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1.
J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ ; 25(1): 105-114, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628811

RESUMO

This article presents the adaptation of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 1993, Guide and technical manual for the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. San Diego, CA: Singular Press; Fenson et al. 1994, Variability in early communicative development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 1-173) to Spanish Sign Language (LSE). Data were collected from 55 participants (32 boys and 23 girls; 17 deaf signers, 38 hearing signers) who, evaluated by their caregivers every 4 months, presented a total of 170 records. The parents reported the signs that the children could understand or produce between 8 and 36 months. Results suggested that the CDI adapted to LSE is a valid and reliable instrument. Signing children could understand more signs than they produced at this early developmental stage. There were no significant differences between boys and girls, or between deaf and hearing children. The development of LSE is similar to other sign languages, although with a lower production of signs in the early stages, perhaps due to the bilingualism of most of the children of our study.

2.
An. psicol ; 34(1): 92-100, ene. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-169883

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that the ability to repeat non-words is a good marker of lexical development in a number of languages, including Spanish. In addition, the ability to repeat nonwords has been used as a good discriminator between typically developing children and children with language delays or other language difficulties. However, despite its potential usefulness for clinical and research purposes, there is no validated scale in Spanish. To address this situation, we present a scale based on a sample of 342 monolingual Spanish-speaking children aged from four to seven years. After data analysis, a scale was elaborated to provide populational references for colleagues working in educational, clinical and research fields. The results show a ceiling effect for six years olds, as well as for monomorphemic and bisyllabic items. Implications of these scores are discussed in the corresponding section (AU)


La habilidad para repetir pseudopalabras se ha mostrado como un buen marcador de desarrollo léxico en multitud de lenguas incluyendo el español. Además, permite discriminar en buena medida entre niños con desarrollo típico y niños con trastornos y retrasos del lenguaje. Sin embargo, pese a su potencial importancia para su uso clínico e investigador, en español no contamos con baremos para una lista de estímulos determinada. Con el objetivo salvar esta notable carencia, se realiza una tarea de repetición de pseudopalabras a una muestra total de 342 niños y niñas monolingües españoles de entre cuatro y siete años. Tras el análisis de los resultados se elaboró un baremo con el objeto de aportar referencias poblacionales a colegas que trabajan en las citadas áreas clínico-educativas y de investigación. Los resultados muestran un efecto techo de esta tarea a los 6 años, así como para los estímulos monomorfémicos y bisílabos. Las implicaciones de estos resultados y baremo obtenido son discutidas en el apartado correspondiente (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Testes de Associação de Palavras , Psicologia Educacional/métodos , Psicologia da Criança/métodos , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos , Análise de Variância , Psicologia Educacional/organização & administração , Psicologia Educacional/normas , Psicologia da Criança/educação , Psicologia da Criança/normas , Psicologia da Criança/tendências
3.
Microb Drug Resist ; 23(4): 405-412, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27809653

RESUMO

In this study, the incidence and genetic bases of nitrofurantoin resistance were established for clinical isolates of two successful clones of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the pandemic "DT 104" and the pUO-StVR2 clone. A total of 61 "DT 104" and 40 pUO-StVR2 isolates recovered from clinical samples during 2008-2014 and assigned to different phage types, were tested for nitrofurantoin susceptibility. As previously shown for older isolates, all newly tested pUO-StVR2 isolates were highly resistant to nitrofurantoin (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] of 128 µg/ml), while 42.6%, 24.6%, and 32.8% of the "DT 104" isolates were susceptible, showed intermediate resistance or were highly resistant, with MICs of 8, 64, and 128 µg/ml, respectively. The genetic bases of nitrofurantoin resistance were established by PCR amplification and sequencing of the nfsA and nfsB genes encoding oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases. pUO-StVR2 isolates shared identical alterations in both nfsA (IS1 inserted into the coding region) and nfsB (in frame duplication of two codons). "DT 104" isolates with intermediate or high resistance had a missense mutation affecting the start codon of nfsA, while a single resistant isolate carried an additional frameshift mutation affecting nfsB. Complementation studies, performed with wild-type nfsA and nfsB, cloned independently and together into low and high copy-number vectors, confirmed NfsA and NfsB as responsible for nitrofurantoin toxicity. The same alterations persisted along time in isolates of each clone belonging to different phage types. Accordingly, changes leading to nitrofurantoin resistance have probably occurred before phage type diversification.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Nitrofurantoína/farmacologia , Nitrorredutases/genética , Pandemias , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Teste de Complementação Genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Nitrorredutases/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Fagos de Salmonella/genética , Fagos de Salmonella/metabolismo , Salmonella typhimurium/metabolismo , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Virulência
4.
Microb Drug Resist ; 22(3): 211-7, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26295933

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serovar Rissen is one of the most common serovars found in pigs and pork products in different countries, including Spain. However, information on the molecular bases of antimicrobial drug resistance and the population structure of Salmonella Rissen from different sources in Spain is limited. The present study focused on 84 isolates collected in Spain from pig and beef carcasses, foods and clinical samples associated with sporadic cases of gastroenteritis, and one outbreak. The majority of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (73.8%), mainly conferred by tet(A). Resistances to streptomycin (aadA1-like, aadA2, and strAB), sulfonamides (sul1, sul2, and sul3), trimethoprim (dfrA1-like and dfrA12), ampicillin (blaTEM-1-like), and chloramphenicol (cmlA1-like) were also detected, with frequencies ranging from 12% to 20.2%. Most of the identified genes were carried by integrons, including three class 1 integrons of the sul1 type, a class 1 integron of the sul3 type, and the class 2 integron of Tn7. Two sul1 integrons, the sul3 integron, and the class 2 integron are first reported in Salmonella Rissen. Typing of the isolates with XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis detected a major clone, which was circulating in humans and animals during the past decade, and was responsible for the outbreak. The obtained results are relevant for food safety and public health.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Fezes/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Humanos , Integrons/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Urina/microbiologia
5.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 46(4): 469-74, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26307466

RESUMO

Twenty-one multiresistant Enterobacter cloacae isolates producing OXA-48 (n=10), CTX-M-15 (n=7) or both (n=4) ß-lactamases were detected in a Spanish hospital during a 1-year period (June 2013 to June 2014). The isolates were also resistant to non-ß-lactam antimicrobials, further complicating the therapeutic options. Genotyping of the isolates identified two major clones (ST74 and ST66) that caused prolonged outbreaks in different buildings of the hospital as well as some sporadic isolates (ST78, ST45 and ST295). Isolates belonging to clone 1 (n=7) were carbapenem-resistant and carried the bla(OXA-48) gene on a conjugative IncL/M plasmid of ca. 65 kb. Clone 2 isolates (n=11) were resistant to cefepime and harboured the bla(CTX-M-15) gene on an ca. 150-kb, non-conjugative plasmid of the IncF group, co-harbouring the qnrB and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes encoding quinolone resistance. Four clone 2 isolates were also resistant to carbapenems owing to the co-production of OXA-48. Most of the isolates were recovered from critically ill patients and were admitted to intensive care units; a single patient was transferred from another Spanish hospital. Intrahospital and interhospital dissemination of multiresistant E. cloacae isolates is of major clinical concern as it could lead to endemic nosocomial situations.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Enterobacter cloacae/enzimologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacter cloacae/classificação , Enterobacter cloacae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacter cloacae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/transmissão , Feminino , Genótipo , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem Molecular , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Infect Genet Evol ; 29: 99-102, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25461846

RESUMO

Five variants of a resistant derivative of pSLT (termed pUO-StVR2) were detected in clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium recovered in Spain. The structure of these variants revealed the involvement of IS1, IS26 and Tn21-like transposition, as well as homologous recombination in the generation of deletions, inversions and insertions which, depending on the variant, affected an orf of unknown function, genes encoding a possible iron acquisition system, and/or resistance properties. These variants, which appeared at a relatively low frequency, can be used as a model to understand the co-selection mechanisms that are helping to maintain multidrug resistance in bacterial pathogens, despite the structural instability of the responsible DNA.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/genética , Evolução Molecular , Plasmídeos/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Recombinação Homóloga , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Span. j. psychol ; 17: e9.1-e9.15, ene.-dic. 2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-130518

RESUMO

This study, which forms part of a broader research project, analyzes gender differences in: the intensity of diverse emotions, the justification of violence, attitudes towards the terrorist group ETA, forgiveness and tolerance. Participants comprised 728 people (45.5% men and 54.5% women) resident in either Basque Country or Navarra (Spain), representative of all national identities and political ideologies existing in this context. An ad hoc questionnaire was designed and administered between November 2005 and February 2006, a short time before ETA declared a ceasefire. Women reported more intensity in fear for political reasons and scored higher in two of the six measures of empathy included in the study (empathy with prisoners and empathy with those who suffer and think like oneself). Men scored higher in positive emotionality, indifference and Schadenfreude. Women perceived apology and forgiveness as more necessary elements for achieving peace than men. These results suggest that it may be beneficial for women to play a more prominent role in relation to the resolution of intergroup conflicts such as the one existing in the Basque Country (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Emoções Manifestas/fisiologia , Terrorismo/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Perdão/fisiologia , Diferenciação Sexual/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Medo/psicologia , Distúrbios de Guerra/psicologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Análise de Variância
8.
Span J Psychol ; 17: E9, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25011407

RESUMO

This study, which forms part of a broader research project, analyzes gender differences in: the intensity of diverse emotions, the justification of violence, attitudes towards the terrorist group ETA, forgiveness and tolerance. Participants comprised 728 people (45.5% men and 54.5% women) resident in either Basque Country or Navarra (Spain), representative of all national identities and political ideologies existing in this context. An ad hoc questionnaire was designed and administered between November 2005 and February 2006, a short time before ETA declared a ceasefire. Women reported more intensity in fear for political reasons and scored higher in two of the six measures of empathy included in the study (empathy with prisoners and empathy with those who suffer and think like oneself). Men scored higher in positive emotionality, indifference and Schadenfreude. Women perceived apology and forgiveness as more necessary elements for achieving peace than men. These results suggest that it may be beneficial for women to play a more prominent role in relation to the resolution of intergroup conflicts such as the one existing in the Basque Country.


Assuntos
Atitude/etnologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Política , Terrorismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Empatia/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Perdão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Clin Microbiol ; 52(9): 3414-7, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24951809

RESUMO

Three unrelated sequence type 131 (ST131), ST58, and ST83 Escherichia coli isolates with low-level resistance to imipenem and resistance to ertapenem were recovered in a Spanish hospital from July to October 2012. They were positive for blaOXA-48 carried by an IncL/M conjugative plasmid, which may have been acquired from Klebsiella pneumoniae.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Idoso , Conjugação Genética , Ertapenem , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Feminino , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genótipo , Hospitais , Humanos , Imipenem/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmídeos/análise , Espanha/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia
10.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(2): 85-87, abr.-jun. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-122189

RESUMO

Contamos con un buen número de investigaciones que estudian el desarrollo del lenguaje en niños sordos con implantes cocleares educados en contextos orales, pero es reducido el corpus de trabajos que investiga el desarrollo de estos niños cuando están educados en contextos bilingües. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo medir el desarrollo del vocabulario de 14 niños sordos con edades cronológicas de 17-62 meses y edades auditivas de 6-37 meses que aprenden lengua castellana y lengua de signos española. Los niños sordos y sus iguales oyentes comparten aulas en las que están presentes ambas lenguas como herramienta educativa y de aprendizaje. Para medir las 2 lenguas, los niños fueron evaluados utilizando el Inventario de Desarrollo Comunicativo MacArthur-Bates español y un Inventario no estandarizado del vocabulario de lengua de signos española. Los resultados de las evaluaciones indican que todos menos 2 de los niños sordos presentan una producción del lenguaje oral dentro o por encima de los rangos normales en comparación con la edad auditiva o el tiempo transcurrido desde la activación del implante coclear. Al comparar el vocabulario en 2 periodos de tiempo encontramos que la producción en ambas lenguas mejoró significativamente. Los niños usan más lengua de signos que lengua oral en la primera evaluación, pero esta tendencia se invierte en el segundo periodo. Al hallar el vocabulario compuesto o conceptual, obtenemos que los niños tienen un número total de términos léxicos mayor que el que presentan en cada una de las lenguas por separado (AU)


Several previous studies of language development in deaf children with cochlear implants educated in oral schools have been reported but there are very few such investigations of deaf children simultaneously exposed to sign and spoken language during development. The present study aimed to measure vocabulary development in 14 deaf children with chronological ages of 17-62 months and hearing ages of 6-37 months who were learning spoken Spanish and Spanish sign language. The deaf children were included in classroom groups with other hearing classmates, where all children were exposed to native models of both languages. To measure both languages, the children were evaluated using the Spanish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory and a non-standardized test of Spanish early sign language vocabulary. The results of the evaluations indicated that all but two of the deaf children had spoken language production within normal ranges in relation to auditory age or length of time since cochlear implantation. When comparing vocabulary over two time periods, we found that both Spanish sign language and Spanish spoken production significantly improved over both periods. Children used more sign language than spoken language in the first assessment but this trend was reversed in the second time period. When all vocabulary was combined in spoken Spanish and Spanish sign language, the children had a larger set of semantic concepts in the combined bilingual lexicon than in each language taken separately (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Vocabulário , Testes de Linguagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Linguagem/normas , Línguas de Sinais , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Educação de Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/métodos , Educação de Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/organização & administração , Implantes Cocleares/psicologia , Implante Coclear/métodos , Implante Coclear/psicologia , Fala/fisiologia , Surdez/complicações , Surdez/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/reabilitação
11.
Microb Drug Resist ; 20(4): 281-4, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24484616

RESUMO

Neonatal sepsis is a disease affecting newborns ≤1 month of age with clinical symptoms and positive blood cultures. The number of Escherichia coli strains causing neonatal sepsis resistant to the antibiotics used in the treatment is increasing. In this study, two E. coli strains causing sepsis in neonates of mothers infected with an E. coli strain harboring extended spectrum beta-lactamases were characterized. The bla(CTX-M-15) and the bla(CTX-M-14) genes were found in an IncFIA and nontypeable transferable plasmids, respectively. In addition, these highly virulent strains belonged to ST705 and ST156 clonal groups, respectively. The presence of strains, which are highly virulent and resistant to ampicillin, gentamicin, and cephalosporins, makes a change in empirical treatment necessary as well as an increase in the surveillance of these infections.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Sepse/microbiologia , Resistência beta-Lactâmica/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Adulto , Ampicilina/metabolismo , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/metabolismo , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Células Clonais , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Gentamicinas/metabolismo , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
12.
Plasmid ; 70(1): 104-9, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23541844

RESUMO

pUO-StVR2 is a derivative of pSLT, the virulence plasmid specific of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, which confers multidrug resistance. This plasmid is widespread among closely related isolates of S. Typhimurium, and often coexists with other plasmids like pStR12. The latter belongs to incompatibility group IncI1, was assigned to ST48 by pMLST (plasmid multilocus sequence typing), and confers resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, with the responsible genes (aadA1/aadA2, cmlA1, dfrA12 and sul3) located on a sul3-class 1 integron. When using clinical isolates of S. Typhimurium containing one (pUO-StVR2) or both (pUO-StVR2 and pStR12) plasmids as donors and Escherichia coli K12 J53 resistant to rifampicin as recipient, the conjugation frequencies of pUO-StVR2 and pStR12 were 10⁻8 and 10⁻³-10⁻5 transconjugants/donor, respectively, while the transfer frequency of pUO-StVR2 increased 10² up to 105 times through mobilization by pStR12, depending on the donor strain and experimental conditions. Mobilization of pUO-StVR2, a plasmid which encodes virulence and resistance functions, by compatible plasmids which coexist in the same bacterium can facilitate the spread of these properties in S. Typhimurium, one of the most common serovars of S. enterica.


Assuntos
Conjugação Genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Replicação do DNA , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Integrons , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/metabolismo , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Fatores de Tempo , Virulência
13.
Ann Intensive Care ; 2 Suppl 1: S3, 2012 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22873419

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in patients with two or more categorized risk factors (CRF) for IAH, and their morbidity and mortality during their intensive care unit (ICU) stay. METHODS: Prospective cohort study carried out at a medical ICU. A total of 151 medical patients were enrolled during a period of 3 months. After ICU whole staff training, we conducted daily screening of the four CRF for IAH based on the World Society of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS) guidelines (namely, diminished abdominal wall compliance, increased intraluminal content, increased abdominal content, and capillary leak syndrome or fluid resuscitation). In those patients with risk factors of at least two different categories (≥2 CRF), intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was measured every 8 h during ICU stay. Data included demographics, main diagnosis on admission, severity scores, cumulative fluid balance, daily mean IAP, resolution of IAH, days of ICU and hospital stay, and mortality. RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients (57.6%) had ≥2 CRF for IAH, 59 (67.8%) out of whom developed IAH. Patients with ≥2 CRF had a significantly higher mortality rate (41.4 vs. 14.3%, p < 0.001). Patients with IAH had higher body mass index, severity scores, organ dysfunctions/failures, number of CRF for IAH, days of ICU/hospital stay and hospital mortality rate (45.8 vs. 32.1%, p = 0.22). Non-resolution of IAH was associated with a higher mortality rate (64.7 vs. 35.3%, p = 0.001). None of the cohort patients developed abdominal compartment syndrome. The multivariate analysis showed that IAH development (odds ratio (OR) 4.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-20.12) was a non-independent risk factor for mortality, and its non-resolution (OR 13.15; 95% CI 22.13-81.92) was an independent risk factor for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill medical patients admitted to ICU with ≥2 CRF have high morbidity, mortality rate, and incidence of IAH, so IAP should be measured and monitored as recommended by the WSACS. Our study highlights the importance of implementing screening and assessment protocols for an early diagnosis of IAH.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22516685

RESUMO

In vertebrates, stress and thyroid systems interact closely, most likely because of the involvement of both systems in energy metabolism. However, studies on these interactions, especially during larval development, are scarce. Recently, cDNAs coding for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP), two key players in the regulation of the neuroendocrine stress response, were characterized for the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). To investigate the involvement of stress and thyroid systems in this species, the effects of food deprivation during early development of S. senegalensis were assessed. Growth was arrested in food-deprived post-larvae, which was also reflected by decreased carbon and nitrogen contents, indicating increased catabolism. Food deprivation induces chronic stress, as illustrated by enhanced whole-body cortisol levels, as well as an up regulation of crh and a decrease of crh-bp expression levels. Furthermore, whole-body total T3 concentrations of food-deprived post-larvae were reduced, although tshß subunit expression levels remained unaffected. Our results show that food deprivation is a chronic stressor that induces energy-releasing catabolic processes that compensate for the reduced energy intake, and inhibits anabolic processes via the peripheral thyroid system.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Linguados/fisiologia , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Tiroxina/metabolismo , Tri-Iodotironina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/genética , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Linguados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linguados/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Tireotropina Subunidade beta/genética , Tireotropina Subunidade beta/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
15.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 8(2): 247-257, jun. 2008. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-119582

RESUMO

Two national reports on peer bullying and social exclusion in schools promoted by the Spanish Ombudsman and UNICEF (2000, 2007) established the state of the art of bullying incidence in secondary schools, its forms, and differences according gender, school year or type of school amongst the many aspects tackled by both studies. One more step in the deepening into the nature of peer bullying and social exclusion in schools is to clarify whether the students who are victims of bullying are so in a single way, i.e. through the same type of action or whether they are bullied in multiple forms. The present study aims first at finding out the existence of multiple bullying among the secondary school students participating in the Second Ombudsman’s Report. Second to determine whether it consists of experiencing various behaviors within the same category, e.g. verbal bullying, or various behaviors across categories (e.g. being insulted and stolen), as well as the incidence of both types of multiple maltreatment. For that new analysis of the information provided by the 3000 participants are carried out. Only the perspective of victims are presented pointing to the existence of multiple maltreatment, especially across categories (AU)


Dos informes nacionales sobre acoso y exclusión social en la escuela promovidos por el Defensor del Pueblo, en colaboración con UNICEF (2000,2007), mostraron el grado de incidencia de estos dos tipos de maltrato en la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, las modalidades en que se manifiesta, y las diferencias en incidencia en función del género, el curso y el tipo de centro. El estudio pretende aclarar si los estudiantes víctimas sonacosados o excluidos sólo de una forma o de varias formas a la vez. El estudio tiene como objetivo principal establecer el grado en que el acoso entre los estudiantes de secundaria se dio de forma múltiple. También determinar el grado en el que el maltrato es múltiple dentro de la misma categoría o se produce a través de varias categorías diferentes (i.e.: que insulten y roben). Se llevaron a cabo nuevos análisis de la información obtenida por los 3000 participantes del estudio mencionado. En este artículo sólo presentamos la incidencia del multimaltrato desde la perspectiva de las víctimas (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
16.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 48(6): 2775-81, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17525212

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The authors have recently demonstrated that substance P and L-733,060 induce cell proliferation and cell inhibition, respectively, in human retinoblastoma cell lines. However, the presence of neurokinin-1 receptors has not been demonstrated in such cell lines, nor is it known whether other neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists exert antitumoral action against retinoblastoma cell lines. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the presence of neurokinin-1 receptors in the human retinoblastoma cell lines WERI-Rb-1 and Y-79 and to study the growth inhibitory capacity of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist L-732,138 against those cell lines. The authors also sought to demonstrate that the administration of L-732,138 or L-733,060 induces apoptosis in retinoblastoma cells and that neurokinin-1 receptors and substance P are present in primary retinoblastoma. METHODS: Immunoblot analysis was used to determine neurokinin-1 receptors, and a Coulter counter was used to determine viable cell numbers; this was followed by application of the tetrazolium compound WST-8, a colorimetric method, to evaluate cell viability. DAPI stain was applied to assess chromatin condensation, characteristic of apoptosis, and immunoperoxidase was used to demonstrate neurokinin-1 receptors and substance P in eyes with primary retinoblastoma. RESULTS: Neurokinin-1 receptors were present in both retinoblastoma cell lines studied. Three identical bands (isoforms of approximately 33, 58, and 75 kDa) were observed in both cell lines. Moreover, L-732,138 inhibited the growth of both cell lines studied, with and without previous administration of substance P. This inhibition occurred in a dose-dependent manner, with the IC50 values of 60.47 microM for WERI-Rb1 and 56.78 microM for Y-79. Moreover, apoptosis was observed in both cell lines after the administration of L-732,138 or L-733,060. In fixed eyes with primary retinoblastoma, a high density of neurokinin-1 receptors was observed in tumor cells, whereas a very low number of such cells contained substance P. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the same isoforms of the neurokinin-1 receptor are present in human retinoblastoma cell lines WERI-Rb-1 and Y-79. Both L-732,138 and L-733,060 can induce apoptosis in these cell lines and therefore can act as antitumoral agents. Primary retinoblastoma specimens display neurokinin-1 receptor immunolabeling. These results suggest that the neurokinin-1 receptor may be a promising new target for the treatment of retinoblastoma.


Assuntos
Receptores da Neurocinina-1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Retina/metabolismo , Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Triptofano/análogos & derivados , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Antagonistas do Receptor de Neuroquinina-1 , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Retina/patologia , Retinoblastoma/patologia , Estereoisomerismo , Substância P/metabolismo , Triptofano/farmacologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
17.
Rev Esp Cardiol ; 59(7): 671-8, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16938209

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The AGEMZA cohort comprises military men whose risk factors were studied in 1985 when they were 20 years old. As these men reached the age of 35 years, we investigated the stability of or changes in anthropometric measures, lipid levels and arterial pressure, and looked for interrelationships between any changes. METHODS: In 2000, we collected new data (by cross-sectional study) on body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, cholesterol fractions, triglycerides and blood pressure, which could be compared with the original data. Persistence or tracking was evaluated using standardized regression coefficients and odds for persistence within the same quintile. Current data were modelled using multivariate regression models. RESULTS: In the 250 subjects studied, significant changes were observed in the following variables: weight +12.1 kg, BMI +3.9 kg/m(2), cholesterol +68.0 mg/dL, HDL cholesterol -5.2 mg/dL, LDL cholesterol +57.9 mg/dL, and triglycerides +76.3 mg/dL. The degree of persistence was high for all variables, except for diastolic blood pressure. Persistence was most pronounced for BMI, cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol. The changes observed indicate an increase in cardiovascular risk that adds to the effect of aging. The change in lipid profile was mainly influenced by the increase in BMI experienced, whereas blood pressure was mainly influenced by the final BMI attained. In addition, being a current smoker was associated with worse cholesterol fractions and triglyceride levels. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular risk factors increase during the third decade of the life. Early evaluation (after adolescence) enables the identification of individuals who will later be at an increased risk. Modifiable risk factors were identified, such as weight increase and smoking. Preventive measures should be designed for these groups.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Militares , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 59(7): 671-678, jul. 2006. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-048568

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos. La cohorte AGEMZA son varones militares cuyos factores de riesgo fueron estudiados en 1985 a la edad de 20 años. A la edad de 35 años se estudian la antropometría, los lípidos y la presión arterial y se investiga su estabilidad, sus cambios y la interdependencia en su evolución. Métodos. En 2000, se obtuvieron datos (encuesta transversal) que se compararon con los originales: índice de masa corporal (IMC), colesterol y sus fracciones, triglicéridos y presiones arteriales. La persistencia o tracking se evalúa mediante el coeficiente de regresión estandarizado y la permanencia en quintiles. Se crearon modelos de regresión multivariante para los datos actuales. Resultados. Tras estudiar a 250 sujetos, se observaron modificaciones significativas de los siguientes factores: peso, +12,1 kg; IMC, +3,9 kg/m², colesterol, +68,0 mg/dl; colesterol unido a lipoproteínas de alta densidad, -­5,2 mg/dl; colesterol unido a lipoproteínas de baja densidad (cLDL), +57,9 mg/dl, y triglicéridos, +76,3 mg/dl. Todos los factores presentaron una persistencia elevada, excepto la presión arterial diastólica. Es más pronunciada la persistencia de IMC, colesterol y cLDL. Estos cambios suponen un peor riesgo cardiovascular independientemente de la diferente edad. El perfil de lípidos se vio influido por el incremento del IMC experimentado y los valores de presión arterial por el IMC alcanzado. Ser fumador activo también se asoció a peores valores de las fracciones de colesterol y triglicéridos. Conclusiones. Durante la tercera década de la vida los factores de riesgo cardiovascular se incrementan. Estudios precoces (en la postadolescencia) permiten identificar sujetos con mayor riesgo posterior. Se constató la influencia en el perfil final de circunstancias modificables (incremento ponderal, tabaquismo). Es razonable planificar medidas preventivas orientadas a estos colectivos


Introduction and objectives. The AGEMZA cohort comprises military men whose risk factors were studied in 1985 when they were 20 years old. As these men reached the age of 35 years, we investigated the stability of or changes in anthropometric measures, lipid levels and arterial pressure, and looked for interrelationships between any changes. Methods. In 2000, we collected new data (by cross-sectional study) on body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, cholesterol fractions, triglycerides and blood pressure, which could be compared with the original data. Persistence or tracking was evaluated using standardized regression coefficients and odds for persistence within the same quintile. Current data were modelled using multivariate regression models. Results. In the 250 subjects studied, significant changes were observed in the following variables: weight +12.1 kg, BMI +3.9 kg/m², cholesterol +68.0 mg/dL, HDL cholesterol ­-5.2 mg/dL, LDL cholesterol +57.9 mg/dL, and triglycerides +76.3 mg/dL. The degree of persistence was high for all variables, except for diastolic blood pressure. Persistence was most pronounced for BMI, cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol. The changes observed indicate an increase in cardiovascular risk that adds to the effect of aging. The change in lipid profile was mainly influenced by the increase in BMI experienced, whereas blood pressure was mainly influenced by the final BMI attained. In addition, being a current smoker was associated with worse cholesterol fractions and triglyceride levels. Conclusions. Cardiovascular risk factors increase during the third decade of the life. Early evaluation (after adolescence) enables the identification of individuals who will later be at an increased risk. Modifiable risk factors were identified, such as weight increase and smoking. Preventive measures should be designed for these groups


Assuntos
Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Seguimentos , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes , Pressão Sanguínea , Espanha , Índice de Massa Corporal
19.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 46(7): 2567-70, 2005 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15980249

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Activation of the neurokinin-1 receptor is known to induce proliferation in tumor cells, but it is as yet unknown whether this applies to retinoblastoma. This was an in vitro study of the growth inhibitory capacity of the potent and long-acting neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist L-733,060, at concentrations ranging from 7.5 to 20 microM, against the human retinoblastoma line WERI-Rb-1 and from 10 to 25 microM against the human retinoblastoma line Y-79. The ability of substance P (an neurokinin-1 stimulator) to activate the cell growth of these retinoblastoma cell lines was also determined. METHODS: A cell counter was used to determine the number of viable cells, followed by application of the tetrazolium compound WST-8 [2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4 nitrophenyl))-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt, colorimetric method to evaluate cell viability in this cytotoxicity assay. RESULTS: Nanomolar concentrations of substance P increased the growth of both cell lines and micromolar concentrations of L-733,060 inhibited the growth of the two cell lines studied, with and without previous administration of substance P. L-733,060 inhibited the growth of the WERI-Rb-1 and Y-79 cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 was 12.15 microM for 49 hours for WERI-Rb1 and 17.38 microM for 40 hours for Y-79. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that substance P is a mitogen and also indicate that the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist L-733,060 acts on both human retinoblastoma cell lines as an antitumoral agent.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Mitógenos/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor de Neuroquinina-1 , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Retina/tratamento farmacológico , Retinoblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Substância P/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Neoplasias da Retina/patologia , Retinoblastoma/patologia , Sais de Tetrazólio
20.
Rev. esp. cardiol. Supl. (Ed. impresa) ; 5(supl.A): 13a-23a, 2005. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-165393

RESUMO

Se citan los principales ensayos clínicos en prevención cardiovascular concluidos en el último año. Se revisan el concepto y la fisiopatología del síndrome metabólico, su prevalencia en nuestro medio, los medios diagnósticos más adecuados y la necesidad de establecer medidas preventivas (AU)


This paper refers to the main clinical trials in cardiovascular prevention in the previous year. Further, it reviews the concept and pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome, its prevalence in our setting, the most appropriate diagnosis and the need to establish preventive measures (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia
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