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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e049128, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure and explain financial toxicity (FT) of cancer in Italy, where a public healthcare system exists and patients with cancer are not expected (or only marginally) to pay out-of-pocket for healthcare. SETTING: Ten clinical oncological centres, distributed across Italian macroregions (North, Centre, South and Islands), including hospitals, university hospitals and national research institutes. PARTICIPANTS: From 8 October 2019 to 11 December 2019, 184 patients, aged 18 or more, who were receiving or had received within the previous 3 months active anticancer treatment were enrolled, 108 (59%) females and 76 (41%) males. INTERVENTION: A 30-item prefinal questionnaire, previously developed within the qualitative tasks of the project, was administered, either electronically (n=115) or by paper sheet (n=69). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: According to the protocol and the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research methodology, the final questionnaire was developed by mean of explanatory factor analysis and tested for reliability, internal consistency (Cronbach's α test and item-total correlation) and stability of measurements over time (test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient and weighted Cohen's kappa coefficient). RESULTS: After exploratory factor analysis, a score measuring FT (FT score) was identified, made by seven items dealing with outcomes of FT. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the FT score was 0.87 and the item-total correlation coefficients ranged from 0.53 to 0.74. Further, nine single items representing possible determinants of FT were also retained in the final instrument. Test-retest analysis revealed a good internal validity of the FT score and of the 16 items retained in the final questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The Patient-Reported Outcome for Fighting FInancial Toxicity (PROFFIT) instrument consists of 16 items and is the first reported instrument to assess FT of cancer developed in a country with a fully public healthcare system. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03473379.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439967

RESUMO

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, "SARS-CoV-2", was recognized as the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several studies have explored the changes and the role of inflammatory cells and cytokines in the immunopathogenesis of the disease, but until today, the results have been controversial. Based on these premises, we conducted a retrospective assessment of monocyte intracellular TNF-α expression (iTNF-α) and on the frequencies of lymphocyte sub-populations in twenty-five patients with moderate/severe COVID-19. We found lymphopenia in all COVID-19 infected subjects compared to healthy subjects. On initial observation, in patients with favorable outcomes, we detected a high absolute eosinophil count and a high CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes ratio, while in the Exitus Group, we observed high neutrophil and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts. During infection, in patients with favorable outcomes, we observed a rise in the lymphocyte count, in the monocyte and in Treg lymphocyte counts, and in the CD4+ and in CD8+ T lymphocytes count but a reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio. Instead, in the Exitus Group, we observed a reduction in the Treg lymphocyte counts and a decrease in iTNF-α expression. Our preliminary findings point to a modulation of the different cellular mediators of the immune system, which probably play a key role in the outcomes of COVID-19.

4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, no robust data supported the efficacy, safety and recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: The prospective multicenter observational INfluenza Vaccine Indication During therapy with Immune checkpoint inhibitors (INVIDIa-2) study investigated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving ICIs, enrolled in 82 Italian centers from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the time-adjusted incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until April 30, 2020. Secondary endpoints regarded ILI severity and vaccine safety. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1279 patients; 1188 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. Of them, 48.9% (581) received influenza vaccination. The overall ILI incidence was 8.2% (98 patients). Vaccinated patients were significantly more frequently elderly (p<0.0001), males (p=0.004), with poor European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p=0.009), affected by lung cancer (p=0.01), and by other non-cancer comorbidities (p<0.0001) when compared with unvaccinated. ILI incidence was not different basing on influenza vaccination: the time-to-ILI was similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (p=0.62). ILI complications were significantly less frequent for patients receiving the vaccination (11.8% vs 38.3% in unvaccinated, p=0.002). ILI-related intravenous therapies were significantly less frequent in vaccinated patients than in unvaccinated (11.8% vs 29.8%, p=0.027). ILI lethality was, respectively, 0% in vaccinated and 4.3% in unvaccinated patients. Vaccine-related adverse events were rare and mild (1.5%, grades 1-2). CONCLUSION: The INVIDIa-2 study results support a positive recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving immunotherapy.

5.
Eur Radiol ; 31(10): 7363-7370, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Increasing evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection may lead to severe and multi-site vascular involvement. Our study aimed at assessing the frequency of vascular and extravascular events' distribution in a retrospective cohort of 42 COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Patients were evaluated by whole-body CT angiography between March 16 and April 30, 2020. Twenty-three out of the 42 patients evaluated were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Vascular and extravascular findings were categorized into "relevant" or "other/incidental," first referring to the need for immediate patient care and management. Student T-test, Mann-Whitney U test, or Fisher exact test was used to compare study groups, where appropriate. RESULTS: Relevant vascular events were recorded in 71.4% of cases (n = 30). Pulmonary embolism was the most frequent in both ICU and non-ICU cases (56.5% vs. 10.5%, p = 0.002). Ischemic infarctions at several sites such as the gut, spleen, liver, brain, and kidney were detected (n = 20), with multi-site involvement in some cases. Systemic venous thrombosis occurred in 30.9% of cases compared to 7.1% of systemic arterial events, the first being significantly higher in ICU patients (p = 0.002). Among incidental findings, small-sized splanchnic arterial aneurysms were reported in 21.4% of the study population, with no significant differences in ICU and non-ICU patients. CONCLUSIONS: Vascular involvement is not negligible in COVID-19 and should be carefully investigated as it may significantly affect disease behavior and prognosis. KEY POINTS: • Relevant vascular events were recorded in 71.4% of the study population, with pulmonary embolism being the most frequent event in ICU and non-ICU cases. • Apart from the lung, other organs such as the gut, spleen, liver, brain, and kidneys were involved with episodes of ischemic infarction. Systemic venous and arterial thrombosis occurred in 30.9% and 7.1% of cases, respectively, with venous events being significantly higher in ICU patients (p = 0.002). • Among incidental findings, small-sized splanchnic arterial aneurysms were reported in 21.4% of the whole population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Embolia Pulmonar , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 148: 190-201, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidines as adjuvant therapy in older patients with stage III colon cancer (CC) produced conflicting results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We assessed the impact of age on time to tumour recurrence (TTR), disease-free survival (DFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) in 2360 patients with stage III CC (1667 aged <70 years and 693 ≥ 70 years) randomised to receive 3 or 6 months of FOLFOX or CAPOX within the frame of the phase III, TOSCA study. RESULTS: Older patients compared with younger ones presented more frequently an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status equal to 1 (10.5% vs 3.3%, p < 0.001), a greater number of right-sided tumours (40.9% vs 26.6%, p < 0.001), and were at higher clinical risk (37.2% vs 33.2%, p = 0.062). The treatments were almost identical in the two cohorts (p = 0.965). We found a greater proportion of dose reductions (46.7% vs 41.4%, p = 0.018), treatment interruptions (26.1% vs 19.3%, p < 0.001) and a higher proportion of recurrences (24.2% vs 20.3%, p = 0.033) in the older patients. The multivariable analysis of the TTR did not indicate a statistically significant effect of age (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-1.44; p = 0.082). The HR comparing older with younger patients was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.12-1.59; p = 0.001) for DFS, 1.58 (95% CI: 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) for OS, and 1.28 (95% CI: 0.96-1.70; p = 0.089) for CSS. CONCLUSIONS: Worse prognostic factors and reduced treatment compliance have a negative impact on the efficacy of oxaliplatin-based adjuvant therapy in older patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(6): 3219-3233, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094357

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This paper illustrates a conceptual model for a new patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) aimed at measuring financial toxicity (FT) in oncological setting in Italy, where citizens are provided universal healthcare coverage. METHODS: Focus groups with overall 34 patients/caregivers in three different Italian centers (from Northern, Centre, and Southern Italy) and an open-ended survey with 97 medical oncologists were undertaken. Transcripts from focus groups and the open-ended survey were analyzed to identify themes and links between themes. Themes from the qualitative research were supplemented with those reported in the literature; concepts identified formed the basis for item development that were then tested through the importance analysis (with 45 patients) and the cognitive debriefing (with other 45 patients) to test relevance and comprehension of the first draft PRO instrument. RESULTS: Ten domains were extracted by analyzing 156 concepts generated from focus groups and the open-ended survey. After controlling for redundancy, 55 items were generated and tested through the importance analysis. After controlling comprehension and feasibility through cognitive debriefing interviews, a first version of the questionnaire consisting of 30 items was devised. CONCLUSIONS: This qualitative study represents the first part of a study conducted to develop a new PROM to assess FT in Italy, by using a bottom-up approach that makes the most of patients' experiences and the health system analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03473379 first posted on March 22, 2018.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/economia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Assistência de Saúde Universal , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920968463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224275

RESUMO

Background: This prospective, multicentre, observational INVIDIa-2 study is investigating the clinical efficacy of influenza vaccination in advanced-cancer patients receiving immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), enrolled in 82 Italian centres, from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until 30 April 2020. All the ILI episodes, laboratory tests, complications, hospitalizations and pneumonitis were recorded. Therefore, the study prospectively recorded all the COVID-19 ILI events. Patients and methods: Patients were included in this non-prespecified COVID-19 analysis, if alive on 31 January 2020, when the Italian government declared the national emergency. The prevalence of confirmed COVID-19 cases was detected as ILI episode with laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2. Cases with clinical-radiological diagnosis of COVID-19 (COVID-like ILIs), were also reported. Results: Out of 1257 enrolled patients, 955 matched the inclusion criteria for this unplanned analysis. From 31 January to 30 April 2020, 66 patients had ILI: 9 of 955 cases were confirmed COVID-19 ILIs, with prevalence of 0.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3-2.4], a hospitalization rate of 100% and a mortality rate of 77.8%. Including 5 COVID-like ILIs, the overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.5-3.1), with 100% hospitalization and 64% mortality. The presence of elderly, males and comorbidities was significantly higher among patients vaccinated against influenza versus unvaccinated (p = 0.009, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). Overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.2% for vaccinated (six of 482 cases, all confirmed) and 1.7% for unvaccinated (8 of 473, 3 confirmed COVID-19 and 5 COVID-like), p = 0.52. The difference remained non-significant, considering confirmed COVID-19 only (p = 0.33). Conclusion: COVID-19 has a meaningful clinical impact on the cancer-patient population receiving ICIs, with high prevalence, hospitalization and an alarming mortality rate among symptomatic cases. Influenza vaccination does not protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

10.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 405, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab blocks pro-inflammatory activity of interleukin-6 (IL-6), involved in pathogenesis of pneumonia the most frequent cause of death in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A multicenter, single-arm, hypothesis-driven trial was planned, according to a phase 2 design, to study the effect of tocilizumab on lethality rates at 14 and 30 days (co-primary endpoints, a priori expected rates being 20 and 35%, respectively). A further prospective cohort of patients, consecutively enrolled after the first cohort was accomplished, was used as a secondary validation dataset. The two cohorts were evaluated jointly in an exploratory multivariable logistic regression model to assess prognostic variables on survival. RESULTS: In the primary intention-to-treat (ITT) phase 2 population, 180/301 (59.8%) subjects received tocilizumab, and 67 deaths were observed overall. Lethality rates were equal to 18.4% (97.5% CI: 13.6-24.0, P = 0.52) and 22.4% (97.5% CI: 17.2-28.3, P < 0.001) at 14 and 30 days, respectively. Lethality rates were lower in the validation dataset, that included 920 patients. No signal of specific drug toxicity was reported. In the exploratory multivariable logistic regression analysis, older age and lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio negatively affected survival, while the concurrent use of steroids was associated with greater survival. A statistically significant interaction was found between tocilizumab and respiratory support, suggesting that tocilizumab might be more effective in patients not requiring mechanical respiratory support at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab reduced lethality rate at 30 days compared with null hypothesis, without significant toxicity. Possibly, this effect could be limited to patients not requiring mechanical respiratory support at baseline. Registration EudraCT (2020-001110-38); clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04317092).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Uso Off-Label , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
11.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed the health systems worldwide. Data regarding the impact of COVID-19 on cancer patients (CPs) undergoing or candidate for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are lacking. We depicted the practice and adaptations in the management of patients with solid tumors eligible or receiving ICIs during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a special focus on Campania region. METHODS: This survey (25 questions), promoted by the young section of SCITO (Società Campana di ImmunoTerapia Oncologica) Group, was circulated among Italian young oncologists practicing in regions variously affected by the pandemic: high (group 1), medium (group 2) and low (group 3) prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. For Campania region, the physician responders were split into those working in cancer centers (CC), university hospitals (UH) and general hospitals (GH). Percentages of agreement, among High (H) versus Medium (M) and versus Low (L) group for Italy and among CC, UH and GH for Campania region, were compared by using Fisher's exact tests for dichotomous answers and χ2 test for trends relative to the questions with 3 or more options. RESULTS: This is the first Italian study to investigate the COVID-19 impact on cancer immunotherapy, unique in its type and very clear in the results. The COVID-19 pandemic seemed not to affect the standard practice in the prescription and delivery of ICIs in Italy. Telemedicine was widely used. There was high consensus to interrupt immunotherapy in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients and to adopt ICIs with longer schedule interval. The majority of the responders tended not to delay the start of ICIs; there were no changes in supportive treatments, but some of the physicians opted for delaying surgeries (if part of patients' planned treatment approach). The results from responders in Campania did not differ significantly from the national ones. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the efforts of Italian oncologists to maintain high standards of care for CPs treated with ICIs, regardless the regional prevalence of COVID-19, suggesting the adoption of similar solutions. Research on patients treated with ICIs and experiencing COVID-19 will clarify the safety profile to continue the treatments, thus informing on the most appropriate clinical conducts.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Oncologia/normas , Neoplasias/imunologia , Oncologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento
12.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 98: 106165, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the most frequent complication of COVID-19, due to an aberrant host immune response that is associated with an acute respiratory distress syndrome, and, in most critical patients, with a "cytokine storm". IL-6 might play a key role in the cytokine storm and might be a potential target to treat severe and critical COVID-19. Tocilizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody, directed against IL-6 receptor. METHODS: This multicentre study project includes a single-arm phase 2 study and a further parallel cohort, enrolling hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and oxygen saturation at rest in ambient air ≤93% or requiring respiratory support. Patients receive tocilizumab 8 mg/kg (up to 800 mg) as one intravenous administration. A second administration (same dose) after 12 h is optional. Two-week and one-month lethality rates are the co-primary endpoints. Sample size planned for the phase 2 study is 330 patients. The parallel cohort will include patients who cannot enter the phase 2 study because being intubated from more than 24 h, or having already received tocilizumab, or the phase 2 study has reached sample size. Primary analysis will include patients enrolled in the phase 2 study. Results of the primary analysis will be validated in the prospective cohort of patients consecutively registered after phase 2 closure from March 20 to March 24, who were potentially eligible for the phase 2 study. CONCLUSION: This trial aims to verify the safety and efficacy of tocilizumab in the Italian population with COVID-19 pneumonia and respiratory impairment. EudraCT Number: 2020-001110-38; Clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT04317092.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , COVID-19 , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Pneumonia Viral , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inflammatory pathology observed in severe COVID-19 disease caused by the 2019 novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by elevated serum levels of C reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines, including interferon gamma, interleukin 8 (IL-8), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Initial reports from the outbreak in Italy, China and the USA have provided anecdotal evidence of improved outcomes with the administration of anti-IL-6 agents, and large-scale trials evaluating these therapies are ongoing. STUDY DESCRIPTION: In this retrospective case series, clinical outcomes and correlates of response to treatment with the IL-6 receptor antagonist sarilumab are described for 15 patients with COVID-19 from a single institution in Southern Italy. Among 10 patients whose symptoms improved after sarilumab treatment, rapid decreases in CRP levels corresponded with clinical improvement. Lower levels of IL-6 at baseline as well as lower neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio as compared with patients whose COVID-19 did not improve with treatment were associated with sarilumab-responsive disease. CONCLUSIONS: This observation may reflect a possible clinical benefit regarding early intervention with IL-6-modulatory therapies for COVID-19 and that CRP could be a potential biomarker of response to treatment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-6/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Front Oncol ; 10: 594, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32411599

RESUMO

Purpose: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) interventions are widely used by patients with chronic disorders, including cancer, and may interact with cancer treatment. Physicians are often unaware of this, probably due to poor patient-physician communication on CAM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate physicians' knowledge, attitudes and practice patterns regarding CAM in a survey conducted in Italy. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 438 physicians (11 Italian hospitals) who predominantly treat patients with chronic disease, to collect personal and professional data and information on attitudes toward CAM and its possible role in Conventional Medicine (CM). Results: Of the 438 participants, most were specialists in oncology (18%), internal medicine (17%), surgery (15%), and radiotherapy (11%). Most worked at university (44%) or research hospitals (31%). Forty-two percent of participants believed that CAM could have an integrative role within CM. Oncologists were the physicians who were best informed on CAM (58%). Physicians working at research institutes or university hospitals had a greater knowledge of CAM than those employed at general hospitals (p < 0.0001), and those who were also involved in research activity had a greater knowledge of CAM than those who were not (p < 0.003). Length of work experience was significantly related to CAM knowledge. Moreover, 55% of participants suggest CAM interventions to their patients and 44% discuss CAM with them. The best-known interventions were acupuncture, Aloe vera and high-dose vitamin C. Conclusion: CAM use by patients with chronic disease and/or cancer has become a topical issue for the scientific community and for physicians. Knowing the reasons that prompt these patients to use CAM and guiding them in their decisions would improve treatment and outcomes and also benefit healthcare systems. Our findings contribute to a greater understanding of CAM knowledge, attitudes, and practice among Italian physicians. Further research is needed to identify the more effective CAM treatments and to work toward an integrated healthcare model.

15.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385146

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has placed an unprecedented burden on healthcare systems around the world. In patients who experience severe disease, acute respiratory distress is often accompanied by a pathological immune reaction, sometimes referred to as 'cytokine storm'. One hallmark feature of the profound inflammatory state seen in patients with COVID-19 who succumb to pneumonia and hypoxia is marked elevation of serum cytokines, especially interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 17 (IL-17), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Initial experience from the outbreaks in Italy, China and the USA has anecdotally demonstrated improved outcomes for critically ill patients with COVID-19 with the administration of cytokine-modulatory therapies, especially anti-IL-6 agents. Although ongoing trials are investigating anti-IL-6 therapies, access to these therapies is a concern, especially as the numbers of cases worldwide continue to climb. An immunology-informed approach may help identify alternative agents to modulate the pathological inflammation seen in patients with COVID-19. Drawing on extensive experience administering these and other immune-modulating therapies, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer offers this perspective on potential alternatives to anti-IL-6 that may also warrant consideration for management of the systemic inflammatory response and pulmonary compromise that can be seen in patients with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Transferência Adotiva , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon gama/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-23/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/antagonistas & inibidores , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
16.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 17-23, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311643

RESUMO

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 pandemic is a global health problem, which started to affect China by the end of 2019. In Europe, Italy has faced this novel disease entity (named novel coronavirus disease [COVID-19]) first and severely. COVID-19 represents a significant hurdle for public health services and a potential harm for patients with cancer. The Collegio Italiano dei Primari Oncologi Medici (CIPOMO) is an Italian association of head physicians in oncology departments, which promotes working and research activities in oncology on a national basis. In the midst of the epidemic in Italy, the CIPOMO promoted a national survey aiming to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on clinical activity of oncologists and the implementation of containment measures of COVID-19 diffusion. Overall, 122 head physicians participated in this survey, with a homogeneous distribution on the national territory. Results show that the following measures for oncologic patients have been promptly implemented through the whole country: use of protective devices, triage of patients accessing the hospital, delay of non-urgent visits and use of telemedicine. Results of this survey suggest that Italian oncology departments have promptly set a proactive approach to the actual emergency. Oncologists need to preserve the continuum of care of patients, as the benefit of ensuring a well-delivered anti-cancer treatment plan outweighs the risk of COVID-19 infection. International cooperation is an important starting point, as heavily affected nations can serve as an example to find out ways to safely preserve health activity during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oncologia/organização & administração , Neoplasias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19 , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 232, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NEPA is an oral fixed-dose combination of netupitant, a new highly selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, and palonosetron. This study was conducted to evaluate whether the efficacy of NEPA against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in cycle 1 would be maintained over subsequent chemotherapy cycles in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide (AC). The study also describes the relationship between efficacy on day 1 through 5 (overall period) and control of CINV on day 6 through 21 (very late period) in each cycle. METHODS: In this multicentre, phase II study, patients received both NEPA and dexamethasone (12 mg intravenously) just before chemotherapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was overall complete response (CR; no emesis and no rescue medication use) in cycle 1. Sustained efficacy was evaluated during the subsequent cycles by calculating the rate of CR in cycles 2-4 and by assessing the probability of sustained CR over multiple cycles. The impact of both overall CR and risk factors for CINV on the control of very late events (vomiting and moderate-to-severe nausea) were also examined. RESULTS: Of the 149 patients enrolled in the study, 139 were evaluable for a total of 552 cycles; 97.8% completed all 4 cycles. The proportion of patients with an overall CR was 70.5% (90% CI, 64.1 to 76.9) in cycle 1, and this was maintained in subsequent cycles. The cumulative percentage of patients with a sustained CR over 4 cycles was 53%. NEPA was well tolerated across cycles. In each cycle, patients with CR experienced a significantly better control of very late CINV events than those who experienced no CR. Among the patients with CR, the only predictor for increased likelihood of developing very late CINV was pre-chemotherapy (anticipatory) nausea (adjusted odds ratio = 0.65-0.50 for no CINV events on cycles 3 and 4). CONCLUSION: The high anti-emetic efficacy seen with the NEPA regimen in the first cycle was maintained over multiple cycles of adjuvant AC for breast cancer. Preliminary evidence also suggests that patients achieving a CR during the overall period gain high protection even against very late CINV events in each chemotherapy cycle. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was retrospectively registered at Clinicaltrials.gov identifier (NCT03862144) on 05/Mar/2019.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Neurocinina-1/uso terapêutico , Palonossetrom/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Neurocinina-1/administração & dosagem , Palonossetrom/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem
19.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e031485, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501130

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Financial toxicity (FT) is a well-recognised problem in oncology. US-based studies have shown that: (a) cancer patients have a 2.7 times risk of bankruptcy; (b) patients who declare bankruptcy have a 79% greater hazard of death; (c) financial burden significantly impairs quality of life (QoL) and (d) reduces compliance and adherence to treatment prescriptions. The aim of the project is to develop and validate a patient-reported-outcome (PRO) measure to assess FT of cancer patients in Italy, where, despite the universal health coverage provided by the National Health Service, FT is an emerging issue. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Our hypothesis is that a specific FT measure, which considers the relevant sociocultural context and healthcare system, would allow us to understand the main determinants of cancer-related FT in Italy, in order to address and reduce these factors. According to the International Society for Pharmaco-economics and Outcomes Research guidelines on PROs, the project will include the following steps: (1) concept elicitation (from focus groups with patients and caregivers; literature; oncologists; nurses) and analysis, creating a coding library; (2) item generation (using a format that includes a question and a response on a 4-point Likert scale) and analysis through patients' cognitive interviews of item importance within different coding categories to produce the draft instrument; (3) factor analysis and internal validation (with Cronbach's alpha and test-retest for reliability) to produce the final instrument; (4) external validation with QoL anchors and depression scales. The use of the FT measure in prospective trials is also planned. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol is approved by the ethical committees of all the participating centres. The project will tentatively produce a validated tool by the spring 2021. The project might also represent a model and the basis for future cooperation with other European countries, with different healthcare systems and socioeconomic conditions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03473379.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico/economia , Neoplasias/economia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
ESMO Open ; 4(4): e000519, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555481

RESUMO

Background: In patients with RAS wild-type (WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), the role of maintenance therapy after first-line treatment with chemotherapy plus antiepidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) is still an object of debate. Methods: We assessed the efficacy and safety of regorafenib as a switch maintenance strategy after upfront 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy plus an anti-EGFR MoAb in patients with RAS WT mCRC. RAVELLO was a phase III, international, double-blind, placebo-controlled, academic trial. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival and toxicity. Regorafenib or placebo were administered daily for 3 weeks of 4-week cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity, up to 24 months. Results: The study was stopped prematurely due to slow accrual and lack of funding after the randomisation of 21 patients: 11 in the regorafenib arm and 10 in the placebo arm. The small sample size precludes any statistical analysis. Toxicity was acceptable and consistent with the known regorafenib safety profile. Median PFS was similar in the two arms. However, a subgroup of patients treated with regorafenib experienced a remarkably long PFS. Three patients were progression free at 9 months in the regorafenib arm versus one patient in the placebo arm, whereas at 12 months two regorafenib-treated patients were still progression free versus none in the placebo arm. Conclusion: RAVELLO trial demonstrated that growing financial and bureaucratic hurdles affect the feasibility of independent academic research. Although stopped prematurely and within the limited sample size, RAVELLO suggests that regorafenib has not a major activity in maintenance setting after upfront chemotherapy and anti-EGFR MoAb. However, a subgroup of patients experienced a remarkable long PFS, indicating that a better refinement of the patient population would help to identify subjects that might benefit from a regorafenib personalised approach in the switch maintenance setting.

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