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1.
Parasite Epidemiol Control ; 4: e00085, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666319

RESUMO

The presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were analyzed in 392 sheep sera from ten Costa Rican ovine flocks using indirect immuno-enzymatic assays. Additionally, general information about sheep management, environment, and clinical reproductive disorders was assessed through a questionnaire to inquire factors related to these apicomplexan parasites. A total of 161 (41.1%) serum samples reacted positive to T. gondii, 43 (10.9%) to N. caninum and 26 (6.63%) to both parasites. Toxoplasma gondii serorreactors were detected in all the analyzed flocks (100.0%), meanwhile N. caninum antibodies were found in nine flocks (90%), from the six Costa Rican regions. Factors associated with T. gondii were the co-presence of cattle (OR = 5.06; C.I.95%; 2.08-12.30; p: <0.001), grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) (OR = 2.44; C.I.95%; 1.50-3.95; p: <0.001) inside or around the farms, and the presence of peccaries (Tayassu sp.) (OR = 0.35; C.I.95%; 0.16-0.74; p: 0.0058) was a variable associated with N. caninum seropositivity. The obtained results of T. gondii and N. caninum infections in sheep flocks from Costa Rica should be considered for the proper prevention and control strategies against these apicomplexan abortive parasites.

2.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0182644, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793352

RESUMO

Brucellosis has been an endemic disease of cattle and humans in Costa Rica since the beginning of XX century. However, brucellosis in sheep, goats, pigs, water buffaloes, horses and cetaceans, has not been reported in the country. We have performed a brucellosis survey in these host mammal species, from 1999-2016. In addition, we have documented the number of human brucellosis reported cases, from 2003-2016. The brucellosis seroprevalence in goat and sheep herds was 0.98% and 0.7% respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Antibodies against Brucella were not detected in feral or domestic pigs. Likewise, brucellosis seroprevalence in horse and water buffalo farms was estimated in 6.5% and 21.7%, respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Six cetacean species showed positive reactions against Brucella antigens, and B. ceti was isolated in 70% (n = 29) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). A steady increase in the diagnosis of human brucellosis cases was observed. Taking into account the prevalence of brucellosis in the various host mammals of Costa Rica, different measures are recommended.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Búfalos/microbiologia , Criança , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Golfinhos/microbiologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Biol Trop ; 59(1): 37-52, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21513192

RESUMO

In tropical and subtropical regions of the world, parasitic diseases are a main cause of losses in livestock productivity. The increased acquired resistence to anthelmintics by gastrointestinal nematodes, requires biological control be considered as a potential feasible and effective alternative. The most effective natural soil enemies of nematodes are nematophagous fungi. In order to collect and identify predator nematophagous fungi (PNF), samples were obtained from 51 farms distributed throughout the seven provinces of Costa Rica. The origin samples included: soil from different crops (potatoes, tomatoes, bananas, ornamental plants, squash and coffee); animal feces (cattle, sheep, goat and horse); soil and fallen leaves from forest; and plants with signs of nematode infection. Each sample was processed using three techniques for the extraction of fungi from soil: sprinkling technique, soil dilution and humidity chamber. Twenty four strains of nematophagous fungi were found in 19 farms; 83.3% of the fungi were isolated by sprinkling technique. The following fungi were identified: Arthrobotrys oligospora (n = 13); Candelabrella musiformis (n = 9); and for the first time there was isolation of A. conoides (n = 1) and A. dactyloides (n = 1) in the country. Moreover, 16 strains from Trichoderma (n=13), Beauveria (n = 1), Clonostachys (n = 1) and Lecanicillium (n = 1) were obtained. In addition, pH of each possible fungal isolation source was measured, and it varied from 5.2 to 9.9, however PNF isolates fell within the range of 5.6 to 7.5. The PNF strains were cultivated in four different media for the production of chhlamydospores: potato dextrose agar (PDA); corn meal agar (CMA); malt extract agar (MEA) and potato carrot agar (PCA). Out of these cultures, 95.8% of the strains formed chlamydospores primarily in the PCA. Of these strains, the profilic spore producers were subjected to ruminant artificial gastrointestinal conditions. A total of 14 fungi were tested, out of which 42.9% survived the digestive analysis. Neither A. conoides nor A. dactyloides were viable following the in vitro gastrointestinal test. The PNF isolated in this study demonstrated an action against ovine and caprine gastrointestinal nematodes and are candidates for use in biological control of these organisms. Among these microorganisms, Candelabrella musiformis appears to be the most promising fungi for use as a biological control agent in Costa Rica.


Assuntos
Fungos/fisiologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Nematoides/microbiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Costa Rica , Fezes/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(1): 37-52, mar. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-638044

RESUMO

In tropical and subtropical regions of the world, parasitic diseases are a main cause of losses in livestock productivity. The increased acquired resistence to anthelmintics by gastrointestinal nematodes, requires biological control be considered as a potential feasible and effective alternative. The most effective natural soil enemies of nematodes are nematophagous fungi. In order to collect and identify predator nematophagous fungi (PNF), samples were obtained from 51 farms distributed throughout the seven provinces of Costa Rica. The origin samples included: soil from different crops (potatoes, tomatoes, bananas, ornamental plants, squash and coffee); animal feces (cattle, sheep, goat and horse); soil and fallen leaves from forest; and plants with signs of nematode infection. Each sample was processed using three techniques for the extraction of fungi from soil: sprinkling technique, soil dilution and humidity chamber. Twenty four strains of nematophagous fungi were found in 19 farms; 83.3% of the fungi were isolated by sprinkling technique. The following fungi were idenified: Arthrobotrys oligospora (n=13); Candelabrella musiformis (n=9); and for the first time there was isolation of A. conoides (n=1) and A. dactyloides (n=1) in the country. Moreover, 16 strains from Trichoderma (n=13), Beauveria (n=1), Clonostachys (n=1) and Lecanicillium (n=1) were obtained. In addition, pH of each possible fungal isolation source was measured, and it varied from 5.2 to 9.9, however PNF isolates fell within the range of 5.6 to 7.5. The PNF strains were cultivated in four different media for the production of chhlamydospores: potato dextrose agar (PDA); corn meal agar (CMA); malt extract agar (MEA) and potato carrot agar (PCA). Out of these cultures, 95.8% of the strains formed chlamydospores primarily in the PCA. Of these strains, the profilic spore producers were subjected to ruminant artificial gastrointestinal conditions. A total of 14 fungi were tested, out of which 42.9% survived the digestive analysis. Neither A. conoides nor A. dactyloides were viable following the in vitro gastrointestinal test. The PNF isolated in this study demostrated an action against ovine and caprine gastrointestinal nematodes and are candidates for use in biological control of these organisms. Among these microorganisms, Candelabrella musiformis appears to be the most promising fungi for use as a biological control agent in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1): 37-52. Epub 2011 March 01.


El control biológico es en la actualidad una alternativa para el control de los nematodos gastrointestinales que desarrollaron resistencia a los principales grupos de antihelmínticos. Para el aislamiento e identificación de hongos nematófagos depredadores, se tomaron muestras de 51 fincas distribuidas entre todas las provincias de Costa Rica. La naturaleza de las muestras incluyó: suelos de diferentes sembradíos (papa, tomate, banano, plantas ornamentales, chayote y café), heces de animales (bovinos, ovinos, caprinos y equinos), suelo y hojarasca de bosques y plantas con signos de enfermedad causada por nematodos. Las muestras se procesaron mediante 3 técnicas diferentes para la extracción de hongos a partir del suelo: espolvoreado en placa, dilución de suelos y cámara húmeda. Veinticuatro cepas de hongos nematófagos fueron aisladas de 19 fincas; el 83.3% de éstos fueron aislados mediante las técnica de espolvoreado en placa. Los hongos fueron identificados como: Arthrobotrys oligospora (n=13), Candelabrella musiformis (n=9) y por primera vez se reporta el aislamiento de A. conoides (n=1) y A. dactyloides (n=1) en el país. Asimismo, se aislaron 16 cepas de hongos de los géneros Trichoderma (n=13), Beauveria (n=1), Clonostachys (n=1) y Lecanicillium (n=1). Adicionalmente se les midió el pH, el cual varió entre 5.2-9.9, ubicándose los HND dentro de un rango entre 5.6-7.5. Las cepas de HND fueron cultivadas en 4 medios diferentes para la producción de clamidosporas: papa dextrosa agar, harina de maíz, extracto de malta y agar papa-zanahoria. El 95.8% de las cepas aisladas produjeron clamidosporas, principalmente en el medio agar papa-zanahoria. De estas cepas, se escogieron las de mayor producción para ser sometidas a la prueba de digestibilidad in vitro. Un total de 14 cepas fueron sometidos a esta prueba, de las cuales el 42.9% resultaron viables; de éstas, las cepas de A. conoides y A. dactyloides no sobrevivieron a la prueba de digestibilidad in vitro. De los microorganismos aislados, Candelabrella musiformis se considera el más promisorio de los hongos como agente biológico en Costa Rica.


Assuntos
Animais , Fungos/fisiologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Nematoides/microbiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Costa Rica , Fezes/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Cabras , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Microbiologia do Solo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
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