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1.
Int J Impot Res ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635818

RESUMO

The term scrotoplasty embraces several techniques which aim to restore a normal scrotal appearance and function. We provide here a quick reference tool to allow the urologist to select the appropriate surgical strategy among the several available options. A comprehensive research was carried out on MEDLINE/PubMed to identify relevant studies concerning this topic, including a range of key words, e.g., scrotoplasty, ventral phalloplasty, scrotal reconstruction, scrotomegaly, penoscrotal web, scrotal lifting, scrotal reduction, scrotectomy, scrotal lymphoedema. Scrotal skin defects may be related with Fournier's gangrene, traumatic events, and surgery for genital cancers or peno-scrotal lymphoedema. The reconstructive management of these conditions is relatively reproducible in the hands of experienced urologists, if aware of the basics of scrotal surgery. Primary tension-free wound closure and local pedicled flaps typically allow optimal surgical outcomes for repairing most of these scrotal defects, with split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) and/or distant flaps being required only when dealing with extensive skin losses. The demand for genitals' aesthetic surgery among adults is on the increase recently. Although the scientific evidence regarding this topic is scarce, reduction scrotoplasty and peno-scrotal webbing correction techniques are easy, safe and effective solutions to improve genital cosmesis, being carried out in isolation or in combination with penile prosthesis implantation. More robust scientific evidence is needed to achieve a uniformed consensus regarding the optimal surgical management in this broad field, and surgical innovation should continue to refine current reconstructive techniques.

3.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify incidence and risk factors for upstaging from cN1 to pN2/N3 at inguinal lymphadenectomy (ILND) for penile cancer (pSCC). Our secondary objective is to assess survival outcomes and associations for cN1 patients undergoing ILND. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with pT≥1cN1cM0 pSCC who underwent bilateral ILND and had complete data were identified in a multi-institutional international cohort from 8 referral centers in 7 countries diagnosed from 1980 to 2017. Upstaging was defined as pN2/N3 at ILND. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations with upstaging, and Cox multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associations with overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Of 144 patients were included in the final study population. 84 patients (58%) were upstaged from cN1 to pN2/N3, and 25 (17%) were down staged to pN0. Upstaging was associated with pT3/T4 (OR 4.1, 95%CI 1.5-11.7, P < 0.01) and pTX (OR 7.1, 95CI 1.6-51.1, P = 0.02). Age, smoking status, HPV status, and LVI were not associated with upstaging. Age (HR 1.03/y, 95%CI 1.01-1.06, P < 0.01) and upstaging (HR 2.8, 95%CI 1.3-5.9, P < 0.01) were associated with worse OS. Upstaged patients had a 5-year OS of 49%, compared with 86% for patients who were not upstaged. CONCLUSION: The majority of cN1 pSCC patients harbor a higher-risk disease state than their clinical staging suggests, especially those with higher pT stages. More intensive pre-operative workup may be warranted for these patients to identify upstaging prior to ILND and potentially qualify them for neoadjuvant chemotherapy or clinical trials.

5.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000002205, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current guidelines do not provide strong recommendations on the preservation of the neurovascular bundles during RP in case of HR PCa and/or suspicious EPE. We aimed to evaluate when, in case of unilateral HR disease, contralateral NS should be considered or not. METHODS: Within a multi-institutional dataset we selected patients with unilateral HR PCa defined as: unilateral EPE and/or SVI on mpMRI or unilateral ISUP 4-5 or PSA ≥20 ng/ml. To evaluate when to perform NS based on the risk of contralateral EPE, we relied on CHAID, a recursive machine learning partitioning algorithm developed to identify risk groups, which was fit to predict the presence of EPE on final pathology, contralaterally to the prostate lobe with HR disease. RESULTS: 705 patients were identified. Contralateral EPE was documented in 87 (12%) patients. The CHAID identified three groups: i) absence of SVI on mpMRI and index lesion's diameter ≤15 mm; ii) index lesion's diameter ≤15 mm and contralateral ISUP 2-3 or index lesion's diameter >15 mm and negative contralateral biopsy or ISUP 1 iii) SVI on mpMRI or index lesion's diameter >15 mm and contralateral biopsy ISUP 2-3. We named those groups as low- intermediate- and high-risk for contralateral EPE. The rate of EPE and PSMs across the groups were: 4.8%, 14%, 26% and 5.6%, 13%, 18%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study challenges current guidelines by proving that wide bilateral excision in men with unilateral HR disease is not justified. Pending external validation, we propose performing NS and incremental NS in case of contralateral low- and intermediate EPE risk, respectively.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17473, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471195

RESUMO

As for all newly-emergent pathogens, SARS-CoV-2 presents with a relative paucity of clinical information and experimental models, a situation hampering both the development of new effective treatments and the prediction of future outbreaks. Here, we find that a simple virus-free model, based on publicly available transcriptional data from human cell lines, is surprisingly able to recapitulate several features of the clinically relevant infections. By segregating cell lines (n = 1305) from the CCLE project on the base of their sole angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mRNA content, we found that overexpressing cells present with molecular features resembling those of at-risk patients, including senescence, impairment of antibody production, epigenetic regulation, DNA repair and apoptosis, neutralization of the interferon response, proneness to an overemphasized innate immune activity, hyperinflammation by IL-1, diabetes, hypercoagulation and hypogonadism. Likewise, several pathways were found to display a differential expression between sexes, with males being in the least advantageous position, thus suggesting that the model could reproduce even the sex-related disparities observed in the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19. Overall, besides validating a new disease model, our data suggest that, in patients with severe COVID-19, a baseline ground could be already present and, as a consequence, the viral infection might simply exacerbate a variety of latent (or inherent) pre-existing conditions, representing therefore a tipping point at which they become clinically significant.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação para Cima , COVID-19/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538770

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in the primary staging for patients with prostate cancer (PCa) is still debated. OBJECTIVE: To analyze published studies reporting the accuracy of PSMA PET/CT for detecting lymph node invasion (LNI) at pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane library's Central, EMBASE and Scopus databases, from inception to May 2021, was conducted. The primary outcome was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of PSMA PET/CT in detecting LNI on a per-patient level. As a secondary outcome, NPV of PET PSMA was tested on a per-node-level analysis. Detection rates were pooled using random-effect models. Preplanned subgroup analyses tested the diagnostic accuracy after stratification for the preoperative risk group. PPV and NPV variation over LNI prevalence was evaluated. Only studies including extended PLND (ePLND) as the reference standard test were included. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Twenty-seven studies, with a total of 2832 participants, were included in quantitative synthesis. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of PSMA PET/CT for LNI were, respectively, 58% (95% confidence interval [CI] 50-66%), 95% (95% CI 93-97%), 79% (95% CI 72-85%), and 87% (95% CI 84-89%), with overall moderate heterogeneity between studies. At bivariate analysis, the diagnostic accuracy of PSMA PET/CT estimated through summary receiver operating characteristic-derived area under the curve was 84% (95% CI 81-87%). On a per-node level, NPV of PET PSMA was 97% (95% CI 96-99%). At subgroup analyses, according to preoperative risk groups, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 51%, 93%, 73%, and 81%, respectively, in high-risk patients. Over the LNI prevalence range of 5-40%, PPV increased from 59% to 91%, while NPV decreased from 99% to 84%. CONCLUSIONS: PSMA PET/CT scan provides promising accuracy in the field of primary nodal staging for PCa. The high NPV in men with a lower risk of LNI might be clinically useful to reduce the number of unnecessary PLND procedures performed. Conversely, in high-risk patients, negative PSMA PET/CT cannot replace staging ePLND. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we demonstrated that prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan may optimize the primary nodal staging and surgical management of prostate cancer patients candidate to radical prostatectomy. The high negative predictive value in men with a lower risk of lymph node invasion might be clinically useful for reducing the number of useless pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) procedures performed. Conversely, in high-risk patients, negative PSMA PET/CT cannot allow avoiding of PLND.

8.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether continuing the antiplatelet drug acetylsalicylic acid≤100mg (ASA) during Robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with intracorporeal urinary diversion (ICUD) increases the risk of peri-and postoperative hemorrhagic complications and overall morbidity. Indeed, guidelines recommend interrupting antiplatelet therapy before radical cystectomy; however, RARC with ICUD is associated to reduced estimated blood loss and blood transfusions compared to its open counterpart. METHODS: Data from a multicentric European database were analyzed. All participating centers maintained a prospective database of patients undergoing RARC with ICUD. We identified patients receiving antiplatelet therapy by acetylsalicylic acid ≤100mg. Patients were divided into three groups: those not taking acetylsalicylic acid (no-ASA), those where ASA was continued perioperatively (c-ASA) and those where ASA was interrupted perioperatively (i-ASA). Estimated blood loss and peri-and post-operative transfusions were recorded. Hemorrhagic complications, ischemic, thrombotic and cardiac morbidity was recorded and classified using the Clavien-Dindo score by a senior urologist. RESULTS: 640 patients were analyzed. Patients on acetylsalicylic acid were significantly older and had more comorbidities. No significant difference was found for estimated blood loss between no-ASA, c-ASA and i-ASA (280 vs. 300 vs. 200ml respectively; P = 0.09). Similarly, no significant difference was found for intraoperative (5% vs. 9% vs. 11%; P = 0.07) and postoperative transfusion rate (11% vs. 13% vs. 18%; P = 0.17). Higher ischemic complications were noted in the i-ASA group compared to no-ASA and c-ASA (4% vs. 0.6% vs. 1.4%; P = 0.03). On uni and multivariate logistic regression, continuing acetylsalicylic acid was not significantly associated to either major complications or post-operative transfusions. CONCLUSIONS: Peri-operative acetylsalicylic acid continuation in RARC with ICUD does not increase hemorrhagic complications. Interrupting acetylsalicylic acid peri-operatively may expose patients to a higher risk of ischemic events.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5205, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471128

RESUMO

Molecular mechanisms associated with human germ cell aplasia in infertile men remain undefined. Here we perform single-cell transcriptome profiling to highlight differentially expressed genes and pathways in each somatic cell type in testes of men with idiopathic germ cell aplasia. We identify immaturity of Leydig cells, chronic tissue inflammation, fibrosis, and senescence phenotype of the somatic cells, as well markers of chronic inflammation in the blood. We find that deregulated expression of parentally imprinted genes in myoid and immature Leydig cells, with relevant changes in the ratio of Lamin A/C transcripts and an active DNA damage response in Leydig and peritubular myoid cells are also indicative of senescence of the testicular niche. This study offers molecular insights into the pathogenesis of idiopathic germ cell aplasia.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Dano ao DNA , Inflamação , Testículo/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/genética , Comunicação Celular , Quimiocinas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Espermatogênese/genética , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Espermatogônias/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
12.
Eur Urol ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the key importance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters, risk classification systems for biochemical recurrence (BCR) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) are still based on clinical variables alone. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at developing and validating a novel classification integrating clinical and radiological parameters. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted between 2014 and 2020 across seven academic international referral centers. A total of 2565 patients treated with RP for PCa were identified. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Early BCR was defined as two prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values of ≥0.2 ng/ml within 3 yr after RP. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regressions tested time and predictors of BCR. Development and validation cohorts were generated from the overall patient sample. A model predicting early BCR based on Cox-derived coefficients represented the basis for a nomogram that was validated externally. Predictors consisted of PSA, biopsy grade group, MRI stage, and the maximum diameter of lesion at MRI. Novel risk categories were then identified. The Harrel's concordance index (c-index) compared the accuracy of our risk stratification with the European Association of Urology (EAU), Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA), and International Staging Collaboration for Cancer of the Prostate (STAR-CAP) risk groups in predicting early BCR. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall, 200 (8%), 1834 (71%), and 531 (21%) had low-, intermediate-, and high-risk disease according to the EAU risk groups. The 3-yr overall BCR-free survival rate was 84%. No differences were observed in the 3-yr BCR-free survival between EAU low- and intermediate-risk groups (88% vs 87%; p = 0.1). The novel nomogram depicted optimal discrimination at external validation (c-index 78%). Four new risk categories were identified based on the predictors included in the Cox-based nomogram. This new risk classification had higher accuracy in predicting early BCR (c-index 70%) than the EAU, CAPRA, and STAR-CAP risk classifications (c-index 64%, 63%, and 67%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We developed and externally validated four novel categories based on clinical and radiological parameters to predict early BCR. This novel classification exhibited higher accuracy than the available tools. PATIENT SUMMARY: Our novel and straightforward risk classification outperformed currently available preoperative risk tools and should, therefore, assist physicians in preoperative counseling of men candidate to radical treatment for prostate cancer.

14.
World J Urol ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Race/ethnicity may predispose to less favorable prostate cancer characteristics in intermediate risk prostate cancer (IR PCa) patients. We tested this hypothesis in a subgroup of IR PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: We relied on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results 2004-2016. The effect of race/ethnicity was tested in univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses predicting upstaging (pT3+/pN1) and/or upgrading (Gleason Grade Group [GGG] 4-5) at RP. RESULTS: Of 20,391 IR PCa patients, 15,050 (73.8%) were Caucasian, 2857 (14.0%) African-American, 1632 (8.0%) Hispanic/Latino and 852 (4.2%) Asian. Asian patients exhibited highest age (64 year), highest PSA (6.8 ng/ml) and highest rate of GGG3 (31.9%). African-Americans exhibited the highest percentage of positive cores at biopsy (41.7%) and the highest proportion of NCCN unfavorable risk group membership (54.6%). Conversely, Caucasians exhibited the highest proportion of cT2 stage (35.6%). In univariable analyses, Hispanic/Latinos exhibited the highest rates of upstaging/upgrading among all race/ethnicities, in both favorable and unfavorable groups, followed by Asians, Caucasians and African-Americans in that order. In multivariable analyses, Hispanic/Latino race/ethnicity represented an independent predictor of higher upstaging and/or upgrading in favorable IR PCa (odds ratio [OR] 1.27, p < 0.01), while African-American race/ethnicity represented an independent predictor of lower upstaging and/or upgrading in unfavorable IR PCa (OR 0.79, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Race/ethnicity predisposes to differences in clinical, as well as in pathological characteristics in IR PCa patients. Specifically, even after full statistical adjustment, Hispanic/Latinos are at higher and African-Americans are at lower risk of upstaging and/or upgrading.

15.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Literature lacks clear evidence regarding the optimal treatment for non-muscle-invasive micropapillary bladder cancer (MPBC) due to its rarity and the presence of only small sample size and single-centre studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and overall mortality (OM) between immediate radical cystectomy (RC) and conservative management among T1 high-grade (HG) MPBC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We retrospectively analysed a multicentre dataset including 119 T1 HG MPBC patients treated between 2005 and 2019 at 15 tertiary referral centres. The median follow-up time was 35 mo (interquartile range: 19-64). INTERVENTION: Patients underwent immediate RC versus conservative management with bacillus Calmette-Guérin. OUTCOMES MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Cumulative incidence functions and Kaplan-Meier methods were applied to estimate survival outcomes. Multivariable Cox analyses were performed to assess independent predictors of disease recurrence and disease progression after conservative management; covariates consisted of pure MPBC, concomitant lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and carcinoma in situ at initial diagnosis. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Immediate RC and conservative management were performed in 27% and 73% of patients, respectively. CSM and OM did not differ significantly among patient treated with immediate RC versus conservative management (Pepe-Mori test p = 0.5 and log-rank test p = 0.9, respectively). Overall, 66.7% and 34.5% of patients experienced disease recurrence and disease progression after conservative management, respectively. At multivariable Cox analyses, concomitant LVI was an independent predictor of disease recurrence (p = 0.01) and progression (p = 0.03), while pure MPBC was independently associated with disease progression (p = 0.03). The absence of a centralised re-review and the retrospective design represent the main limitations of our study. CONCLUSIONS: Conservative management could achieve satisfactory results among T1 HG MPBC patients with neither pure MPBC nor LVI at initial diagnosis. PATIENT SUMMARY: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin seems to be an effective therapy for T1 micropapillary bladder cancer patients with neither pure micropapillary disease nor lymphovascular invasion at initial diagnosis.

17.
Andrology ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating testosterone levels have been found to be reduced in men with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, COVID-19, with lower levels being associated with more severe clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess total testosterone levels and the prevalence of total testosterone still suggesting for hypogonadism at 7-month follow-up in a cohort of 121 men who recovered from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and hormonal values were collected for all patients. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone ≤9.2 nmol/L. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to score health-significant comorbidities. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression models tested the association between clinical and laboratory variables and total testosterone levels at follow-up assessment. RESULTS: Circulating total testosterone levels increased at 7-month follow-up compared to hospital admittance (p < 0.0001), while luteinizing hormone and 17ß-estradiol levels significantly decreased (all p ≤ 0.02). Overall, total testosterone levels increased in 106 (87.6%) patients, but further decreased in 12 (9.9%) patients at follow-up, where a total testosterone level suggestive for hypogonadism was still observed in 66 (55%) patients. Baseline Charlson Comorbidity Index score (OR 0.36; p = 0.03 [0.14, 0.89]) was independently associated with total testosterone levels at 7-month follow-up, after adjusting for age, BMI, and IL-6 at hospital admittance. CONCLUSIONS: Although total testosterone levels increased over time after COVID-19, more than 50% of men who recovered from the disease still had circulating testosterone levels suggestive for a condition of hypogonadism at 7-month follow-up. In as many as 10% of cases, testosterone levels even further decreased. Of clinical relevance, the higher the burden of comorbid conditions at presentation, the lower the probability of testosterone levels recovery over time.

18.
Transl Oncol ; 14(11): 101211, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455373

RESUMO

AIM: Since its discovery Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), also referred to as kallikrein-3 (KLK3), has been used as standard circulating biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa). However, its specificity remains not adequate and its mechanism of action still elusive. Therefore, deciphering PSA role throughout PCa-pathobiology would be relevant in improving both cancer diagnosis and outcome prediction. We investigated the possible role played by PSA on/in the tumor microenvironment and over the first steps of cancer invasion. METHODS: Fresh PCa-specimens and cell lines were used for ex-vivo/in-vitro invasion assays and assessment of prostate tissue-PSA (tPSA), type 1 collagen (COL1A1) and ß1-integrin expression. Tissue Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Decipher® datasets were considered to estimate tPSA clinical relevance. RESULTS: A more precise, inverse, correspondence between tPSA and clinical/pathological parameters was found than for circulating PSA. KLK3 combined with Gleason grade and pathologic stage, better predicted cancer-related mortality. Consistently, we demonstrated that PSA inhibits prostate extracellular-matrix (ECM) invasion by PCa cells. As for the mechanism of action, we provided novel information that PSA is able to cleave COL1A1, a main component of the ECM. Finally, ß1-integrin, a crucial COL1A1 transducing-receptor involved in tumor adhesion/invasion, resulted to be downregulated in PCa specimens with higher levels of tPSA. CONCLUSIONS: By interfering with type 1 collagen and its downstream targets, PSA may hamper adhesion and path of the cancer cells through ECM and their migration ability, thus explaining the inverse correlation highlighted between prostate tPSA levels and clinically significant disease.

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