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1.
Vet Med Sci ; 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gross, histopathological, and immunohistochemical characteristics of uveal melanocytic neoplasms in dogs and cats were investigated. SAMPLES: Thirty-two enucleated globes with uveal melanocytic neoplasms, 27 from dogs and 5 from cats, were examined. PROCEDURES: Morphological characteristics of uveal melanocytic neoplasms in dogs and cats were evaluated with anti-PNL2, anti-Melan-A, anti-Ki-67, anti-caspase-3, and anti-BAP1 immunomarkers. Statistical analysis was performed to compare canine melanocytomas and melanomas. RESULTS: The 32 uveal neoplasms were classified as melanocytomas (19/27 in dogs) or melanomas (8/27 in dogs, 5/5 in cats). Most tumours (84%) were located in the anterior uvea. Neoplastic cells were classified as epithelioid, spindle-shaped, mixed, or special type (balloon and signet ring cells). The percentage of cells with melanin, melanin concentration within cells, anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, mitotic count, lymphocytic inflammation, necrosis, vascular invasion, and glaucoma were also characterized. Anisocytosis, percentage of neoplastic cells with melanin, mitotic count, and indices (proliferation and apoptotic) varied significantly between canine uveal melanomas and melanocytomas; in general, melanomas had greater cell variability, were less pigmented, and had a higher mitotic count. The melanocytic origin of the neoplasms was confirmed by positive anti-PNL2 immunolabelling (29/32) and positive anti-Melan-A immunolabelling (3/32). In canine uveal melanomas, anisocytosis and anisokaryosis correlated with less pigmentation and minimal pigmentation correlated with a high percentage of immunolabelling for caspase-3. CONCLUSIONS: Uveal melanocytomas were more common in dogs, and uveal melanomas were more frequent in cats. Anisocytosis, percentage of neoplastic cells with melanin, and mitotic count are important histologic characteristics of malignancy to evaluate in uveal melanocytic neoplasms. The proliferation and apoptotic indices are relevant when comparing malignant tumours with benign tumours.

2.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 25(2): 109-117, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the development of focal bullous retinal detachments (bullae) in dogs with different forms of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA). PROCEDURES: Dogs with three distinct forms of PRA (PRA-affected Whippets, German Spitzes and CNGB1-mutant Papillon crosses) were examined by indirect ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Retinal bullae were monitored over time. One CNGB1-mutant dog was treated with gene augmentation therapy. The canine BEST1 gene coding region and flanking intronic sequence was sequenced in at least one affected dog of each breed. RESULTS: Multiple focal bullous retinal detachments (bullae) were identified in PRA-affected dogs of all three types. They developed in 4 of 5 PRA-affected Whippets, 3 of 8 PRA-affected Germans Spitzes and 15 of 20 CNGB1-mutant dogs. The bullae appeared prior to marked retinal degeneration and became less apparent as retinal degeneration progressed. Bullae were not seen in any heterozygous animals of any of the types of PRA. Screening of the coding region and flanking intronic regions of the canine BEST1 gene failed to reveal any associated pathogenic variants. Retinal gene augmentation therapy in one of the CNGB1-mutant dogs appeared to prevent formation of bullae. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal bullae were identified in dogs with three distinct forms of progressive retinal atrophy. The lesions develop prior to retinal thinning. This clinical change should be monitored for in dogs with PRA.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Degeneração Retiniana , Animais , Atrofia/patologia , Atrofia/veterinária , Vesícula/patologia , Vesícula/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/genética , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Retina/patologia , Degeneração Retiniana/genética , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Degeneração Retiniana/veterinária
3.
Curr Eye Res ; 47(3): 450-460, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749546

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate a cell therapy strategy with human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) to treat diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Wistar rats induced to diabetes by injecting streptozotocin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) were isolated, expanded, and seeded onto a biopolymer substrate to develop neurospheres and obtain the hNPCs. The animals were divided into three groups: non-diabetic (ND) n = four, diabetic without treatment (DM) n = nine, and diabetic with cell therapy (DM + hNPCs) n = nine. After 8 weeks of diabetes induction and DR characteristics installed, intravitreal injection of hNPCs (1 × 106 cell/µL) was performed in the DM + hNPCs group. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Electroretinography (ERG) evaluations were conducted before and during diabetes and after cell therapy. Four weeks posttreatment, histopathological and immunohistochemistry analyses were performed. RESULTS: The repair of the retinal structures in the treated group (DM + hNPCs) was observed by increased thickness of neuroretinal layers, especially in the ganglion cell and photoreceptor layers, higher ERG oscillatory potentials (OPs) amplitudes, and transplanted hNPCs integration into the Retinal Pigment Epithelium. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that hNPCs reduced DR progression by a neuroprotective effect and promoted retinal repair, making them potential candidates for regenerating the neuroretinal tissue.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Retinopatia Diabética , Células-Tronco Neurais , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Retinopatia Diabética/terapia , Humanos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Retina/patologia
4.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish tear film osmolarity (TFO) values in Pugs and Shih-Tzus, with and without keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). ANIMALS STUDIED: A total of 82 adult dogs were evaluated. PROCEDURE: The inclusion criteria for the healthy group was a Schirmer tear test (STT-1) ≥15 mm/min with no clinical signs of KCS, whereas those with KCS had clinical signs and a STT-1 ≤10 mm/min. All animals underwent complete ophthalmological evaluation prior to STT-1 and TFO. Student's t tests were used to compare STT-1 and TFO in KCS and healthy eyes as well as possible differences in TFO between breeds. In addition, a linear regression to model the relationship between the two variables (STT-1 and TFO) was performed. A P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: STT-1 results were significantly lower (p = 0.0001) in the KCS group (4.46 ± 1.74) compared with the control group (18.80 ± 2.02). Mean TFO results were significantly higher in the KCS group (353.02 ± 16.58 mOsm/L) (p < 0.0001) compared with the control group (315.27 ± 6.15 mOsm/L). The formula Y = 365.059-2.625 * X significantly predicts (p < 0.001) the value of the variable Y (TFO mOsm/L) as a function of the variable X (STT-1 mm/min), with a coefficient of determination of 0.71. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed differences in TFO and STT-1 between KCS and healthy dogs. Additionally, STT-1 and TFO values were correlated with the aim to use STT-1 values to predict TFO values in brachycephalic breeds.

5.
Open Vet J ; 11(3): 370-378, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722198

RESUMO

Background: Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is one of the main causes of blindness in dogs. Despite its clinical importance, there is limited epidemiological information available, particularly in South America. Aim: The main objective of this study was to perform a retrospective, and prospective analysis of PRA in dogs admitted at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: Medical records of dogs admitted between 2014 and 2018 were selected through the archives of the Comparative Ophthalmology Laboratory. A total of 130 dogs with medical records indicating clinical signs suggestive of PRA, independent of the electroretinography confirmation, were selected. In order to investigate common characteristics, each patient's clinical history, ophthalmic examination, and visual status were reviewed (obstacle course, pupillary light reflex, dazzle reflex, visual tracking to a cotton ball, and menace responses). Additionally, a prospective study was performed, where flash electroretinography was performed on 30 animals with clinical signs suggestive of PRA, and 14 animals were selected for fundus photography. Data were assessed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: A total of 2,055 dogs were evaluated between January 2014 and December 2018. Of those, 130 animals were presumptively diagnosed with PRA (6.33%), consisting of 18 different breeds and 27 dogs with a mixed pedigree. Poodles were the most prevalent breed (n = 26; 20.00%), followed by Cocker Spaniels (n = 19; 14.62%). In the reported caseload, Pomeranians showed a considerably higher odds ratio for PRA development (15.36%). Conclusion: Pomeranians presented a high odds ratio, suggesting that further studies may be performed with breeds with a high potential for developing this disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Hospitais Veterinários , Animais , Atrofia/veterinária , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Avian Med Surg ; 35(3): 313-324, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677030

RESUMO

Birds are among the most visually proficient group of animals on the planet; however, their inability to visualize and discriminate translucent glass structures results in an extreme number of deaths worldwide from high-speed collisions. Despite reports of avian glass collisions in North America, only a few studies have been developed to understand this problem in South America, and none evaluated radiographic and postmortem findings. One hundred cadavers were examined radiographically and postmortem, and data from 186 collision reports were analyzed for seasonality (website and manual reports and cadavers). A total of 34 different species of birds within 22 families were evaluated for this study, with the rufous-bellied thrush (Turdus rufiventris; n = 12), eared dove (Zenaida auriculata; n = 12), and ruddy ground dove (Columbina talpacoti; n = 10) being the most common species. Only 6 (27.7%) migratory species were reported: Sick's swift (Chaetura meridionalis), small-billed elaenia (Elaenia parvirostris), Black Jacobin (Florisuga fusca), Great kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus), Double-collared seedeater (Sporophila caerulescens), and Creamy-bellied thrush (Turdus amaurochalinus). Males (51) were more frequently reported than females (5), and 50.1% of the males had active gonads. Sex was unable to be determined in 44 birds. The most common radiographic lesion, noted in 16 of 82 (19.5%) animals, was loss of coelomic definition, suggestive of hemorrhage. Prevalent postmortem findings included skull hemorrhages (58/75, 77.3%) and encephalic contusions (47/73, 64.4%), followed by coelomic hemorrhages (33/81, 40.7%). Most of the window collisions (61/186, 32.8%) occurred during spring, the most common breeding season of avian species in Brazil. Cranioencephalic trauma was identified as the primary cause of mortality associated with birds flying into glass windows. Migration does not appear to be the main predisposing factor for window collisions by birds in Brazil. Increased activity and aggression related to breeding season, especially in males, may be a more important predisposing factor for window collision accidents.


Assuntos
Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Brasil , Fatores Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Vidro , Masculino
7.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 24(5): 533-542, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554632

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide a descriptive investigation about relevant features of the crested caracara's eye (Caracara plancus) and bony orbit, as well as provide data for ophthalmic tests. METHODS: Morphological observations and the following diagnostic tests were performed: Schirmer tear test (STT), conjunctival flora evaluation, corneal touch threshold (CTT), intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), B-mode ocular biometry, palpebral fissure length (PFL), and corneal diameter (CD) in 19 healthy birds, plus two macerated skulls. Not all birds were used for each test. RESULTS: STT: 7.84 ± 3.05 mm/min; CTT: 2.46 ± 1.10 cm; IOP: 19.18 ± 3.07 mmHg; CCT: 0.31 ± 0.02 mm; PFL: 13.32 ± 1.06 mm; CD: 10.26 ± 2.43 mm; Axial globe length: 1.89 ± 0.06 cm; Anterior chamber depth: 0.27 ± 0.06 cm; Lens axial length: 4.55 ± 0.06 cm; Vitreous chamber depth: 1.2 ± 0.07 cm. The most frequent conjunctival bacterial isolates were Corynebacterium sp. (10/23.8%), Staphylococcus sp. (9/21.42%), Streptococcus sp. (7/16.6%), and E. coli (7/16.66%). The large lateral part of the palatine bone likely plays a role in the ventral protection of the globe against the impact of prey. Observed results are generally reflective of increased body mass compared to other Falconiformes, with values approaching those of similar sized Accipitriformes. CONCLUSIONS: These data may help veterinarians recognize peculiar morphologic features and perform a more accurate diagnosis of eye diseases of this avian species.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Falconiformes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Córnea/fisiologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/veterinária , Olho/microbiologia , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Órbita/anatomia & histologia , Lágrimas
8.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 45: 100557, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233226

RESUMO

Five cats were diagnosed with eyelid agenesis in a 6-month period at the Miami-Dade Animal Services, and a total of 9 blepharoplasties were performed using the lip commissure to eyelid transposition flap (LCET) technique. Eyelid agenesis affected 50%-80% of the superiolateral lid in all cats. Postoperatively, partial necrosis of the flap was observed in 4 and partial dehiscence was observed in 1 of the corrected eyelids, occurring where the buccal mucosa was sutured to the conjunctival mucosa. No cats with partial necrosis of the flap were known to have developed trichiasis due to scar tissue formed at the necrotic site. The single case in which dehiscence occurred developed slight trichiasis that may warrant further intervention to ensure permanent hair ablation. Eyelids were cosmetically acceptable and functional at final examination. Patients showed no evidence of initial discomfort at the surgical sites, nor discomfort or progression of corneal disease during the follow-up time. This case series documents a suitable technique to treat cat eyelid agenesis when referral to a specialist is not an option due to lack of resources, such as in shelters or low-cost veterinary clinics. The surgical technique, outcome and complications presented in this case series are evaluated, and discussed.


Assuntos
Pálpebras , Lábio , Animais , Gatos , Pálpebras/cirurgia , Lábio/cirurgia
9.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 48(4): 596-602, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe and evaluate an ultrasound-guided modified subcostal approach for the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in horse cadavers in lateral or dorsal recumbency. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, experimental cadaveric study. ANIMALS: Study of one preserved foal and eight fresh adult horse cadavers. METHODS: The lateral and ventral abdominal wall of a preserved cadaver was dissected to identify the muscles and nerves. A unilateral standard TAP block technique was performed (60 mL of methylene blue dye-bupivacaine) on a fresh cadaver in right lateral recumbency. A modified subcostal technique was performed on the opposite side using a linear ultrasound transducer and in-plane approach. Injection points (two 30 mL dye) were at the level of the TAP (between the rectus abdominis and transversus abdominis muscles and ventral to the cutaneous trunci muscle) perpendicular to: 1) the mid-point between the xiphoid cartilage and umbilical scar; and 2) at a point between the caudal and middle thirds of the abdomen measured from the first injection point to the umbilical scar. The modified subcostal approach was performed in seven additional cadavers in both hemiabdomens, with three cadavers in lateral and four cadavers in dorsal recumbency. Ultrasound guidance was used with all injections. RESULTS: The standard approach stained the sixteenth to eighteenth thoracic nerves (T16-T18). The modified subcostal approach performed in lateral recumbency provided greater spread (T9-T17) than dorsal recumbency (T12-T18) (p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The modified subcostal TAP approach resulted in extensive staining exceeding the standard approach. The nerves stained are consistent with production of ventral abdominal wall anesthesia in horses. Clinical studies are needed to verify these findings.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Bloqueio Nervoso , Músculos Abdominais , Animais , Cadáver , Cavalos , Bloqueio Nervoso/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/veterinária
10.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 24(3): 229-239, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate veterinary ophthalmologists' use of presumed neuroprotective therapies for degenerative retinal and optic nerve diseases in dogs. PROCEDURES: An online survey was sent to 663 board-certified veterinary ophthalmologists who were Diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (ACVO), Asian College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (AiCVO), Latin American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (Colegio Latinoamericano de Oftalmólogos Veterinarios, CLOVE), or European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (ECVO). The survey was created using Qualtrics® software and focused on the prescription of presumed neuroprotective treatments for canine glaucoma, sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS), progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and retinal detachment (RD). RESULTS: A total of 165 completed surveys were received, representing an overall response rate of 25%, which was comparable across the four specialty colleges. Of all respondents, 140/165 (85%) prescribed some form of presumed neuroprotective therapies at least once in the last five years: 114/165 (69%) for glaucoma, 51/165 (31%) for SARDS, 116/165 (70%) for PRA, and 50/165 (30%) for RD. The three most recommended neuroprotective reagents were the commercial Ocu-GLO™ Vision Supplement for animals, amlodipine, and human eye supplements. CONCLUSIONS: Despite lack of published clinical efficacy data, the majority of surveyed board-certified veterinary ophthalmologists previously prescribed a presumed neuroprotective therapy at least once in the last five years in dogs with degenerative retinal and optic nerve diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Oftalmologistas , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/veterinária , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Degeneração Retiniana/veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Ásia , Cães , Europa (Continente) , América Latina , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/prevenção & controle , Degeneração Retiniana/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
11.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 24 Suppl 1: 175-185, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070466

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To demonstrate the effect of different probe-cornea distances during intraocular pressure (IOP) data acquisition in dogs and rats. ANIMALS STUDIED: Twenty-four conscious dogs and 15 anesthetized Wistar rats. METHODS: Three interchangeable three-dimensional printed polylactide plastic spacer collars were used in place of the original Icare TonoVet® collar piece, which provided different distances (4, 6, and 8 mm) between the instrument's probe and the corneal surface. IOP values were obtained in sequence by a single observer, with the tonometer probe at a 4-, 6-, and 8-mm distance from the corneal surface. The dogs were gently restrained, and the rats were anesthetized with isoflurane. RESULTS: Intraocular pressure values obtained at 4, 6, and 8 mm from the TonoVet® probe to corneal surface distance in both dogs and rats were significantly different (P < .01). There was a small positive correlation between IOP (mm Hg) and probe-cornea distance (mm) (rs  = 0.39 for dogs and rs  = 0.51 for rats). In dogs, the mean IOP (± SD mm Hg) obtained at different distances were 16.2 ± 3.0 at 4 mm; 17.6 ± 3.4 at 6 mm; and 19.8 ± 3.8 at 8 mm. In rats, IOP values were 8.2 ± 1.5 at 4-mm; 9.4 ± 1.8 at 6-mm; and 10.5 ± 1.5 mm Hg at 8-mm distance. CONCLUSIONS: Probe-cornea distance of the Icare TonoVet® significantly affects IOP readings, even within the 4- to 8-mm range recommended by the manufacturer.


Assuntos
Córnea , Cães/fisiologia , Pressão Intraocular , Tonometria Ocular/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tonometria Ocular/instrumentação , Tonometria Ocular/métodos
12.
Vet World ; 13(5): 860-864, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Closantel is a widely used anti-parasitic drug that is known to cause ophthalmic problems that lead to blindness. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible electroretinographic changes in sheep that received closantel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four 30-day-old Suffolk sheep were split into control group (12 animals) and closantel group (12 animals). The latter group received 15 mg/kg of closantel subcutaneously immediately after the first electroretinography (ERG). The ISCEV protocol was used to perform the ERGs pre-dose (0), 7, and 30 days after treatment. Statistical analyses to compare ERG responses using t-test and analysis of variance were performed (p<0.05). Three months later, the animals were euthanized and the eyes and a part of optic nerve were collected for histopathology. Photography of the retina and optic nerve was taken, and measures of the retinal layers were made and analyzed by paired t-test. RESULTS: Closantel group showed a significant increase of the mean scotopic a-wave amplitude from 0 to 7 days after closantel administration, using a stimulus of 10,000 mcd.s/m2 and a decrease of the mean scotopic and photopic a-wave amplitude (from 7 to 30 days) using the same flash intensity, as well as a decrease in mean photopic b-wave amplitude (from 7 to 30 days) within the group. Control group showed a significant increase of the mean scotopic b-wave implicit time from pre to 30 days after treatment and an increase of the mean scotopic a-wave implicit time from pre to 7 days after treatment, with the stimulus of 10,000 mcd.s/m2. This group also showed a decrease in mean photopic b-wave implicit time (from pre to 30 days after treatment), using a stimulus of 10,000 mcd.s/m2 and a decrease in mean photopic a-wave implicit time from pre to 30 days after treatment, using a stimulus of 3000 mcd.s/m2. The no difference was found in images neither in the measurements of the retina layers. CONCLUSION: As observed by ERG responses and the histopathology, a dose of 15 mg/kg of closantel does not significantly affect retinal and optic nerve structures in sheep but the electroretinographic results, however, showed alterations on the phototransduction.

13.
Vet Rec ; 187(4): e30, 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary purpose of this survey was to determine how veterinary ophthalmologists manage cases of irreversible blindness and to report the most common causes of blindness. METHODS: Respondents completed a questionnaire sent by email with the cooperation of the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists, the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists and the Latin American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists. The questionnaire was developed containing 12 questions with both open and closed multiple-choice response options. RESULTS: One hundred and eight veterinary ophthalmologists answered the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 83 per cent had graduated for more than 10 years. Glaucoma (63.56 per cent) was the main cited cause of blindness, followed by progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) (17.80 per cent) and retinal detachment (6.78 per cent). The major concerns of owners refer to the impact of blindness on quality-of-life, (39.31 per cent), followed by depression and anxiety (20 per cent), and environment adaptation (11.72 per cent). General recommendations include avoidance of changes in the domestic environment (18.45 per cent), use of auditory stimulation (14.09 per cent) and avoidance of dangerous areas (12.75 per cent). Almost 31 per cent of professionals do not recommend the use of literature on how to deal with blind pets. CONCLUSIONS: The survey determined glaucoma and PRA as the most common causes of irreversible blindness in pets. Several recommendations that are frequently given to owners of blind pets are presented.


Assuntos
Cegueira/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Oftalmologistas , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Cegueira/etiologia , Cegueira/terapia , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Feminino , Glaucoma/complicações , Glaucoma/veterinária , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade , Animais de Estimação , Degeneração Retiniana/complicações , Degeneração Retiniana/veterinária
14.
Open Vet J ; 10(1): 22-30, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426253

RESUMO

Background: Working dogs, such as police dogs and guide dogs, have important roles in the contemporary society by performing specific and demanding jobs. Ocular health and the maintenance of good visual acuity are imperative to strong work performance and thus human safety. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess ophthalmic abnormalities and refractive errors in police and guide dogs in Brazil. Methods: A total of 71 dogs (141 eyes) were evaluated. Ten were guide dogs and 61 were police dogs. The work performance was assessed by a questionnaire to each dog's handler/owner. All the dogs underwent a complete ocular examination, and abnormalities were classified by condition, if they were active or inactive and if they were located within the visual axis. In addition, 62 dogs were evaluated by streak retinoscopy for refractive errors. Results: Ophthalmic abnormalities were detected in 38 (54%) dogs, of which 23 were considered inherited, 25 were considered active, and 10 were located within the visual axis. Incipient cataracts were the most prevalent abnormality. No guide dog had an abnormality within the visual axis. The most common refractive error was myopia with the median and interquartile range of -0.75 ± 0.75 diopters; among these, police dogs had -1.0 ± 0.5 diopters, whereas guide dogs +0.38 ± 0.75 diopters. Police dogs tended to be slightly myopic and guide dogs were emmetropic. Conclusion: Despite finding a considerable number of ophthalmic abnormalities and refractive error, work performance was good with no signs of visual impairment in any dog. Regular ophthalmic examinations are advised for working dogs, and an exclusion of severely affected dogs from breeding programs is recommended.


Assuntos
Catarata/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Miopia/veterinária , Cães Trabalhadores , Animais , Brasil , Catarata/diagnóstico , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Miopia/diagnóstico , Linhagem , Refração Ocular , Retinoscopia/veterinária , Testes Visuais/veterinária
15.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 23(3): 497-505, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro the antibacterial effects of fluorescein, rose bengal, and lissamine green topical ophthalmic dyes against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and to evaluate whether preserved or preservative-free fluorescein solutions are able to inhibit or potentiate bacterial growth. PROCEDURES: Susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method plated with clinical ocular isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial growth inhibition was evaluated 24 hours following the addition of commercially available fluorescein, rose bengal, and lissamine green sterile strips. Antimicrobial effectiveness testing was performed by inoculation of compounded 1% dye solutions, both with and without preservatives (fluorescein and lissamine contained thiomersal, and rose bengal contained nipagin and nepazol), with the five previously mentioned bacteria. Growth was evaluated at days 7, 14, and 28. RESULTS: All dyes showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive organisms. Preservative-free compounded 1% fluorescein solution inhibited growth of Gram-positive organisms but not of Gram-negative organisms. Preservative-free rose bengal and lissamine green inhibited growth of both types of organisms. CONCLUSIONS: Preferably, ocular surface samples for antimicrobial culture should be taken prior to the administration of topical dyes, due to their potential antibacterial activity, particularly if undiluted strips are applied directly or commercial fluorescein solutions are used and not immediately rinsed. Ophthalmic dye solutions containing preservative are safe from bacterial growth for up to 28 days if properly handled and stored. The use of preservative-free fluorescein solutions should be avoided and preservative-free rose bengal and lissamine green should be handled carefully.


Assuntos
Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/veterinária , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Animais , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoresceína/administração & dosagem , Fluoresceína/farmacologia , Fluoresceína/uso terapêutico , Corantes Fluorescentes/administração & dosagem , Corantes Fluorescentes/uso terapêutico , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Corantes Verde de Lissamina/administração & dosagem , Corantes Verde de Lissamina/farmacologia , Corantes Verde de Lissamina/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Soluções Oftálmicas , Rosa Bengala/administração & dosagem , Rosa Bengala/farmacologia , Rosa Bengala/uso terapêutico
16.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 23(1): 61-66, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish reference values for ophthalmic tests in two bat species. BATS: Fourteen bats including seven great fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus) and seven tailed tailless bats (Anoura caudifer). PROCEDURES: Normal values for following ophthalmic tests were investigated as follows: (a) aqueous tear production using the standardized endodontic paper point tear test (EPPTT), (b) rebound tonometry, and (c) horizontal palpebral fissure length. RESULTS: Aqueous tear production was 2.53 ± 1.65 mm/min for A lituratus and 1.89 ± 0.62 for A caudifer. Intraocular pressure measured in the upright position was 11.0 ± 3.28 mm Hg for A lituratus and 7.28 ± 2.70 for A caudifer. Horizontal palpebral fissure length was 5.04 ± 0.45 mm for A lituratus and 3.92 ± 0.51 for A caudifer. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained in the present study may serve as a reference for ophthalmic parameters and help practitioners in the diagnosis and management of eye diseases in bats, as well for future investigations about microchiroptera bats.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/veterinária , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Tonometria Ocular/veterinária , Animais , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Especificidade da Espécie , Tonometria Ocular/métodos
17.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 383, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781580

RESUMO

Paraparesis and paraplegia are common conditions in dogs, most often caused by a disc herniation in the thoracolumbar spinal segments (T3-L3), which is a neurological emergency. Surgical decompression should be performed as soon as possible when spinal compression is revealed by myelography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Mesenchymal stem-cell therapy is a promising adjunct treatment for spinal cord injury. This study sought to compare the effects of surgical decompression alone and combined with an allogeneic transplantation of canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cAd-MSCs) in the treatment of dogs with acute paraplegia. Twenty-two adult dogs of different breeds with acute paraplegia resulting from a Hansen type I disc herniation in the thoracolumbar region (T3-L3) were evaluated using computed tomography. All dogs had grade IV or V lesions and underwent surgery within 7 days after symptom onset. They were randomly assigned into two groups, 11 dogs in each. The dogs in Group I underwent hemilaminectomy, and those in Group II underwent hemilaminectomy and cAd-MSC epidural transplantation. In both groups, all dogs with grade IV lesions recovered locomotion. The median locomotion recovery period was 7 days for Group II and 21 days for Group I, and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Moreover, the median length of hospitalization after the surgery was statistically different between the two groups (Group I, 4 days; Group II, 3 days; p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant between-group differences regarding the number of animals with grade IV or V lesions that recovered locomotion and nociception. In conclusion, compared with surgical decompression alone, the use of epidural cAd-MSC transplantation with surgical decompression may contribute to faster locomotor recovery in dogs with acute paraplegia and reduce the length of post-surgery hospitalization.

18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(4): 310-316, July-Aug. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019421

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: Chronic instillation of benzalkonium chloride, a preservative, has inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. However, addition of the anti-inflammatory agent cyclosporine to a therapeutic protocol may mitigate these effects. This study compared the toxic effects of a 0.1% benzalkonium chloride solution and the possible protective effect of 0.05% cyclosporine when applied topically to the rabbit conjunctiva. Methods: Fifteen age- and weight-matched, female New Zealand white rabbits were categorized into three groups and treated for 30 consecutive days. Group 1, 2, and 3 - benzalkonium chloride received 0.1% every 24 h, 0.05% cyclosporine every 6 h, and both treatments, respectively. In each rabbit, the left eye was subjected to treatment and the right eye was a control. The rabbits were euthanized at after the experiment. Goblet cells and blood vessels were then enumerated in conjunctival tissues stained with periodic acid-Schiff and hematoxylin-eosin, respectively. Differences between treated and untreated eyes and between groups were compared using the t-test and analysis of variance. Results: Benzalkonium chloride treatment, with and without cyclosporine, significantly reduced (p≤0.05) in the number of goblet cells in treatment eyes compared with that in respective control eyes. Alternatively, adding cyclosporine to benzalkonium chloride did not prevent the loss of conjunctival goblet cells, and a significant reduction in the number of goblet cells was noted. Benzalkonium chloride-induced significant increase in the number of new blood vessels was mitigated significantly by the addition of cyclosporine. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the magnitude of conjunctival injury caused by chronic instillation of benzalkonium chloride. Although cyclosporine did not mitigate the effects on goblet cells, its addition minimized inflammatory angiogenesis induced by benzalkonium chloride.


RESUMO Objetivo: A instilação crônica de cloreto de benzal­cônio, um conservante, tem efeitos inflamatórios na superfície ocular. No entanto, a adição do agente anti-inflamatório ciclosporina a um protocolo terapêutico pode atenuar esses efeitos. Este estudo comparou os efeitos tóxicos de uma solução de cloreto de benzalcônio a 0,1% e o possível efeito protetor de ciclosporina a 0,05% quando aplicado topicamente à conjuntiva de coelho. Métodos: Quinze coelhos fêmeas brancos da raça Nova Zelândia, pareados por idade e peso, foram categorizados em três grupos e tratados por 30 dias consecutivos. Os grupos 1, 2 e 3 - receberam cloreto de benzalcônio 0,1% a cada 24h, ciclosporina a 0,005% a cada 6h e ambos os tratamentos, respectivamente. Em cada coelho, o olho esquerdo foi submetido a tratamento e o olho direito foi controle. Os coelhos foram submetidos à eutanásia após o experimento. Células caliciformes e vasos sanguíneos foram então enumerados em tecidos conjuntivais corados com ácido periódico-Schiff e hematoxilina-eosina, respectivamente. As diferenças entre os olhos tratados e não tratados e entre os grupos foram comparadas usando o teste t e análise de variância. Resultados: O tratamento com cloreto de benzalcônio, com e sem ciclosporina, reduziu significativamente (p£0,05) o número de células caliciformes nos olhos tratados em comparação com os olhos controle correspondentes. Alternativamente, a adição de ciclosporina ao cloreto de benzalcônio não impediu a perda de células caliciformes conjuntivais, e foi observada uma redução significativa no número de células caliciformes. O aumento significativo induzido pelo cloreto de benzalcônio no número de novos vasos sanguíneos foi significativamente mitigado pela adição da ciclosporina. Conclusão: Este estudo demonstrou a magnitude da lesão conjuntival resultante da instilação crônica de cloreto de benzalcônio. Embora a ciclosporina não tenha atenuado os efeitos nas células caliciformes, sua adição minimizou a angiogênese inflamatória induzida pelo cloreto de benzalcônio.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Benzalcônio/efeitos adversos , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Túnica Conjuntiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Células Caliciformes/efeitos dos fármacos , Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia
19.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 82(4): 310-316, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038554

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chronic instillation of benzalkonium chloride, a preservative, has inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. However, addition of the anti-inflammatory agent cyclosporine to a therapeutic protocol may mitigate these effects. This study compared the toxic effects of a 0.1% benzalkonium chloride solution and the possible protective effect of 0.05% cyclosporine when applied topically to the rabbit conjunctiva. METHODS: Fifteen age- and weight-matched, female New Zealand white rabbits were categorized into three groups and treated for 30 consecutive days. Group 1, 2, and 3 - benzalkonium chloride received 0.1% every 24 h, 0.05% cyclosporine every 6 h, and both treatments, respectively. In each rabbit, the left eye was subjected to treatment and the right eye was a control. The rabbits were euthanized at after the experiment. Goblet cells and blood vessels were then enumerated in conjunctival tissues stained with periodic acid-Schiff and hematoxylin-eosin, respectively. Differences between treated and untreated eyes and between groups were compared using the t-test and analysis of variance. RESULTS: Benzalkonium chloride treatment, with and without cyclosporine, significantly reduced (p≤0.05) in the number of goblet cells in treatment eyes compared with that in respective control eyes. Alternatively, adding cyclosporine to benzalkonium chloride did not prevent the loss of conjunctival goblet cells, and a significant reduction in the number of goblet cells was noted. Benzalkonium chloride-induced significant increase in the number of new blood vessels was mitigated significantly by the addition of cyclosporine. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the magnitude of conjunctival injury caused by chronic instillation of benzalkonium chloride. Although cyclosporine did not mitigate the effects on goblet cells, its addition minimized inflammatory angiogenesis induced by benzalkonium chloride.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Compostos de Benzalcônio/efeitos adversos , Túnica Conjuntiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Feminino , Células Caliciformes/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 22(5): 633-643, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of 0.1% oclacitinib as a single agent, and in combination with tacrolimus 0.01%, for the control of ophthalmic signs of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in dogs. ANIMALS STUDIED: Thirty-two dogs (57 eyes) diagnosed with idiopathic KCS were included. Inclusion criteria were Schirmer Tear Test 1 (STT-1) values <15 mm/min and concurrent clinical signs such as ocular hyperemia and discharge. PROCEDURES: The animals were submitted to a randomized, open-label, 5-week study and divided into 3 treatment groups treated with the following ophthalmic solutions: (a) 0.1% oclacitinib, (b) 0.1% oclacitinib +0.01% tacrolimus, and (c) 0.01% tacrolimus. Eye drops were instilled twice daily (12-hour intervals). At each follow-up examination, STT-1, clinical signs, and potential drug side effects were assessed. RESULTS: Oclacitinib did not significantly improve STT-1 values or clinical scores. Tacrolimus alone and in combination with oclacitinib increased mean STT-1 values by 11.84 ± 5.2 and 12.46 ± 5.3 mm/min, respectively (P = 0.0001). Clinical scores of ocular discharge and hyperemia also improved significantly in both groups receiving treatment with tacrolimus (P < 0.05). However, addition of oclacitinib to tacrolimus provided no additional improvement over tacrolimus alone. CONCLUSIONS: Topical 0.1% oclacitinib twice daily is not effective in controlling the ocular signs of KCS in dogs. 0.01% tacrolimus increased STT-1 values significantly and could potentially be used as a treatment for mild-to-moderate cases of KCS. Synergism between drugs did not occur, and therefore the use of oclacitinib is not justified in cases of canine KCS.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratoconjuntivite Seca/veterinária , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Janus Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Ceratoconjuntivite Seca/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratoconjuntivite Seca/patologia , Masculino , Soluções Oftálmicas/uso terapêutico
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