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1.
Psychosom Med ; 82(7): 658-668, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are pronounced racial and socioeconomic disparities in type 2 diabetes. Although "stress" as a general phenomenon is hypothesized to contribute to these disparities, few studies have objective measures of stress reactivity in diverse samples to test hypotheses about purported mechanisms. This study describes the rationale and baseline characteristics of a cohort designed to address the question: how does stress contribute to disparities in diabetes risk? METHODS: The Richmond Stress and Sugar Study recruited 125 adults at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes using a two-by-two sampling frame wherein non-Hispanic whites and African Americans (AAs) were each recruited from neighborhoods of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES). Stress reactivity was assessed using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and salivary cortisol. Analyses of variance and multilevel modeling were used to examine how stress reactivity varied both within and across race and neighborhood SES. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 57.4 (7.3) years, 49% were female, 54% were AA or another racial/ethnic minority, and mean hemoglobin A1c level was in the prediabetes range (5.8%; range, 5.50%-5.93%). Living in a lower-SES neighborhood was associated with 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.04 to 34) higher pre-TSST cortisol, 8.4% (95% CI = -14 to -3) shallower increase in response to the TSST, and 1% (95% CI = 0.3 to 1.7) steeper decline post-TSST than living in the higher neighborhood SES. Post-TSST cortisol decline was 3% greater among AA compared with non-Hispanic whites. Race-by-SES interaction terms were generally small and nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: SES is associated with stress reactivity among adults at high risk of diabetes.

2.
Diabetes Educ ; 46(2): 169-180, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129157

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing participant engagement in a community-based diabetes self-management program (DSMP), with a focus on the needs of underserved groups (eg, racial/ethnic minorities, low income). METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with participants (n = 22) from the YMCA of Greater Richmond's Diabetes Control Program, who were recruited using a purposeful sampling frame to capture a range of experiences. In-depth interviews were conducted with lay health coaches (n = 3). The RADaR qualitative analysis technique was used to identify themes related to factors across the continuum of engagement. RESULTS: Fear affected program enrollment and retention in complex ways. Peers and coaches were important for social support and accountability. The length of the program (12 weeks), accessible information, practical skill building, and emphasis on making small, feasible improvements in pursuit of larger goals were identified as critical for engagement and improving diabetes self-management. Health and outside obligations were the major barriers to program attendance. CONCLUSIONS: Participant and coach perspectives provide important insight into existing strengths of community-based DSMPs that can be expanded on to promote engagement as well as potential opportunities for improvement. Actionable recommendations for increasing engagement of underserved groups in community-based DSMPs are provided.

4.
Soc Sci Med ; : 112160, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family history (FH) is an underutilized genetically informative tool that can influence disease prevention and treatment. It is unclear how FH fits into the development of community-based health education. This study examines the role that FH plays in perceived threat and health education related to mental and chronic physical conditions in the context of the health belief model. METHODS: Data were collected from 1,048 adult participants aged 18-90 years. Approximately 76% of participants indicated African-American race/ethnicity and 35% had less than high school level education. Self-report data were collected on FH of four disorders: anxiety, depression, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Interest in receiving information regarding prevention as well as future testing efforts was assessed broadly. A series of logistic regressions examined the association between FH for each of the disorders and interest in receiving information on (1) prevention of diseases in general and (2) testing for diseases in general. These associations were also analyzed after accounting for the influence of perceived threat of conditions. RESULTS: Interest in receiving general health education was significantly associated with FH of depression (OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.74-4.25), anxiety (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.45-3.22), and high blood pressure (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.05-6.12). After adjustment for perceived threat, the magnitude of these associations was reduced substantially. The associations between perceived threat and either interest in receiving information on disease testing or receiving general health education were strong and significant across all conditions (OR = 2.11-3.74). DISCUSSION: These results provide evidence that perceived threat mediates the association between FH and engagement with health education. Currently available health education programs may benefit from considering the role of FH in an individual's motivation for participation in health education activities alongside other factors.

5.
Diabetes Educ ; 44(4): 383-394, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29944067

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe how a community-academic partnership developed and implemented a shared goal of evaluating the impact of a large community-based diabetes self-management program on diabetes care and mental health outcomes. Methods Data came from the YMCA of Greater Richmond Diabetes Control Program (DCP), a 12-week, group-format self-management program led by lay health coaches. Adults with type 2 diabetes (N = 312) completed baseline assessments of sociodemographic characteristics, diabetes history, and mental health. Four outcomes were assessed pre- and post-DCP on 141 participants who completed the program: hemoglobin A1C (A1C), weight, depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-8), and glucose monitoring. The team worked with a Community Advisory Board throughout the research process. Results The DCP had wide geographic reach, including lower-income neighborhoods. The average age of the participants was 53.9 years, 71.4% were female, and 69% were African American. During the DCP, A1C declined from 8.4% to 7.6% (P < .001), but weight was unchanged (229.2 vs 227.9, P < .282). During the DCP, the proportion of participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms declined from 32.4% to 15.5% (P < .001), and frequency of glucose monitoring significantly increased. Conclusions The YMCA of Greater Richmond DCP has wide reach into underserved populations throughout the metropolitan area. This program is effective at improving diabetes self-management and mental health. Findings have implications for supporting academic-community partnerships to address diabetes disparities.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Autogestão/métodos , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Automonitorização da Glicemia/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Virginia/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
6.
J Neurosurg ; 129(2): 366-382, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28937324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the primary modality for treating brain metastases. However, effective radiosurgical control of brain metastases ≥ 2 cm in maximum diameter remains challenging and is associated with suboptimal local control (LC) rates of 37%-62% and an increased risk of treatment-related toxicity. To enhance LC while limiting adverse effects (AEs) of radiation in these patients, a dose-dense treatment regimen using 2-staged SRS (2-SSRS) was used. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of this treatment strategy. METHODS Fifty-four patients (with 63 brain metastases ≥ 2 cm) treated with 2-SSRS were evaluated as part of an institutional review board-approved retrospective review. Volumetric measurements at first-stage stereotactic radiosurgery (first SSRS) and second-stage SRS (second SSRS) treatments and on follow-up imaging studies were determined. In addition to patient demographic data and tumor characteristics, the study evaluated 3 primary outcomes: 1) response at first follow-up MRI, 2) time to local progression (TTP), and 3) overall survival (OS) with 2-SSRS. Response was analyzed using methods for binary data, TTP was analyzed using competing-risks methods to account for patients who died without disease progression, and OS was analyzed using conventional time-to-event methods. When needed, analyses accounted for multiple lesions in the same patient. RESULTS Among 54 patients, 46 (85%) had 1 brain metastasis treated with 2-SSRS, 7 patients (13%) had 2 brain metastases concurrently treated with 2-SSRS, and 1 patient underwent 2-SSRS for 3 concurrent brain metastases ≥ 2 cm. The median age was 63 years (range 23-83 years), 23 patients (43%) had non-small cell lung cancer, and 14 patients (26%) had radioresistant tumors (renal or melanoma). The median doses at first and second SSRS were 15 Gy (range 12-18 Gy) and 15 Gy (range 12-15 Gy), respectively. The median duration between stages was 34 days, and median tumor volumes at the first and second SSRS were 10.5 cm3 (range 2.4-31.3 cm3) and 7.0 cm3 (range 1.0-29.7 cm3). Three-month follow-up imaging results were available for 43 lesions; the median volume was 4.0 cm3 (range 0.1-23.1 cm3). The median change in volume compared with baseline was a decrease of 54.9% (range -98.2% to 66.1%; p < 0.001). Overall, 9 lesions (14.3%) demonstrated local progression, with a median of 5.2 months (range 1.3-7.4 months), and 7 (11.1%) demonstrated AEs (6.4% Grade 1 and 2 toxicity; 4.8% Grade 3). The estimated cumulative incidence of local progression at 6 months was 12% ± 4%, corresponding to an LC rate of 88%. Shorter TTP was associated with greater tumor volume at baseline (p = 0.01) and smaller absolute (p = 0.006) and relative (p = 0.05) decreases in tumor volume from baseline to second SSRS. Estimated OS rates at 6 and 12 months were 65% ± 7% and 49% ± 8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS 2-SSRS is an effective treatment modality that resulted in significant reduction of brain metastases ≥ 2 cm, with excellent 3-month (95%) and 6-month (88%) LC rates and an overall AE rate of 11%. Prospective studies with larger cohorts and longer follow-up are necessary to assess the durability and toxicities of 2-SSRS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
7.
Neurosurgery ; 83(5): 1007-1014, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glomus jugulare tumors (GJTs) are rare benign tumors, which pose significant treatment challenges due to proximity to critical structures. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term clinical and radiological outcome in patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for GJTs through retrospective study. METHODS: Forty-two patients with 43 GJTs were treated using Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS; Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) at our institute from 1997 to 2016. Clinical, imaging, and radiosurgery data were collected from an institutional review board approved database. RESULTS: Most patients were females (n = 35, 83.3%) and median age was 61 yr (range 23-88 yr). Median tumor volume and diameter were 5 cc and 3 cm, respectively, with a median follow-up of 62.3 mo (3.4-218.6 mo). Overall, 20 patients (47.6%) improved clinically and 14 (33.3%) remained unchanged at last follow-up. New onset or worsening of hearing loss was noted in 6 patients (17.2%) after SRS. The median prescription dose to the tumor margin was 15 Gy (12-18 Gy). Median reduction in tumor volume and maximum tumor diameter at last follow-up was 33.3% and 11.54%, respectively. The 5-yr and 10-yr tumor control rates were 87% ± 6% and 69% ± 13%, respectively. There was no correlation between maximum or mean dose to the internal acoustic canal and post-GK hearing loss (P > .05). CONCLUSION: SRS is safe and effective in patients with GJTs and results in durable, long-term control. SRS has lower morbidity than that associated with surgical resection, particularly lower cranial nerve dysfunction, and can be a first-line management option in these patients.


Assuntos
Tumor do Glomo Jugular/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Diabetes Educ ; 43(3): 260-271, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28436293

RESUMO

Purpose While both food insecurity and depression have been linked to risk of type 2 diabetes, little is known about the relationship between food insecurity and depression among adults with diabetes. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2014), a nationally representative, population-based survey. Analytic sample was limited to adults aged ≥20 with diabetes determined by either fasting plasma glucose (≥126 mg/dL) or self-report (n = 1724) and adults age ≥20 with prediabetes determined by fasting plasma glucose (100-125 mg/dL) or self-report (n = 2004). Food insecurity was measured using the US Food Security Survey Module. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between food insecurity and depression while accounting for sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors. Results Approximately 10% of individuals with diabetes and 8.5% of individuals with prediabetes had severe food insecurity in the past year; an additional 20.3% of individuals with diabetes and 14.3% of those with prediabetes had mild food insecurity. Among individuals with diabetes, both mild and severe food insecurity were associated with elevated odds of depression These relationships were similar in magnitude among individuals with prediabetes. Conclusions Food insecurity is significantly associated with depressive symptoms in people with diabetes and prediabetes. Results point to the need to address economic issues in conjunction with psychosocial issues for comprehensive diabetes care.


Assuntos
Depressão/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Pobreza/psicologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Transfusion ; 47(2): 240-7, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17302769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of blood products with riboflavin and light has been used to reduce the number of certain pathogens. Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi, the scrub typhus agent, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that grows free in the cytoplasm of infected cells. This study evaluated the capability of riboflavin and light to inactivate O. tsutsugamushi in red blood cells (RBCs), platelets (PLTs), and plasma, as measured by mouse infectivity. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 108 mice, equally divided into groups receiving RBCs, plasma, and PLTs, received untreated products infected with 10(0) to 10(5) organisms. Eighteen mice received products infected with 10(5) organisms and were subsequently treated with riboflavin and light. Mice were monitored daily for up to 17 days for signs and symptoms of infection (e.g., lethargy, labored breathing, rough coat) and killed upon appearance of symptoms or on Day 17 after infection. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on blood and Giemsa stains from peritoneal exudates were performed. RESULTS: A total of 102 of 108 mice receiving the untreated products developed signs and symptoms of infection and had positive PCR and Giemsa stain results. None of the 18 animals receiving riboflavin and light-treated blood products exhibited signs or symptoms of infection, nor was infection observed by PCR testing or Giemsa staining. CONCLUSIONS: Riboflavin and light are effective in reducing O. tsutsugamushi. Mice injected with blood products inoculated with 10(5) organisms and treated with riboflavin and light did not experience any signs or symptoms of infection, 17 days after inoculation. A 5-log reduction of this organism in blood was achieved as assayed in an animal model.


Assuntos
Luz , Orientia tsutsugamushi/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Riboflavina , Tifo por Ácaros/prevenção & controle , Animais , Animais não Endogâmicos , Bioensaio , Bancos de Sangue/métodos , Plaquetas/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eritrócitos/microbiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Orientia tsutsugamushi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Orientia tsutsugamushi/efeitos da radiação , Plasma/microbiologia , Tifo por Ácaros/sangue , Tifo por Ácaros/transmissão , Reação Transfusional
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