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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407653

RESUMO

The WHO recommends mass treatment with praziquantel as the primary approach for Schistosoma mansoni-related morbidity control in endemic populations. The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation implemented multi-country, cluster-randomized trials to compare effectiveness of community-wide and school-based treatment (SBT) regimens on prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis. To assess the impact of two different treatment schedules on S. mansoni-associated morbidity in children, cohort studies were nested within the randomized trials conducted in villages in Kenya and Tanzania having baseline prevalence ≥ 25%. Children aged 7-8 years were enrolled at baseline and followed to ages 11-12 years. Infection intensity and odds of infection were reduced both in villages receiving four years of annual community-wide treatment (CWT) and those who received biennial SBT over 4 years. These regimens were also associated with reduced odds of undernutrition and reduced odds of portal vein dilation at follow-up. However, neither hemoglobin levels nor the prevalence of the rare abnormal pattern C liver scores on ultrasound improved. For the combined cohorts, growth stunting worsened in the areas receiving biennial SBT, and maximal oxygen uptake as estimated by fitness testing scores declined under both regimens. After adjusting for imbalance in starting prevalence between study arms, children in villages receiving annual CWT had significantly greater decreases in infection prevalence and intensity than those villages receiving biennial SBT. Although health-related quality-of-life scores improved in both study arms, children in the CWT villages gained significantly more. We conclude that programs using annual CWT are likely to achieve better overall S. mansoni morbidity control than those implementing only biennial SBT.

3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(3): 617-627, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287046

RESUMO

Control of schistosomiasis presently relies largely on preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel through mass drug administration (MDA) programs. The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation has concluded five studies in four countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania) to evaluate alternative approaches to MDA. Studies involved four intervention years, with final evaluation in the fifth year. Mass drug administration given annually or twice over 4 years reduced average prevalence and intensity of schistosome infections, but not all villages that were treated in the same way responded similarly. There are multiple ways by which responsiveness to MDA, or the lack thereof, could be measured. In the analyses presented here, we defined persistent hotspots (PHS) as villages that achieved less than 35% reduction in prevalence and/or less than 50% reduction in infection intensity after 4 years of either school-based or community-wide MDA, either annually or twice in 4 years. By this definition, at least 30% of villages in each of the five studies were PHSs. We found no consistent relationship between PHSs and the type or frequency of intervention, adequacy of reported MDA coverage, and prevalence or intensity of infection at baseline. New research is warranted to identify PHSs after just one or a few rounds of MDA, and new adaptive strategies need to be advanced and validated for turning PHSs into responder villages.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016324

RESUMO

Chagas disease is underappreciated as a health concern in the United States. Approximately 40 000 women of childbearing age living in the United States have chronic Chagas disease. Most of them are unaware that they have an infection that is transmissible to their offspring. The estimated US maternal-to-infant transmission rate of Trypanosoma cruzi is 1% to 5%. Ten percent to 40% of neonates with congenital T cruzi infection have clinical signs consistent with a congenital infection but no findings are unique to Chagas disease. If left untreated, 20% to 40% of infants with Chagas disease will later develop potentially fatal cardiac manifestations. Molecular testing can confirm the diagnosis in neonates. Treatment is well tolerated in infancy and usually results in cure. Screening of at-risk women during pregnancy can identify maternal infection and allow early assessment and treatment for congenital T cruzi infection.

7.
Clin Genet ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417332

RESUMO

Telephone disclosure of cancer genetic test results is noninferior to in-person disclosure. However, how patients who prefer in-person communication of results differ from those who agree to telephone disclosure is unclear but important when considering delivery models for genetic medicine. Patients undergoing cancer genetic testing were recruited to a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial (NCT01736345) comparing telephone to in-person disclosure of genetic test results. We evaluated preferences for in-person disclosure, factors associated with this preference and outcomes compared to those who agreed to randomization. Among 1178 enrolled patients, 208 (18%) declined randomization, largely given a preference for in-person disclosure. These patients were more likely to be older (P = 0.007) and to have had multigene panel testing (P < 0.001). General anxiety (P = 0.007), state anxiety (P = 0.008), depression (P = 0.011), cancer-specific distress (P = 0.021) and uncertainty (P = 0.03) were higher after pretest counseling. After disclosure of results, they also had higher general anxiety (P = 0.003), depression (P = 0.002) and cancer-specific distress (P = 0.043). While telephone disclosure is a reasonable alternative to in-person disclosure in most patients, some patients have a strong preference for in-person communication. Patient age, distress and complexity of testing are important factors to consider and requests for in-person disclosure should be honored when possible.

8.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 20(6): e12996, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart transplantation has been shown to be a safe and effective intervention for progressive cardiomyopathy from chronic Chagas disease. However, in the presence of the immunosuppression required for heart transplantation, the likelihood of Chagas disease reactivation is significant. Reactivation may cause myocarditis resulting in allograft dysfunction and the rapid onset of congestive heart failure. Reactivation rates have been well documented in Latin America; however, there is a paucity of data regarding the risk in non-endemic countries. METHODS: We present our experience with 31 patients with chronic Chagas disease who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation in the United States from 2012 to 2016. Patients were monitored following a standard schedule. RESULTS: Of the 31 patients, 19 (61%) developed evidence of reactivation. Among the 19 patients, a majority (95%) were identified by laboratory monitoring using polymerase chain reaction testing. One patient was identified after the onset of clinical symptoms of reactivation. All subjects with evidence of reactivation were alive at follow-up (median: 60 weeks). CONCLUSIONS: Transplant programs in the United States are encouraged to implement a monitoring program for heart transplant recipients with Chagas disease. Our experience using a preemptive approach of monitoring for Chagas disease reactivation was effective at identifying reactivation before symptoms developed.

9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(30): 825-828, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070981

RESUMO

Angiostrongyliasis is caused by infection and migration to the brain of larvae of the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, or rat lungworm. Adult A. cantonensis reside in the lungs of the definitive wild rodent host, where they produce larvae passed in feces, which are then ingested by snails and slugs (gastropods). Human infection typically occurs when gastropods containing mature larvae are inadvertently ingested by humans. Although human infection often is asymptomatic or involves transient mild symptoms, larval migration to the brain can lead to eosinophilic meningitis, focal neurologic deficits, coma, and death. The majority of cases of human angiostrongyliasis occur in Asia and the Pacific Islands, including Hawaii, but autochthonous and imported cases have been reported in the continental United States (1,2), underscoring the importance of provider recognition to ensure prompt identification and treatment. The epidemiologic and clinical features of 12 angiostrongyliasis cases in the continental United States were analyzed. These cases were identified through A. cantonensis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing (3) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) submitted to CDC from within the continental United States. Six cases were likely a result of autochthonous transmission in the southern United States. All 12 patients had CSF pleocytosis and eosinophilia, consistent with eosinophilic meningitis. Health care providers need to be aware of the possibility of angiostrongyliasis in patients with eosinophilic meningitis, especially in residents in the southern United States or persons who have traveled outside the continental United States and have a history of ingestion of gastropods or contaminated raw vegetables.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/complicações , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/genética , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(3): 713-715, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988002

RESUMO

Because anemia is one of the markers of morbidity associated with schistosomiasis, it has been proposed as a potential measure to evaluate the impact of control programs. However, anemia is also a common consequence of malaria, and schistosomiasis and malaria are often co-endemic. To estimate the attributable fraction of anemia due to Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium falciparum infections, we applied a log-binomial model to four studies measuring these parameters of a combined 5,849 children in western Kenya. In our studies, malaria contributed 23.3%, schistosomiasis contributed 6.6%, and co-infection contributed 27.6% of the anemia. We conclude that in areas where S. mansoni and P. falciparum are co-endemic, the contribution of schistosomiasis to anemia is masked by anemia resulting from malaria, thus limiting anemia as a useful measure for schistosomiasis control programs in these settings.

12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(26): 738-741, 2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975678

RESUMO

Chagas disease, a potentially life-threatening disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, has become a concern in the United States as a result of human emigration from Latin America where Chagas disease is endemic (1). It is estimated that as many as 8 million people living in Mexico, and Central and South America have Chagas disease.* Most cases of Chagas disease in the United States are chronic infections; however, rare cases of acute congenital infections and autochthonous vectorborne transmission have been reported (2). To understand how data are collected and used, a review of state-level public health surveillance for Chagas disease was conducted through semistructured interviews with health officials in six states (Arizona, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi Tennessee, and Texas) where Chagas disease is reportable and one (Massachusetts) where it was previously reportable. States implemented surveillance in response to blood donor screening for Chagas disease and to identify the route of disease transmission. Many states reported primarily chronic cases and had limited ability to respond to local transmission because acute cases were infrequently reported. Surveillance remains important in states with large populations of immigrants or frequent travelers from countries with endemic disease and for states with a risk for local transmission. Surveillance efforts can also help increase awareness among providers and assist in linking patients with Chagas disease to treatment to help prevent cardiac and gastrointestinal complications.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Vigilância da População , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , América Latina/etnologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(25): 701-706, 2018 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953425

RESUMO

Outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water can be caused by pathogens, toxins, or chemicals in fresh water (e.g., lakes, rivers) or marine water (e.g., ocean). During 2000-2014, public health officials from 35 states and Guam voluntarily reported 140 untreated recreational water-associated outbreaks to CDC. These outbreaks resulted in at least 4,958 cases of disease and two deaths. Among the 95 outbreaks with a confirmed infectious etiology, enteric pathogens caused 80 (84%); 21 (22%) were caused by norovirus, 19 (20%) by Escherichia coli, 14 (15%) by Shigella, and 12 (13%) by Cryptosporidium. Investigations of these 95 outbreaks identified 3,125 cases; 2,704 (87%) were caused by enteric pathogens, including 1,459 (47%) by norovirus, 362 (12%) by Shigella, 314 (10%) by Cryptosporidium, and 155 (5%) by E. coli. Avian schistosomes were identified as the cause in 345 (11%) of the 3,125 cases. The two deaths were in persons affected by a single outbreak (two cases) caused by Naegleria fowleri. Public parks (50 [36%]) and beaches (45 [32%]) were the leading settings associated with the 140 outbreaks. Overall, the majority of outbreaks started during June-August (113 [81%]); 65 (58%) started in July. Swimmers and parents of young swimmers can take steps to minimize the risk for exposure to pathogens, toxins, and chemicals in untreated recreational water by heeding posted advisories closing the beach to swimming; not swimming in discolored, smelly, foamy, or scummy water; not swimming while sick with diarrhea; and limiting water entering the nose when swimming in warm freshwater.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Água Doce , Recreação , Praias/estatística & dados numéricos , Água Doce/microbiologia , Água Doce/parasitologia , Água Doce/virologia , Humanos , Lagos/microbiologia , Lagos/parasitologia , Lagos/virologia , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanques/microbiologia , Tanques/parasitologia , Tanques/virologia , Rios/microbiologia , Rios/parasitologia , Rios/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Purificação da Água
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(2): 362-369, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893197

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis control programs are designed to reduce morbidity by providing mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel to at-risk populations. We compared morbidity markers between two cohorts of Kenyan schoolchildren that initially had high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections. One cohort (N = 416 at year 1) received four rounds of annual MDA in a community-wide treatment (CWT) strategy. The other cohort (N = 386 at year 1) received school-based treatment (SBT) every other year over the 4-year period. We measured infection with S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) as well as subtle morbidity markers at year 1, year 3, and year 5 and compared cohorts with mixed models after controlling for age and gender. At year 5, neither overall S. mansoni prevalence nor the prevalence of high infection-intensity S. mansoni infection was significantly reduced compared with baseline in either the CWT cohort (N = 277 remaining) or the SBT cohort (N = 235 remaining). Nevertheless, by year 5, children in both cohorts demonstrated significant decreases in wasting, ultrasound-detected organomegaly, and STH infection along with significantly improved pediatric quality-of-life scores compared with year 1. Stunting did not change over time, but children who were S. mansoni egg-positive at year 5 had significantly more stunting than children without schistosomiasis. The only significant difference between arms at year 5 was a lower prevalence of STH infections in the CWT group.

15.
J Nucl Med ; 59(12): 1823-1830, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748233

RESUMO

Assessing therapy response of breast cancer bone metastases is challenging. In retrospective studies, serial 18F-FDG PET was predictive of time to skeletal-related events (tSRE) and time to progression (TTP). 18F-NaF PET improves bone metastasis detection compared with bone scanning. We prospectively tested 18F-FDG PET and 18F-NaF PET to predict tSRE, TTP, and overall survival (OS) in patients with bone-dominant metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Methods: Patients with bone-dominant MBC were imaged with 18F-FDG PET and 18F-NaF PET before starting new therapy (scan1) and again at a range of times centered around approximately 4 mo later (scan2). Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and lean body mass adjusted standardized uptake (SULpeak) were recorded for a single index lesion and up to 5 most dominant lesions for each scan. tSRE, TTP, and OS were assessed exclusive of the PET images. Univariate Cox regression was performed to test the association between clinical endpoints and 18F-FDG PET and 18F-NaF PET measures. mPERCIST (Modified PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors) were also applied. Survival curves for mPERCIST compared response categories of complete response+partial response+stable disease versus progressive disease for tSRE, TTP, and OS. Results: Twenty-eight patients were evaluated. Higher 18F-FDG SULpeak at scan2 predicted shorter time to tSRE (P = <0.001) and TTP (P = 0.044). Higher 18F-FDG SUVmax at scan2 predicted a shorter time to tSRE (P = <0.001). A multivariable model using 18F-FDG SUVmax of the index lesion at scan1 plus the difference in SUVmax of up to 5 lesions between scans was predictive for tSRE and TTP. Among 24 patients evaluable by 18F-FDG PET mPERCIST, tSRE and TTP were longer in responders (complete response, partial response, or stable disease) than in nonresponders (progressive disease) (P = 0.007, 0.028, respectively), with a trend toward improved survival (P = 0.1). An increase in the uptake between scans of up to 5 lesions by 18F-NaF PET was associated with longer OS (P = 0.027). Conclusion: Changes in 18F-FDG PET parameters during therapy are predictive of tSRE and TTP, but not OS. mPERCIST evaluation in bone lesions may be useful in assessing response to therapy and is worthy of evaluation in multicenter, prospective trials. Serial 18F-NaF PET was associated with OS but was not useful for predicting TTP or tSRE in bone-dominant MBC.

16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(6): 1733-1742, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29714163

RESUMO

Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is transmitted by insect vectors through transfusions, transplants, insect feces in food, and from mother to child during gestation. Congenital infection could perpetuate Chagas disease indefinitely, even in countries without vector transmission. An estimated 30% of infected persons will develop lifelong, potentially fatal, cardiac or digestive complications. Treatment of infants with benznidazole is highly efficacious in eliminating infection. This work evaluates the costs of maternal screening and infant testing and treatment of Chagas disease in the United States. We constructed a decision-analytic model to find the lower cost option, comparing costs of testing and treatment, as needed, for mothers and infants with the lifetime societal costs without testing and the consequent morbidity and mortality due to lack of treatment or late treatment. We found that maternal screening, infant testing, and treatment of Chagas disease in the United States are cost saving for all rates of congenital transmission greater than 0.001% and all levels of maternal prevalence above 0.06% compared with no screening program. Newly approved diagnostics make universal screening cost saving with maternal prevalence as low as 0.008%. The present value of lifetime societal savings due to screening and treatment is about $634 million saved for every birth year cohort. The benefits of universal screening for T. cruzi as part of routine prenatal testing far outweigh the program costs for all U.S. births.

17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(9): 985-993, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490071

RESUMO

Background: Germline genetic testing is standard practice in oncology. Outcomes of telephone disclosure of a wide range of cancer genetic test results, including multigene panel testing (MGPT) are unknown. Methods: Patients undergoing cancer genetic testing were recruited to a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial (NCT01736345) comparing telephone disclosure (TD) of genetic test results with usual care, in-person disclosure (IPD) after tiered-binned in-person pretest counseling. Primary noninferiority outcomes included change in knowledge, state anxiety, and general anxiety. Secondary outcomes included cancer-specific distress, depression, uncertainty, satisfaction, and screening and risk-reducing surgery intentions. To declare noninferiority, we calculated the 98.3% one-sided confidence interval of the standardized effect; t tests were used for secondary subgroup analyses. Only noninferiority tests were one-sided, others were two-sided. Results: A total of 1178 patients enrolled in the study. Two hundred eight (17.7%) participants declined random assignment due to a preference for in-person disclosure; 473 participants were randomly assigned to TD and 497 to IPD; 291 (30.0%) had MGPT. TD was noninferior to IPD for general and state anxiety and all secondary outcomes immediately postdisclosure. TD did not meet the noninferiority threshold for knowledge in the primary analysis, but it did meet the threshold in the multiple imputation analysis. In secondary analyses, there were no statistically significant differences between arms in screening and risk-reducing surgery intentions, and no statistically significant differences in outcomes by arm among those who had MGPT. In subgroup analyses, patients with a positive result had statistically significantly greater decreases in general anxiety with telephone disclosure (TD -0.37 vs IPD +0.87, P = .02). Conclusions: Even in the era of multigene panel testing, these data suggest that telephone disclosure of cancer genetic test results is as an alternative to in-person disclosure for interested patients after in-person pretest counseling with a genetic counselor.

18.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 20(3): e12865, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29512242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted donor screening for strongyloidiasis performed at the time of organ procurement can prevent this life-threatening donor-derived infection. METHOD: The Association of Organ Procurement Organizations surveyed members to determine the number of US organ procurement organizations (OPOs) performing donor screening for Strongyloides infection and their screening practices. RESULTS: All 58 OPOs responded to the survey. Only 6 (10%) currently screen donors for strongyloidiasis; most OPOs started 6-36 months before the survey and one started 6 years prior. All used risk-based criteria to determine which donors to screen, though the criteria varied among OPOs. A median of 56 donors have been screened at each OPO since initiating their screening programs, with a median of 2 infected donors (range 0-13) identified. Overall, 53 organs have been transplanted from 22 infected donors, including hearts, lungs, kidneys, and livers. Of 52 OPOs not currently screening, 20 had considered screening and one plans to start screening in the near future. Of those considering risk-based screening, most had not decided on the criteria. Uncertainty about the benefits of and guidelines for screening and misconceptions about the interpretation of test results were concerns shared by non-screening OPOs. CONCLUSION: Continued education and advocacy on the importance of targeted donor screening are needed.


Assuntos
Seleção do Doador/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Estrongiloidíase/prevenção & controle , Doadores de Tecidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Animais , Seleção do Doador/organização & administração , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/organização & administração , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
19.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 37(1): e24-e27, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28777208

RESUMO

Participants in a survey about congenital Chagas disease, distributed electronically to Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society members, perceived having limited knowledge about congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Most rarely or never consider the diagnosis in infants born to parents from Latin America. Improved awareness of congenital Chagas disease and assessment of at-risk infants is needed.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença de Chagas/congênito , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Infectologia/organização & administração , Pediatria/organização & administração , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(10): e0006033, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) using praziquantel is the WHO-recommended approach for control of schistosomiasis. However, few studies have compared the impact of different schedules of MDA on the resultant infection levels. We wished to evaluate whether annual MDA was more effective than less frequent treatments for reducing community-level prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infections. METHODS: We performed a cluster randomized trial (ISRCTN 14849830) of 3 different MDA frequencies over a 5 year period in 75 villages with moderate (10%-24%) initial prevalence of S. mansoni in school children in western Kenya. Praziquantel was distributed by school teachers to students either annually, the first 2 years, or every other year over a 4 year period. Prevalence and intensity of infection were measured by stool examination in 9-12 year old students using the Kato-Katz method at baseline, each treatment year, and for the final evaluation at year 5. S. mansoni prevalence and intensity were also measured in first year students at baseline and year 5. RESULTS: Twenty-five schools were randomly assigned to each arm. S. mansoni prevalence and infection intensity in 9-12 year old students significantly decreased within each arm from baseline to year 5 but there were no differences between arms. There were no differences in infection levels in first year students either within or between arms. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies employing 2 or 4 rounds of MDA had a similar impact in schools with moderate initial prevalence, suggesting that schistosomiasis control can be sustained by school-based MDA, even if provided only every other year.


Assuntos
Esquema de Medicação , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomicidas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Fatores de Tempo , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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