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1.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0213073, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818333

RESUMO

Research in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is increasingly focused on the discovery of biomarkers that could enable personalized treatments. The genetic biomarkers associated with the response to TNF inhibitors (TNFi) are among the most studied. They include 12 SNPs exhibiting promising results in the three largest genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, they still require further validation. With this aim, we assessed their association with response to TNFi in a replication study, and a meta-analysis summarizing all non-redundant data. The replication involved 755 patients with RA that were treated for the first time with a biologic drug, which was either infliximab (n = 397), etanercept (n = 155) or adalimumab (n = 203). Their DNA samples were successfully genotyped with a single-base extension multiplex method. Lamentably, none of the 12 SNPs was associated with response to the TNFi in the replication study (p > 0.05). However, a drug-stratified exploratory analysis revealed a significant association of the NUBPL rs2378945 SNP with a poor response to etanercept (B = -0.50, 95% CI = -0.82, -0.17, p = 0.003). In addition, the meta-analysis reinforced the previous association of three SNPs: rs2378945, rs12142623, and rs4651370. In contrast, five of the remaining SNPs were less associated than before, and the other four SNPs were no longer associated with the response to treatment. In summary, our results highlight the complexity of the pharmacogenetics of TNFi in RA showing that it could involve a drug-specific component and clarifying the status of the 12 GWAS-drawn SNPs.

2.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0180144, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28672020

RESUMO

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased mortality rate that is associated with the presence of RA-specific autoantibodies in many studies. However, the relative role of rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-CCP antibodies and the most recently established RA-autoantibodies, directed against carbamylated proteins (anti-CarP antibodies), is unclear. Here, we have assessed the role of these three antibodies in 331 patients with established RA recruited from 2001 to 2009 and followed until November 2015. During this time, 124 patients died (37.5%). This death rate corresponds to a mortality rate 1.53 (95% CI 1.26 to 1.80) folds the observed in the reference population. We used for analysis of all-cause mortality the Cox proportional hazard regression model with adjustment for age, sex and smoking. It showed a trend for association with increased mortality of each of the three RA autoantibodies in antibody-specific analysis (hazards ratio (HR) from 1.37 to 1.79), but only the HR of the anti-CarP antibodies was significant (HR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.61, p = 0.002). In addition, the multivariate analysis that included all autoantibodies showed a marked decrease in the HR of RF and of anti-CCP antibodies, whereas the HR of anti-CarP remained significant. This increase was specific of respiratory system causes of death (HR = 3.19, 95% CI 1.52 to 6.69, p = 0.002). Therefore, our results suggest a specific relation of anti-CarP antibodies with the increased mortality in RA, and drive attention to their possible connection with respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha
3.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0161141, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27537849

RESUMO

A large fraction of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) develop specific autoantibodies, which until recently were only of two types, rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). We aimed to replicate important findings about a recently described third type of specific autoantibodies, anti-carbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies, because they have been described based only in the homemade ELISA from a single laboratory. Our study included 520 patients with established RA and 278 healthy controls of Spanish ancestry and it was done with an independently performed ELISA. The prevalence and pattern of environmental, clinical and genetic associations of the anti-CarP antibodies were similar to the previously described. Notably, the presence and titers of anti-CarP correlated with the presence and titers of ACPA, but the anti-CarP antibodies did not share the known genetic and exposure risk factors of the ACPA. In addition, anti-CarP antibodies were independently associated with a higher (10.5%) prevalence of bone erosions. The reproducibility of these characteristics across laboratories and European subpopulations, indicates the wide validity of the results and suggests that determination of anti-CarP antibodies could contribute to explain RA pathogenesis and identify clinically relevant patient subgroups.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 67(11): 2861-5, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26246227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Results of a recent study suggested that the excess cardiovascular (CV) risk observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) could be partially explained by the presence of immune complexes of antibodies against citrullinated proteins that locally promote and perpetuate inflammation and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. The present study was undertaken to attempt to replicate one of the observations supporting this hypothesis, i.e., association between anti-citrullinated fibrinogen (anti-Cit-fibrinogen) positivity and subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: Three surrogate markers of atherosclerosis were assessed in 124 RA patients with no previous history of CV events: carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) assessed by carotid ultrasonography, carotid plaques assessed by carotid ultrasonography, and Coronary Artery Calcification Score (CACS) determined by multidetector computed tomography (CT) scanning. We analyzed the relationship of these 3 subclinical atherosclerosis markers to the presence and levels of autoantibodies, including anti-Cit-fibrinogen, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide 2 (anti-CCP-2), and rheumatoid factor (RF). RESULTS: Carotid plaques and CIMT >0.90 mm were present in 69.4% and 15.3%, of the patients, respectively, and the CACS was moderate or high in 21.0%. None of these surrogate markers of atherosclerosis showed a significant association with positivity for or the level of anti-Cit-fibrinogen antibodies (either against the whole protein [present in 33.9% of the patients] or against an immunodominant peptide [present in 23.4%]), anti-CCP-2 (present in 60.7%), or RF (present in 58.1%) in this series of patients with RA. CONCLUSION: Our results do not support the notion that there is a relationship between anti-Cit-fibrinogen antibodies and subclinical atherosclerosis in RA, thus calling into question the claim that these antibodies have a role in the increased risk of CV disease observed in patients with RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Aterosclerose/complicações , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Fibrinogênio/imunologia , Peptídeos Cíclicos/imunologia , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator Reumatoide/sangue
5.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 17: 63, 2015 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25885039

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We have hypothesized that incompatibility between the G1m genotype of the patient and the G1m1 and G1m17 allotypes carried by infliximab (INX) and adalimumab (ADM) could decrease the efficacy of these anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antibodies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The G1m genotypes were analyzed in three collections of patients with RA totaling 1037 subjects. The first, used for discovery, comprised 215 Spanish patients. The second and third were successively used for replication. They included 429 British and Greek patients and 393 Spanish and British patients, respectively. Two outcomes were considered: change in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joint (ΔDAS28) and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria. RESULTS: An association between less response to INX and incompatibility of the G1m1,17 allotype was found in the discovery collection at 6 months of treatment (P = 0.03). This association was confirmed in the replications (P = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively) leading to a global association (P = 0.001) that involved a mean difference in ΔDAS28 of 0.4 units between compatible and incompatible patients (2.3 ± 1.5 in compatible patients vs. 1.9 ± 1.5 in incompatible patients) and an increase in responders and decrease in non-responders according to the EULAR criteria (P = 0.03). A similar association was suggested for patients treated with ADM in the discovery collection, but it was not supported by replication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that G1m1,17 allotypes are associated with response to INX and could aid improved therapeutic targeting in RA.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Infliximab/genética , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Alótipos de Imunoglobulina , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
6.
Pharmacogenomics ; 16(4): 333-45, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25823782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Reproducible association of a functional polymorphism in FCGR2A with response to a TNF inhibitor (TNFi) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) led us to explore other FcγR functional polymorphisms. METHODS: Functional polymorphisms FCGR3A F158V, FCGR2B I223T and promoter VNTR in FCGRT were analyzed in up to 429 patients with RA. Response to TNFi was recorded during standard care at 3, 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Fixed effects meta-analysis of studies addressing FCGR3A F158V polymorphism, which is the most studied of these polymorphisms, was conducted with inverse variance weighting. RESULTS: None of the functional polymorphisms were associated with change in DAS28. Meta-analysis of the seven studies (899 patients) with available data addressing association of FCGR3A F158V with response to TNFi in RA showed no association (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.8-1.5; p = 0.5). CONCLUSION: None of the three functional polymorphisms in FcγR genes showed association with response to TNFi in patients with RA. These negative results were obtained in spite of the larger size of this study relative to previous studies addressing the same polymorphisms. In addition, meta-analysis of FCGR3A F158V was also negative against the results provided by previous studies. Original submitted 17 September 2014; Revision submitted 9 December 2014.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Receptores Fc/genética , Receptores de IgG/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
7.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 16(4): 414, 2014 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25138370

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genetic susceptibility to complex diseases has been intensively studied during the last decade, yet only signals with small effect have been found leaving open the possibility that subgroups within complex traits show stronger association signals. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), autoantibody production serves as a helpful discriminator in genetic studies and today anti-citrullinated cyclic peptide (anti-CCP) antibody positivity is employed for diagnosis of disease. The HLA-DRB1 locus is known as the most important genetic contributor for the risk of RA, but is not sufficient to drive autoimmunity and additional genetic and environmental factors are involved. Hence, we addressed the association of previously discovered RA loci with disease-specific autoantibody responses in RA patients stratified by HLA-DRB1*04. METHODS: We investigated 2178 patients from three RA cohorts from Sweden and Spain for 41 genetic variants and four autoantibodies, including the generic anti-CCP as well as specific responses towards citrullinated peptides from vimentin, alpha-enolase and type II collagen. RESULTS: Our data demonstrated different genetic associations of autoantibody-positive disease subgroups in relation to the presence of DRB1*04. Two specific subgroups of autoantibody-positive RA were identified. The SNP in PTPN22 was associated with presence of anti-citrullinated enolase peptide antibodies in carriers of HLA-DRB1*04 (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test P = 0.0001, P corrected <0.05), whereas SNPs in CDK6 and PADI4 were associated with anti-CCP status in DRB1*04 negative patients (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test P = 0.0004, P corrected <0.05 for both markers). Additionally we see allelic correlation with autoantibody titers for PTPN22 SNP rs2476601 and anti-citrullinated enolase peptide antibodies in carriers of HLA-DRB1*04 (Mann Whitney test P = 0.02) and between CDK6 SNP rs42041 and anti-CCP in non-carriers of HLA-DRB1*04 (Mann Whitney test P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: These data point to alternative pathways for disease development in clinically similar RA subgroups and suggest an approach for study of genetic complexity of disease with strong contribution of HLA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hidrolases/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Genótipo , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/imunologia , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas
8.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 24(5): 238-45, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24667440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess a functional polymorphism in FCGR2A H131R, for association with the treatment response to Fc-containing inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). METHODS: A total of 429 biologic-naive patients with rheumatoid arthritis collected in two sets (299 and 130) were treated during standard care with infliximab (INX), etanercept, or adalimumab. Response to the treatment was evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up as the change in the Disease Activity Score (DAS) 28 from baseline and as the response by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria. These variables were analyzed for association with linear and logistic regression models that included sex, inhibitors of TNF, and baseline DAS28 as covariates. RESULTS: Significant association was found between the FCGR2A H131R polymorphism and the response to treatment with INX, but not with the other two TNF inhibitors. The 131R allele was associated with a lower change in DAS28 (P=0.04-0.008 at different times) in the first set of patients and confirmed in the second group of patients (P=0.026 at 3 months of follow-up). Association was also found in the comparison between nonresponders and responders to INX by the EULAR criteria. CONCLUSION: We found an association of the FCGR2A 131R allele with poor response to INX. This finding could be of utility to understand the mechanisms behind treatment failure and contribute to biomarker panels for INX response prediction.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Receptores de IgG/genética , Adalimumab , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infliximab , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
9.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 16(2): R66, 2014 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24612463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this study, our aim was to elucidate the role of four polymorphisms identified in a prior large genome-wide association study (GWAS) in which the investigators analyzed the responses of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi). The authors of that study reported that the four genetic variants were significantly associated. However, none of the associations reached GWAS significance, and two subsequent studies failed to replicate these associations. METHODS: The four polymorphisms (rs12081765, rs1532269, rs17301249 and rs7305646) were genotyped in a total of 634 TNFi-treated RA patients of Spanish Caucasian origin. Four outcomes were evaluated: changes in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) after 6 and 12 months of treatment and classification according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria at the same time points. Association with DAS28 changes was assessed by linear regression using an additive genetic model. Contingency tables of genotype and allele frequencies between EULAR responder and nonresponder patients were compared. In addition, we combined our data with those of previously reported studies in a meta-analysis including 2,998 RA patients. RESULTS: None of the four genetic variants showed an association with response to TNFi in any of the four outcomes analyzed in our Spanish patients. In addition, only rs1532269 yielded a suggestive association (P = 0.0033) with the response to TNFi when available data from previous studies were combined in the meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the rs12081765, rs1532269, rs17301249 and rs7305646 genetic variants do not have a role as genetic predictors of TNFi treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Arthritis Rheum ; 64(10): 3102-10, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22674012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the anti-citrullinated vimentin peptide 60-75 (anti-Cit-vimentin) and the immunodominant anti-citrullinated α-enolase peptide 1 (anti-CEP-1) antibodies are associated with subsets of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) independently of the associations between anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies and clinical features of RA. METHODS: The 3 antibody types were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum samples from 521 patients with RA and 173 healthy controls of Spanish ancestry. Genotypes for HLA-DRB1 alleles and rs2476601 in PTPN22 were available for these patients and controls plus an additional 106 healthy controls. A combined analysis of the 3 antibodies was conducted using stratified contingency tables and logistic regression models. RESULTS: A differential, particularly strong, and independent association was observed between the presence of anti-Cit-vimentin antibodies and the presence of shared epitope (SE) alleles, specifically in patients carrying 2 SE alleles, and between the presence of anti- Cit-vimentin antibodies and the prevalence of joint erosion. Associations were observed between anti-CEP-1 positivity and the presence of HLA-DRB1 and PTPN22 risk alleles and their additive interaction. These associations were not accounted for by the anti-CCP status. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the 2 antibodies against citrullinated peptides analyzed in this study add specific information beyond that obtained with the anti-CCP status. They define subgroups of patients with RA in which genetic factors have different weight and there is an observed difference in the prevalence of erosions.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Peptídeos Cíclicos/imunologia , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/imunologia , Vimentina/imunologia , Adulto , Alelos , Anticorpos/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Progressão da Doença , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/genética , Vimentina/genética
12.
Arthritis Rheum ; 63(3): 654-61, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21360494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To confirm that the presence of anti-citrullinated α-enolase peptide 1 (anti-CEP-1) antibodies identifies a subgroup of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: DNA and serum samples were obtained from 451 patients with RA and 279 healthy control subjects, all of whom were of Spanish ancestry. Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) and CEP-1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA-DRB1 and the R620W single-nucleotide polymorphism of PTPN22 were genotyped. RESULTS: Anti-CEP-1 and anti-CCP antibodies were observed in 26.8% and 71.2% of the patients with RA, respectively. Most of the patients (86.6%) with anti-CEP-1 antibodies also had anti-CCP antibodies. Erosive arthritis, rheumatoid factor (RF) positivity, and the presence of the HLA shared epitope (especially the DRB1*04 alleles) were disproportionately associated with the group of patients with both antibodies. In addition, evidence of a significant interaction between the shared epitope and the risk allele of PTPN22 was observed only in these patients. In contrast, the association with these clinical and genetic features was weaker in patients with anti-CCP antibodies but lacking anti-CEP-1 antibodies. These results were obtained in patients in whom the prevalence of RA risk factors differed from that in other previously studied patients. CONCLUSION: We observed that autoimmunity against citrullinated α-enolase may identify a subset of patients with a higher frequency of joint erosions and RF positivity. In addition, we confirmed the disproportionately large effect of the susceptibility alleles of HLA-DRB1 and their interaction with PTPN22 in this subset of patients. These results extend, confirm, and generalize the evidence supporting the specificity of the anti-CEP-1 antibody-positive subgroup of patients with RA among anti-CCP antibody-positive patients with RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/imunologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/imunologia , Idoso , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos Cíclicos/genética , Peptídeos Cíclicos/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/imunologia , Prevalência , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 26(1): 91-108, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19038557

RESUMO

To investigate the immunological responses of turbot to nodavirus infection or pIC stimulation, we constructed cDNA libraries from liver, kidney and gill tissues of nodavirus-infected fish and examined the differential gene expression within turbot kidney in response to nodavirus infection or pIC stimulation using a turbot cDNA microarray. Turbot were experimentally infected with nodavirus and samples of each tissue were collected at selected time points post-infection. Using equal amount of total RNA at each sampling time, we made three tissue-specific cDNA libraries. After sequencing 3230 clones we obtained 3173 (98.2%) high quality sequences from our liver, kidney and gill libraries. Of these 2568 (80.9%) were identified as known genes and 605 (19.1%) as unknown genes. A total of 768 unique genes were identified. The two largest groups resulting from the classification of ESTs according to function were the cell/organism defense genes (71 uni-genes) and apoptosis-related process (23 uni-genes). Using these clones, a 1920 element cDNA microarray was constructed and used to investigate the differential gene expression within turbot in response to experimental nodavirus infection or pIC stimulation. Kidney tissue was collected at selected times post-infection (HPI) or stimulation (HPS), and total RNA was isolated for microarray analysis. Of the 1920 genes studied on the microarray, we identified a total of 121 differentially expressed genes in the kidney: 94 genes from nodavirus-infected animals and 79 genes from those stimulated with pIC. Within the nodavirus-infected fish we observed the highest number of differentially expressed genes at 24 HPI. Our results indicate that certain genes in turbot have important roles in immune responses to nodavirus infection and dsRNA stimulation.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Linguados/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nodaviridae/fisiologia , Polinucleotídeos/farmacologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Animais , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Linguados/virologia , Brânquias/imunologia , Rim/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/imunologia
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