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4.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 74, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775779

RESUMO

The exercise of power permeates global governance processes, making power a critical concept for understanding, explaining, and influencing the intersection of global governance and health. This article briefly presents and discusses three well-established conceptualizations of power-Dahl's, Bourdieu's, and Barnett and Duvall's-from different disciplines, finding that each is important for understanding global governance but none is sufficient. The conceptualization of power itself needs to be expanded to include the multiple ways in which one actor can influence the thinking or actions of others. I further argue that global governance processes exhibit features of complex adaptive systems, the analysis of which requires taking into account multiple types of power. Building on established frameworks, the article then offers an expanded typology of eight kinds of power: physical, economic, structural, institutional, moral, discursive, expert, and network. The typology is derived from and illustrated by examples from global health, but may be applicable to global governance more broadly. Finally, one seemingly contradictory - and cautiously optimistic - conclusion emerges from this typology: multiple types of power can mutually reinforce tremendous power disparities in global health; but at the same time, such disparities are not necessarily absolute or immutable. Further research on the complex interaction of multiple types of power is needed for a better understanding of global governance and health.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Humanos , Política
8.
BMJ ; 359: j4676, 2017 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29042353
9.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177770, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542239

RESUMO

The Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) was established in 2010 to ensure timely access to low-cost generic versions of patented antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) through the negotiation of voluntary licences with patent holders. While robust data on the savings generated by MPP and other major global public health initiatives is important, it is also difficult to quantify. In this study, we estimate the savings generated by licences negotiated by the MPP for ARV medicines to treat HIV/AIDS in LMICs for the period 2010-2028 and generate a cost-benefit ratio-based on people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in any new countries which gain access to an ARV due to MPP licences and the price differential between originator's tiered price and generics price, within the period where that ARV is patented. We found that the direct savings generated by the MPP are estimated to be USD 2.3 billion (net present value) by 2028, representing an estimated cost-benefit ratio of 1:43, which means for every USD 1 spent on MPP, the global public health community saves USD 43. The saving of USD 2.3 billion is equivalent to more than 24 million PLHIV receiving first-line ART in LMICs for 1 year at average prices today.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/economia , Licenciamento/economia , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/economia , Saúde Pública/economia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Comércio/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Renda , Negociação , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico
11.
Health Econ Policy Law ; 12(2): 195-205, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332461

RESUMO

Since at least the 1990s, there has been growing recognition that societies need global public goods (GPGs) in order to protect and promote public health. While the term GPG is sometimes used loosely to denote that which is 'good' for the global public, we restrict our use of the term to its technical definition (goods that are non-excludable and non-rival in consumption) for its useful analytical clarity. Examples of important GPGs for health include standards and guidelines, research on the causes and treatment of disease, and comparative evidence and analysis. While institutions for providing public goods are relatively well developed at the national level - being clearly recognized as a responsibility of sovereign states - institutional arrangements to do so remain fragmented and thin at the global level. For example, the World Health Organization, mandated to provide many GPGs, is not appropriately financed to do so. Three steps are needed to better govern the financing and provision of GPGs for health: first, improved data to develop a clearer picture of how much money is currently going to providing which types of GPGs; second, a legitimate global political process to decide upon priority missing GPGs, followed by estimates of total amounts needed; and third, financing streams for GPGs from governments and private sources, to be channeled through new or existing institutions. Financing should go toward fully financing some GPGs, complementing or supplementing existing national or international financing for others, or deploying funds to make potential GPGs less 'excludable' by putting them into the public domain. As globalization deepens the degree of interdependence between countries and as formerly low-income economies advance, there may be less relative need for development assistance to meet basic health care needs, and greater relative need to finance GPGs. Strengthening global arrangements for GPGs today is a worthy investment for improved global health in the years to come.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Organização do Financiamento , Prioridades em Saúde , Humanos
12.
Health Econ Policy Law ; 12(2): 223-244, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332462

RESUMO

After years of unprecedented growth in development assistance for health (DAH), the system is challenged on several fronts: by the economic downturn and stagnation of DAH, by the epidemiological transition and increase in non-communicable diseases, and by the economic transition and rise of the middle-income countries. This raises questions about which countries should receive DAH and how much, and, fundamentally, what criteria that promote fair and effective allocation. Yet, no broad comparative assessment exists of the criteria used today. We reviewed the allocation criteria stated by five multilateral and nine bilateral funders of DAH. We found that several funders had only limited information about concrete criteria publicly available. Moreover, many funders not devoted to health lacked specific criteria for DAH or criteria directly related to health, and no funder had criteria directly related to inequality. National income per capita was emphasised by many funders, but the associated eligibility thresholds varied considerably. These findings and the broad overview of criteria can assist funders in critically examining and revising the criteria they use, and inform the wider debate about what the optimal criteria are.


Assuntos
Organização do Financiamento , Saúde Global , Alocação de Recursos , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional
13.
Health Econ Policy Law ; 12(2): 207-221, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332463

RESUMO

After a 'golden age' of extraordinary growth in the level of development assistance for health (DAH) since 1990, funding seems to have reached a plateau. With the launch of the Sustainable Development Goals, debate has intensified regarding what international financing for health should look like in the post-2015 era. In this review paper, we offer a systematic overview of problems and proposals for change. Major critiques of the current DAH system include: that the total volume of financing is inadequate; financial flows are volatile and uncertain; DAH may not result in additional resources for health; too small a proportion of DAH is transferred to recipient countries; inappropriate priority setting; inadequate coordination; weak mechanisms for accountability; and disagreement on the rationale for DAH. Proposals to address these critiques include: financing-oriented proposals to address insufficient levels and high volatility of DAH; governance-oriented proposals to address concerns regarding additionality, proportions reaching countries, priority setting, coordination and accountability; and proposals that reach beyond the existing DAH system. We conclude with a discussion of prospects for change.


Assuntos
Organização do Financiamento , Saúde Global , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional
14.
Health Econ Policy Law ; 12(2): 245-263, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332464

RESUMO

After years of unprecedented growth in development assistance for health (DAH), the DAH system is challenged on several fronts: by the economic downturn and stagnation of DAH, by the epidemiological transition and increase in non-communicable diseases and by the economic transition and rise of the middle-income countries. Central to any potent response is a fair and effective allocation of DAH across countries. A myriad of criteria has been proposed or is currently used, but there have been no comprehensive assessment of their distributional implications. We simulated the implications of 11 quantitative allocation criteria across countries and country categories. We found that the distributions varied profoundly. The group of low-income countries received most DAH from needs-based criteria linked to domestic capacity, while the group of upper-middle-income countries was most favoured by an income-inequality criterion. Compared to a baseline distribution guided by gross national income per capita, low-income countries received less DAH by almost all criteria. The findings can inform funders when examining and revising the criteria they use, and provide input to the broader debate about what criteria should be used.


Assuntos
Organização do Financiamento , Saúde Global , Alocação de Recursos , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Modelos Econômicos , Modelos Estatísticos
15.
Health Econ Policy Law ; 12(2): 265-284, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332465

RESUMO

Recent developments have transformed the role and characteristics of middle-income countries (MICs). Many stakeholders now question the appropriate role of MICs in the system of development assistance for health (DAH), and key funders have already recast their approach to these countries. The pressing question is whether MICs should be recipients, funders, both or neither. The answer has deep implications for individual countries and their citizens, and for the DAH system as a whole. We clarify the fundamental issues involved and emphasise a special feature of many MICs: mid-level gross national income per capita (GNIpc) combined with substantial health needs and large inequalities. We discuss the trade-off between concerns for capacity and need, and illustrate a capacity-based approach to setting the level of a GNIpc eligibility threshold. We also discuss how needs-based exceptions and incentive-preserving instruments can complement such a threshold. Against this background, we outline options for the future roles of MICs in various circumstances. We conclude that major players in the DAH system have reason to reconsider the criteria for allocating DAH among countries and the norms for which countries should contribute and how much.


Assuntos
Organização do Financiamento , Saúde Global , Alocação de Recursos , Gastos em Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos
16.
Health Econ Policy Law ; 12(2): 285-296, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332466

RESUMO

The articles in this special issue have demonstrated how unprecedented transitions have come with both challenges and opportunities for health financing. Against the background of these challenges and opportunities, the Working Group on Health Financing at the Chatham House Centre on Global Health Security laid out, in 2014, a set of policy responses encapsulated in 20 recommendations for how to make progress towards a coherent global framework for health financing. These recommendations pertain to domestic financing of national health systems, global public goods for health, external financing for national health systems and the cross-cutting issues of accountability and agreement on a new global framework. Since the Working Group concluded its work, multiple events have reinforced the group's recommendations. Among these are the agreement on the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals, the outbreak of Ebola in West Africa and the release of the Panama Papers. These events also represent new stepping stones towards a new global framework.


Assuntos
Organização do Financiamento , Saúde Global , Comitês Consultivos , Gastos em Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Humanos
19.
Glob Chall ; 1(7): 1700015, 2017 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565286

RESUMO

Despite economic growth and increased global commitment to health financing in the past decades, the health needs of some of the world's most vulnerable people remain overlooked. In particular, middle-income countries (MICs) often face the conundrum of receiving reduced development assistance for health (DAH) while still being home to most of the world's poor and the majority of the global burden. We believe that this reflects shortcomings in the global DAH system's architecture, which operate on principles that do not respond well to current realities. Hence, we propose a novel mechanism for international health financing and action that specifically addresses the newly emerged strengths and needs of MICs. The Incentives for Health (I4H) Alliance will offer MICs flexible incentives in exchange for their making and meeting health-related commitments in their countries. Countries can set their own health targets, in alignment with the existing Sustainable Development Goals' framework, and those that achieve them will be subsequently rewarded with financial or other incentives, which are not restricted to the health sector. We believe that the I4H Alliance will promote greater MIC involvement towards global health financing both as incentive providers and recipients; encourage collaboration between Ministries of Health and Finance; and provide a needed complement to traditional DAH mechanisms. We advocate for the creation of I4H at a MICs-oriented financing institution such as the New Development Bank. We intend I4H to spark new thinking around innovative health financing approaches to ensure that the "golden age" of global health remains ahead.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(35): 9682-90, 2016 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27519800

RESUMO

This paper presents insights and action proposals to better harness technological innovation for sustainable development. We begin with three key insights from scholarship and practice. First, technological innovation processes do not follow a set sequence but rather emerge from complex adaptive systems involving many actors and institutions operating simultaneously from local to global scales. Barriers arise at all stages of innovation, from the invention of a technology through its selection, production, adaptation, adoption, and retirement. Second, learning from past efforts to mobilize innovation for sustainable development can be greatly improved through structured cross-sectoral comparisons that recognize the socio-technical nature of innovation systems. Third, current institutions (rules, norms, and incentives) shaping technological innovation are often not aligned toward the goals of sustainable development because impoverished, marginalized, and unborn populations too often lack the economic and political power to shape innovation systems to meet their needs. However, these institutions can be reformed, and many actors have the power to do so through research, advocacy, training, convening, policymaking, and financing. We conclude with three practice-oriented recommendations to further realize the potential of innovation for sustainable development: (i) channels for regularized learning across domains of practice should be established; (ii) measures that systematically take into account the interests of underserved populations throughout the innovation process should be developed; and (iii) institutions should be reformed to reorient innovation systems toward sustainable development and ensure that all innovation stages and scales are considered at the outset.

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