized the hemorrhagic, coagulant and defibrinogenant activities of Lachesis muta venom and evaluated the capacity of the Brazilian antivenoms in neutralizing these activities. The hemorrhagic activity of L. muta venom was similarly neutralized by Bothrops, Bothrops-Lachesis and Bothrops-Crotalus antivenoms. The coagulant and defibrinogenant activities were better neutralized by the Bothrops-Lachesis antivenom. Bothrops-Crotalus antivenom also neutralized these activities, indicating that it can be an alternative to treat Lachesis envenomations when Bothrops-Lachesis antivenom is unavailable.


Assuntos
Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Venenos de Víboras , Viperidae , Animais , Bothrops , Humanos
19.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291444

RESUMO

Snakebites are more frequent in the Brazilian Amazon than in other parts of Brazil, representing a high cost for the health system since antivenoms are only available through medical prescription from central municipal hospitals in most cases. The need for a cold chain and physicians usually restricts access to the only effective treatment of a snakebite, the antivenom. The complex topography of the rivers contributes to delays in treatment, and consequently increases the risk of severe complications, chronic sequelae and death. Thus, decentralization of antivenom treatment to primary healthcare facilities in the interior would increase access by indigenous population groups to proper healthcare. To standardize and evaluate the decentralization to low complexity indigenous healthcare units, we suggest the (i) development and validation of standardized operational procedures, (ii) training of professionals in the validated protocol in a referral health unit, (iii) implementation of the protocol in an indigenous healthcare unit, (iv) assessment of perceptions towards and acceptability of the protocol, and (v) estimation of the impact of the protocol's implementation. We expect that antivenom decentralization would shorten the time between diagnosis and treatment and, as such, improve the prognosis of snakebites. As health cosmology among indigenous populations has an important role in maintaining their way of life, the introduction of a new therapeutic strategy to their customs must take into account the beliefs of these peoples. Thus, antivenom administration would be inserted as a crucial therapeutic tool in a world of diverse social, natural and supernatural representations. The information presented here also serves as a basis to advocate for support and promotion of health policy initiatives focused on evidence-based care in snakebite management.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293940

RESUMO

Background: Snake venom phospholipases A2 (svPLA2) are biologically active toxins, capable of triggering and modulating a wide range of biological functions. Among the svPLA2s, crotoxin (CTX) has been in the spotlight of bioprospecting research due to its role in modulating immune response and hemostasis. In the present study, novel anticoagulant mechanisms of CTX, and the modulation of inflammation-induced coagulation were investigated. Methods: CTX anticoagulant activity was evaluated using platelet poor plasma (PPP) and whole blood (WB), and also using isolated coagulation factors and complexes. The toxin modulation of procoagulant and pro-inflammatory effects was evaluated using the expression of tissue factor (TF) and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and in WB. Results: The results showed that CTX impaired clot formation in both PPP and WB, and was responsible for the inhibition of both intrinsic (TF/factor VIIa) and extrinsic (factor IXa/factor VIIIa) tenase complexes, but not for factor Xa and thrombin alone. In addition, the PLA2 mitigated the prothrombinase complex by modulating the coagulation phospholipid role in the complex. In regards to the inflammation-coagulation cross talk, the toxin was capable of reducing the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α, and was followed by decreased levels of TF and procoagulant activity from LPS-treated PBMC either isolated or in WB. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study recognize the toxin as a novel medicinal candidate to be applied in inflammatory diseases with coagulation disorders.

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