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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Postoperative hemorrhage in cardiac surgery is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Standard laboratory tests fail as predictors for bleeding in the surgical setting. The use of viscoelastic (VE) hemostatic assays thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) could be an advantage in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The objective of this meta-analysis was to analyze the effects (benefits and harms) of VE-guided transfusion practice in cardiac surgery patients. DESIGN: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. SETTING: For this study, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Collaboration database were searched, and only randomized controlled trials were included. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed in accordance with the standards set forth by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, using a random-effects model. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised adult cardiac surgery patients. INTERVENTIONS: VE-hemostatic assays transfusion algorithm compared with transfusion algorithms based on clinicians' discretion. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Seven comparative randomized controlled trials were considered, including a total of 1,035 patients (522 patients in whom a TEG- or ROTEM-based transfusion algorithm was used). In patients treated according to VE-guided algorithms, red blood cell (odds ratio 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37-0.99; p: 0.04; I2: 66%) and fresh frozen plasma transfusions (risk difference 0.22; 95% CI: 0.11-0.33; p < 0.0001; I2: 79%) use was reduced; platelets transfusion was not reduced (odds ratio 0.61; 95% CI: 0.32-1.15; p: 0.12; I2 74%). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the use of VE assays in cardiac surgical patients is effective in reducing allogenic blood products exposure, postoperative bleeding at 12 and 24 hours after surgery, and the need for redo surgery unrelated to surgical bleeding.

6.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 38(6): 658-667, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We systematically analyzed the synergistic effect of: (i) cytokine-mediated inflammatory activation of endothelial cells (ECs) with and (ii) shear-mediated platelet activation (SMPA) as a potential contributory mechanism to intraventricular thrombus formation in the setting of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. METHODS: Intact and shear-activated human platelets were exposed to non-activated and cytokine-activated ECs. To modulate the level of LVAD-related shear activation, platelets were exposed to shear stress patterns of varying magnitude (30, 50, and 70 dynes/cm2, 10 minutes) via a hemodynamic shearing device. ECs were activated via exposure to inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α 10 and 100 ng/ml, 24 hours), consistent with inflammatory activation recorded in patients on LVAD circulatory support. RESULTS: Adhesivity of shear-activated platelets to ECs was significantly higher than that of intact/unactivated platelets, regardless of the initial activation level (70 dynes/cm2 shear-activated platelets vs intact platelets: +80%, p < 0.001). Importantly, inflammatory activation of ECs amplified platelet prothrombinase activity progressively with increasing shear stress magnitude and TNF-α concentration: thrombin generation of 70 dynes/cm2 shear-activated platelets was 2.6-fold higher after exposure and adhesion to 100 ng/ml TNF-α‒activated ECs (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated synergistic effect of SMPA and cytokine-mediated EC inflammatory activation to enhance EC‒platelet adhesion and platelet prothrombotic function. These mechanisms may contribute to intraventricular thrombosis in the setting of mechanical circulatory support.

8.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 157(6): 2352-2353, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553589
9.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(4): 2125-2134, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850116

RESUMO

Background: Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) had a pivotal role in the therapy of cardiogenic shock (CS), but recent studies have questioned its effects on patients' outcome. Aim of this study is the description of a "real world" series of patients in which IABP was used as a primary mechanical circulatory support (MCS). Methods: All patients who received IABP in our institution during 1 year were prospectively enrolled in our study. The outcomes were: ICU mortality, length of ICU stay, factors associated with mortality and complications of IABP. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the effect of several risk factors on mortality. Results: A total of 119 patients were enrolled, 54 patients underwent IABP placement for CS unrelated to cardiac surgery (medical CS) and 65 after open-heart surgery. There was no significant difference for mortality between medical CS [12/54 (22.2%)] and cardiac surgery [7/65 (10.8%)] (P=0.09). The morbidity rate related to IABP was 11.3%. Multivariable analysis identified AKI (OR =9.3; 95% CI, 2.0-40.0; P=0.004), inotropic score at the time of IABP implantation (OR =1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11; P=0.009) and history of myocardial revascularization (OR =4.7; 95% CI, 1.1-20.2; P=0.036) as independent predictors for early death (P<0.05). A ROC curve analysis for inotropic score at time of implantation and mortality was performed in the overall population [AUC=0.78 (95% CI, 0.66-0.90)]. A cutoff of 20 has a specificity =72% and sensitivity=74% in this population. Conclusions: Mortality is similar in medical and postcardiotomy CS. The benefits of IABP are limited if the amount of inotropes and the severity of shock are too high.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29782080

RESUMO

The use of artificial polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) chordae has been widely adopted in the setting of mitral valve repair. In this tutorial, we present a modified technique for neochordae placement using a semi-rigid complete ring, with a chordal sizing system. This ring was introduced with the aim of standardizing neo-chordae implantation and we introduce a modification of the implantation technique in the presence of myxomatous leaflets.


Assuntos
Cordas Tendinosas/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Politetrafluoretileno , Adulto , Cordas Tendinosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/complicações , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Desenho de Prótese , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(Suppl 5): S683-S691, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732187

RESUMO

Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) restores gas exchanges in severely hypoxemic patients. The need for adjunctive therapies usually originates either from refractory hypoxemia during ECMO (defined as the persistence of low blood oxygen levels despite extracorporeal support) or from the attempt to give a specific therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In this review, therapeutic strategies to treat refractory and persistent hypoxemia during ECMO are evaluated. In the second part, therapies that can be added on top of VV ECMO to address inflammation and altered vascular permeability in ARDS are examined. The therapies currently available often allow for an effective treatment of hypoxemia during ECMO. ARDS is still lacking a specific therapy, with low-grade evidence sustaining the majority of currently used drugs.

12.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(Suppl 5): S692-S697, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732188

RESUMO

Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) is a rescue treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) failing protective mechanical ventilation. It temporarily provides proper gas exchange: hypoxia is treated by adjusting the blood flow rate and fraction in spired oxygen over the ventilator (FiO2) on the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit while CO2 removal is regulated by the ECMO fresh gas flow. Therefore, ventilator settings can be gradually reduced allowing the lungs to rest and recover. Nowadays, indications for ECMO referral and implantation are clearly formulated; on the contrary, little evidence currently exists to guide the process of weaning from ECMO support, especially concerning the timing during the course of lung healing. Therefore, indications to stop ECMO are less well standardized so that in clinical trials extracorporeal assistance is generally continued until lung recovery, with neither specific nor homogenous criteria for withdrawal. Notably, in almost all papers dealing with data on VV ECMO support, the management of weaning and the weaning procedure itself are not described. The aim of this paper is to make a picture of VV ECMO weaning, as it is performed in three European large volume intensive care units (ICUs) which represent referral centers for VV ECMO treatment. We focused on data concerning the timing of VV ECMO weaning and parameters at the time of weaning, in order to assess adequacy and safety of VV ECMO removal.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(4)2018 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular disease and has a dismal prognosis without surgical treatment. The aim of this meta-analysis was to quantitatively assess the comparative effectiveness of the Perceval (LivaNova) valve versus conventional aortic bioprostheses. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 6 comparative studies were identified, including 639 and 760 patients who underwent, respectively, aortic valve replacement with the Perceval sutureless valve (P group) and with a conventional bioprosthesis (C group). Aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass duration were significantly lower in the P group. No difference in postoperative mortality was shown for the P and C groups (2.8% versus 2.7%, respectively; odds ratio [OR]: 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52-1.88]; P=0.98). Incidence of postoperative renal failure was lower in the P group compared with the C group (2.7% versus 5.5%; OR: 0.45 [95% CI, 0.25-0.80]; P=0.007). Incidence of stroke (2.3% versus 1.7%; OR: 1.34 [95% CI, 0.56-3.21]; P=0.51) and paravalvular leak (3.1% versus 1.6%; OR: 2.52 [95% CI, 0.60-1.06]; P=0.21) was similar, whereas P group patients received fewer blood transfusions than C group patients (1.16±1.2 versus 2.13±2.2; mean difference: 0.99 [95% CI, -1.22 to -0.75]; P=0.001). The incidence of pacemaker implantation was higher in the P than the C group (7.9% versus 3.1%; OR: 2.45 [95% CI, 1.44-4.17]; P=0.001), whereas hemodynamic Perceval performance was better (transvalvular gradient 23.42±1.73 versus 22.8±1.86; mean difference: 0.90 [95% CI, 0.62-1.18]; P=0.001), even during follow-up (10.98±5.7 versus 13.06±6.2; mean difference: -2.08 [95% CI, -3.96 to -0.21]; P=0.030). We found no difference in 1-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The Perceval bioprosthesis improves the postoperative course compared with conventional bioprostheses and is an option for high-risk patients.

14.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 155(2): 657-658, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198790
15.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 155(4): e119-e120, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126625
16.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 26(2): 202-209, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare outcomes of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with those undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement using sutureless valves. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was performed. RESULTS: No randomized controlled trials were identified. Six comparative studies using propensity score matching met the inclusion criteria. This meta-analysis identified 1462 patients in that 731 patients underwent surgical aortic valve replacement using sutureless valves (SU) and 731 patients underwent a TAVI. The 30-day or in-hospital mortality was lower in the SU group [odds ratio (OR) 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36-0.80; P = 0.003]. In the TAVI group, the incidence of postoperative stroke was higher (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.79; P = 0.01). The incidence of moderate or severe paravalvular regurgitation was higher in the TAVI group (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.14-0.35; P = 0.001). There were neither differences in the postoperative renal failure (OR 1.44, 95% CI 0.46-4.58; P = 0.53) nor in the number of patients requiring postoperative pacemaker implantation (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.54-2.08; P = 0.86). Patients in the SU group required more transfusions (OR 4.47, 95% CI 2.77-7.21; P = 0.0001), whereas those in the TAVI group had higher major vascular complications (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.25; P = 0.0001). Intensive care unit stay was not different (mean difference 0.99, 95% CI - 1.22 to 1.40; P = 0.53). One-year survival was better in the SU group (Peto OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18-0.67; P = 0.001), as was the 2-year survival (Peto OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.17-0.86; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Surgical aortic valve replacement using sutureless valves is associated with better early and mid-term outcomes compared with TAVI in high- or intermediate-risk patients.

18.
J Thorac Dis ; 9(6): 1415-1419, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28740646
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