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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260789, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847190

RESUMO

Evidence-based teaching practices are associated with improved student academic performance. However, these practices encompass a wide range of activities and determining which type, intensity or duration of activity is effective at improving student exam performance has been elusive. To address this shortcoming, we used a previously validated classroom observation tool, Practical Observation Rubric to Assess Active Learning (PORTAAL) to measure the presence, intensity, and duration of evidence-based teaching practices in a retrospective study of upper and lower division biology courses. We determined the cognitive challenge of exams by categorizing all exam questions obtained from the courses using Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Domains. We used structural equation modeling to correlate the PORTAAL practices with exam performance while controlling for cognitive challenge of exams, students' GPA at start of the term, and students' demographic factors. Small group activities, randomly calling on students or groups to answer questions, explaining alternative answers, and total time students were thinking, working with others or answering questions had positive correlations with exam performance. On exams at higher Bloom's levels, students explaining the reasoning underlying their answers, students working alone, and receiving positive feedback from the instructor also correlated with increased exam performance. Our study is the first to demonstrate a correlation between the intensity or duration of evidence-based PORTAAL practices and student exam performance while controlling for Bloom's level of exams, as well as looking more specifically at which practices correlate with performance on exams at low and high Bloom's levels. This level of detail will provide valuable insights for faculty as they prioritize changes to their teaching. As we found that multiple PORTAAL practices had a positive association with exam performance, it may be encouraging for instructors to realize that there are many ways to benefit students' learning by incorporating these evidence-based teaching practices.

2.
Nano Lett ; 21(22): 9772-9779, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766778

RESUMO

Metal thin films with a specific orientation play vital roles in electronics, catalysts, and epitaxial templates. Although oriented metal films have been produced in the recent years, ultrathin oriented metal films (<10 nm) have not been achieved owing to the interfacial instability of the ultrathin films during the thermal annealing process. This study investigates chemical conversion of randomly oriented multigrain Au ultrathin films into (111)-oriented Au ultrathin films. A novel chemical process, termed pseudoequilibrium of etching and selective grain growth, is presented for the chemical conversion by using a quaternary ammonium halide. The reaction variables (reaction time, reaction temperature, species of halide ions) for the chemical conversion process are systematically investigated. This study reveals the in-plane rotational degeneracy in the Au(111) thin film epitaxially grown on a Si(111) substrate. The chemical process can be applied to a broad range of thicknesses from 9 to 100 nm.

3.
Arch Pharm Res ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807366

RESUMO

Meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and CYP3A4 are major and minor enzymes involved in the metabolism of meloxicam. Impaired enzyme activity of CYP2C9 variants increases the plasma exposures of meloxicam and the risk of adverse events. The objective of our study is to develop and validate the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of meloxicam related to CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism using the PK-Sim® software. In vitro kcat of CYP2C9 was optimized in different CYP2C9 genotypes. The demographic and pharmacokinetic dataset for the development of the PBPK model was extracted from two previous clinical pharmacokinetic studies. Thirty-one clinical datasets, representing different dose regimens and demographic characteristics, were utilized to validate the PBPK model. The shapes of simulated plasma concentration-time profiles in each CYP2C9 genotype were visually similar to observed profiles. The predicted exposures (AUCinf) of meloxicam in CYP2C9*1/*3, CYP2C9*1/*13, and CYP2C9*3/*3 genotypes were increased by 1.77-, 2.91-, and 8.35-fold compared to CYP2C9*1/*1 genotype, respectively. In all datasets for the development and validations, fold errors between predicted and observed pharmacokinetic parameters were within the two-fold error criteria. As a result, the PBPK model was appropriately established and properly described the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in different CYP2C9 genotypes. This study is expected to contribute to reducing the risk of adverse events of meloxicam through optimization of meloxicam dosing in different CYP2C9 genotypes.

4.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(6): 2532-2538, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405913

RESUMO

Metomidate and etomidate belong to the non-barbiturate imidazole family of sedative-hypnotics and elicit little analgesic action when used alone. Metomidate, in particular, has little analgesic activity in humans and is, therefore, used for veterinary purposes. In 2019, a Korean woman in her twenties was found unconscious in a motel bath and eventually died. Etomidate, alprazolam, escitalopram, and metomidate were detected in the postmortem specimens. To our knowledge, this is the first case of human metomidate abuse reported in the Republic of Korea. In this research, a simple and reliable method was developed for the analysis of metomidate and etomidate in human blood samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Blood samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile, filtered, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Linear calibration curves were obtained with six concentrations ranging from 1 to 50 ng/ml for metomidate and 10 to 500 ng/ml for etomidate. The method was validated by assessing the selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, matrix effect, and stability and successfully applied to the analysis of metomidate and etomidate in human blood samples. In a postmortem case, the concentrations of metomidate and etomidate were found to be 8 and 110 ng/ml in femoral blood and 6 and 210 ng/ml in cardiac blood, respectively.


Assuntos
Etomidato/análogos & derivados , Etomidato/sangue , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida , Etomidato/envenenamento , Feminino , Toxicologia Forense , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/envenenamento , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(23): 26870-26878, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085807

RESUMO

Full advantage of stretchable electronic devices can be taken when utilizing an intrinsically stretchable power source. High-performance stretchable supercapacitors with a simple structure and solid-state operation are good power sources for stretchable electronics. This study suggests a new type of intrinsically stretchable, printable, electroactive ink consisting of 1T-MoS2 and a fluoroelastomer (FE). The active material (1T-MoS2/FE) is made by fluorinating the metallic-phase MoS2 (1T-MoS2) nanosheets with the FE under high-power ultrasonication. The MoS2 in the 1T-MoS2/FE has unconventional crystal structures in which the stable cubic (1T) and distorted 2H structures were mixed. The printed line of the 1T-MoS2/FE on the porous stretchable Au collector electrodes is intrinsically stretchable at more than ε = 50% and has good specific capacitance (28 mF cm-2 at 0.2 mA cm-2) and energy density (3.15 mWh cm-3). The in-plane all-solid-state stretchable supercapacitor is stretchable at ε = 40% and retains its relative capacity (C/Co) by 80%. This printable device platform potentially opens up the in-plane fabrication of stretchable micro-supercapacitor devices for wearable electronic applications.

6.
Forensic Sci Int ; 320: 110717, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578180

RESUMO

Fluroxypyr-meptyl and triclopyr are synthetic auxin-like herbicides that are used to control woody and broadleaf weeds. Herein, we report a case of fatal intoxication involving fluroxypyr-meptyl and triclopyr. A 61-year-old man was found dead at his farm with several suicide notes, and a white plastic bottle and a plastic cup with traces of white emulsion were found next to him. The plastic bottle was labeled as an herbicide formulation containing fluroxypyr-meptyl and triclopyr. Forensic toxicological screening of the stomach contents revealed the presence of fluroxypyr-meptyl, fluroxypyr and triclopyr. However, no fluroxypyr-meptyl was detected in blood owing to its rapid hydrolysis to fluroxypyr. In this study, fluroxypyr and triclopyr in blood were extracted using solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery and matrix effect, and the acceptable criteria were satisfied. Toxicological analysis showed that fluroxypyr and triclopyr concentrations were 19.7 µg/mL and 137.4 µg/mL in peripheral blood and 16.5 µg/mL and 147.8 µg/mL in heart blood, respectively. Based on these toxicological results and autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be acute fatal intoxication by ingestion of the pesticide containing fluroxypyr-meptyl and triclopyr. This is the first report of the determination of fluroxypyr and triclopyr in a fatal intoxication case.


Assuntos
Glicolatos/análise , Herbicidas/química , Herbicidas/envenenamento , Cromatografia Líquida , Toxicologia Forense , Glicolatos/sangue , Glicolatos/envenenamento , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suicídio Consumado
7.
Arch Oral Biol ; 120: 104944, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether cynaroside protects human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced damage and inflammation and to analyze the underlying mechanism. METHODS: LPS was used to stimulate hPDL and RAW264.7 cells. MTT assay was used to detect cell viability, and protein expression levels were measured via western blot analysis. Nitrite oxide and prostaglandin E2 were used to quantify the inflammatory response. Alizarin Red S staining was used to detect mineralized nodules. RESULTS: Cynaroside inhibited the expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated hPDL and RAW264.7 cells without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, cynaroside significantly suppressed LPS-induced protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase 3. Additionally, cynaroside prevented LPS-induced NF-κB p65 subunit translocation to the nucleus by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α. Moreover, cynaroside could restore the mineralization ability of hPDL cells reduced by LPS. CONCLUSION: Cynaroside protected hPDL cells from LPS-induced damage and inflammation via inhibition of NF-κB activation. These results suggest that cynaroside may be a potential therapeutic agent for the alleviation of periodontitis.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Luteolina/farmacologia , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Lipopolissacarídeos , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ligamento Periodontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480320

RESUMO

In Phytolaccaceae family, Phytolacca americana L. (American pokeweed) and P. esculenta Van Houtte (Chinese pokeweed) are the two representative species among the genus. Pokeweeds have triterpenoid saponins as toxic compounds in every part of the plant. The saponins phytolaccoside A, B, D, E, and G were isolated from P. americana, and esculentoside H, J, L, K, M, I, and N were isolated from P. esculenta. Along with saponins, their aglycones (phytolaccagenin, phytolaccagenic acid, esculentic acid and jaligonic acid) were also isolated from P. americana and P. esculenta. Two people who unknowingly ate misidentified pokeweed plant roots were transferred to the emergency room. Urine and gastric content after irrigation were collected from the first patient (patient 1), and blood and urine were collected from the second patient (patient 2). The samples were analyzed to identify toxic substances with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the blood sample, 1.9 ng/mL of esculentoside A and 1.5 ng/mL of esculentoside C were detected, while the concentration of esculentoside B and H were below the LLOQ. In gastric contents and ingested roots, esculentoside A, B, C, and H were identified. Esculentoside A, C, and H were identified in the urine of patient 1, and esculentoside A and C were identified in the urine sample of patient 2. The developed analytical method was validated for parameters such as linearity, limit of detection, precision, accuracy, matrix effect, recovery, and process efficiency, and they showed clear and unbiased results.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácido Oleanólico , Phytolacca americana/química , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Saponinas , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Ácido Oleanólico/análise , Ácido Oleanólico/envenenamento , Extratos Vegetais/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saponinas/análise , Saponinas/envenenamento , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 9358080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047580

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation and inflammation. Interleukin-1ß is the key player in the pathogenesis of OA, which induces the expression of various catabolic factors that contribute to cartilage degradation. Cynaroside (luteolin-7-O-glucoside or luteoloside) is a flavonoid that has various pharmacological properties, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. In this study, we investigated the chondroprotective effects of cynaroside on IL-1ß-stimulated chondrocytes and organ explants. The production of nitrite, PGE2, collagen type II, and aggrecan was measured by a Griess reagent and ELISAs, and the production of ROS was measured by H2DCF-DA fluorescence. The protein levels of iNOS, Cox-2, MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, MAPKs, and the NF-κB p65 subunit were measured by western blot. Proteoglycan analysis was performed by Alcian Blue staining (in vitro) and Safranin O staining (ex vivo). Cynaroside inhibited IL-1ß-induced expression of catabolic factors (nitrite, iNOS, ROS, PGE2, Cox-2, MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, and ADAMTS-4) and degradation of anabolic factors (collagen type II and aggrecan). Furthermore, cynaroside suppressed IL-1ß-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs and translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit into the nucleus. Collectively, these results suggest that cynaroside may be a potential candidate for the development of new therapeutic drugs for the alleviation of OA progression.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Condrócitos/fisiologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Luteolina/uso terapêutico , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais
11.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227886, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbial communities of the mouse gut have been extensively studied; however, their functional roles and regulation are yet to be elucidated. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses may allow us a comprehensive profiling of bacterial composition and functions of the complex gut microbiota. The present study aimed to investigate the active functions of the microbial communities in the murine cecum by analyzing both metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data on specific bacterial species within the microbial communities, in addition to the whole microbiome. RESULTS: Bacterial composition of the healthy mouse gut microbiome was profiled using the following three different approaches: 16S rRNA-based profiling based on amplicon and shotgun sequencing data, and genome-based profiling based on shotgun sequencing data. Consistently, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Deferribacteres emerged as the major phyla. Based on NCBI taxonomy, Muribaculaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Deferribacteraceae were the predominant families identified in each phylum. The genes for carbohydrate metabolism were upregulated in Muribaculaceae, while genes for cofactors and vitamin metabolism and amino acid metabolism were upregulated in Deferribacteraceae. The genes for translation were commonly enhanced in all three families. Notably, combined analysis of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing data revealed that the functions of translation and metabolism were largely upregulated in all three families in the mouse gut environment. The ratio of the genes in the metagenome and their expression in the metatranscriptome indicated higher expression of carbohydrate metabolism in Muribaculum, Duncaniella, and Mucispirillum. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a fundamental methodology for linking genomic and transcriptomic datasets to examine functional activities of specific bacterial species in a complicated microbial environment. We investigated the normal flora of the mouse gut using three different approaches and identified Muribaculaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Deferribacteraceae as the predominant families. The functional distribution of these families was reflected in the entire microbiome. By comparing the metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data, we found that the expression rates differed for different functional categories in the mouse gut environment. Application of these methods to track microbial transcription in individuals over time, or before and after administration of a specific stimulus will significantly facilitate future development of diagnostics and treatments.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Firmicutes/genética , Camundongos , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
12.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 126(1): 74-81, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320514

RESUMO

This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory potential of a 40% prethanol extract of Trifolium pratense leaves (40% PeTP) using in vitro (RAW264.7 cells) and in vivo (carrageenan-induced inflammation model) experiments. Pretreatment with 40% PeTP significantly inhibited the LPS-induced expression of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells, without inducing cytotoxicity. The inhibitory effects of 40% PeTP are mediated through suppression of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Oral administration of 40% PeTP at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of body weight suppressed carrageenan-induced oedema in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results suggested that 40% PeTP exerts potential anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways in vitro, and by reducing carrageenan-induced paw oedema in vivo.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Trifolium/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Carragenina/administração & dosagem , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/antagonistas & inibidores , Dinoprostona/biossíntese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esquema de Medicação , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/genética , Edema/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamação , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 132, 2019 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that the commensal microbes act as a barrier against invading pathogens and enteric infections are the consequences of multi-layered interactions among commensals, pathogens, and the host intestinal tissue. However, it remains unclear how perturbations of the gut microbiota compromise host infection resistance, especially through changes at species and metabolite levels. RESULTS: Here, we illustrate how Bacteroides vulgatus, a dominant species of the Bacteroidetes phylum in mouse intestine, suppresses infection by Vibrio cholerae, an important human pathogen. Clindamycin (CL) is an antibiotic that selectively kills anaerobic bacteria, and accordingly Bacteroidetes are completely eradicated from CL-treated mouse intestines. The Bacteroidetes-depleted adult mice developed severe cholera-like symptoms, when infected with V. cholerae. Germ-free mice mono-associated with B. vulgatus became resistant to V. cholerae infection. Levels of V. cholerae growth-inhibitory metabolites including short-chain fatty acids plummeted upon CL treatment, while levels of compounds that enhance V. cholerae proliferation were elevated. Furthermore, the intestinal colonization process of V. cholerae was well-simulated in CL-treated adult mice. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we provide insights into how a symbiotic microbe and a pathogenic intruder interact inside host intestine. We identified B. vulgatus as an indigenous microbial species that can suppress intestinal infection. Our results also demonstrate that commensal-derived metabolites are a critical determinant for host resistance against V. cholerae infection, and that CL pretreatment of adult mice generates a simple yet useful model of cholera infection.


Assuntos
Cólera/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Vibrio cholerae/fisiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(29): 26204-26212, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259517

RESUMO

Stretchable electrode is an essential part of soft electronic devices. Practical stretchable electrodes must meet the following requirements: metallic conductivity and no resistance change in various situations such as repeated large deformation, toxic environment, and large temperature change. This study suggests a simple electrode design that meets all of these requirements simultaneously. The electrode consists of a liquid metal (LM) mesh pattern that is sandwiched between a thermoplastic block copolymer (BCP) film and a BCP/Ag flake composite film with a microfibril network structure on its surface. The electrode has a high conductivity (1.2 × 104 S/cm) and is stretchable up to 600% uniaxial strain (ε). Its resistance remains unchanged during repeated stretching cycles at ε = 300% (ΔR < 0.04 Ω) as well as under simultaneous situation of large deformation (ε = 400%) and large temperature change (20-70 °C). The electrode is anticorrosive in an acidic solution owing to the hydrophobic BCP layer that protects the LM from being etched. This study shows the connection of two separate electrodes and complete healing of scratched electrodes by finger pressing. In addition, it demonstrates the fabrication of superstretchable electroluminescence display as an example of potential uses of the electrode.

16.
J Ultrasound Med ; 38(10): 2793-2798, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768798

RESUMO

Bloody nipple discharge in infancy and childhood is extremely rare, and mammary duct ectasia is the most common etiology. Ultrasound (US) findings of mammary duct ectasia include dilated ducts and tubular anechoic lesions that may contain echogenic debris in the subareolar region. However, mammary duct ectasia may show variable US findings, which are not well described in the literature. We report 3 cases of mammary duct ectasia in infancy and childhood with variable imaging findings, including complex cystic and solid lesions. Detailed initial clinical and US findings and serial follow-up US images are described.


Assuntos
Doenças Mamárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Mamárias/patologia , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/patologia , Derrame Papilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Dilatação Patológica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
17.
Adv Mater ; 30(32): e1801408, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947105

RESUMO

Stretchable conductors and sensors have attracted great attention for use in electronic skin and healthcare monitoring. Despite the development of many stretchable conductors, there are still very few studies that utilize the conventional methods making electrodes and circuits used in current industry. A method is proposed to fabricate a stretchable electrode pattern and a stretchable tactile sensor by simply depositing linear metal lines through a mask on a stretchable substrate. A method is developed of a self-generating microfibril network on the surface of stretchable block copolymer substrates. The formation mechanism of the microfibril network is studied with finite element method simulations. Metals (Au and Ag nanowires) are deposited directly on the substrate through a patterned mask. This study shows that strain-insensitive circuit and strain-sensitive sensor can be fabricated in a controlled way by adjusting the thickness of the deposited metal, which makes it easy to fabricate a tactile sensor by metal deposition. Also, by using the characteristic that the sensor has different sensitivity depending on the line pattern width, a novel sensor structure simultaneously providing analog-type position information and pressure value is proposed.

18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 103: 1202-1211, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864899

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disease, characterized by cartilage degradation and inflammation, in the elderly population. Anthriscus sylvestris has been used in Korean traditional medicine and contains many polyphenolic compounds such as cynaroside and chlorogenic acid, which are major active components responsible for its antioxidant effect. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the chondroprotective effect of an aqueous extract of A. sylvestris leaves (AE-ASL) on OA, both in vitro and in vivo. Rat primary chondrocytes were pretreated with AE-ASL for 1 h before interleukin-1ß (20 ng/mL) stimulation. The production of nitrite, PGE2, aggrecan, and collagen type II were detected by Griess reagent and ELISAs. The mRNA levels of iNOS, COX-2, MMP-3, and MMP-13 were measured by RT-PCR. In addition, protein levels of iNOS, COX-2, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, MAPKs, and NF-κB p65 subunit were measured by western blot analysis. Sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAGs) were detected by dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay. During in vivo study, the effects of AE-ASL were evaluated for 8 weeks in a rat model of destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery-induced OA. AE-ASL significantly inhibited expression of nitrite, iNOS, PGE2, COX-2, MMP-3, MMP-13, and ADAMTS-4 in IL-1ß-stimulated chondrocytes. Moreover, it decreased the IL-1ß-induced degradation of aggrecan, collagen type II, and proteoglycan. In addition, AE-ASL suppressed IL-1ß-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-κB p65 subunit translocation to nucleus. In vivo, AE-ASL inhibited DMM surgery-induced cartilage destruction and proteoglycan loss. Taken together, these results suggest that AE-ASL may be a potential therapeutic agent for the alleviation of OA progression.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/química , Condrócitos/patologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/farmacologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/enzimologia , Osteoartrite/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Água
20.
Oncol Lett ; 15(5): 6489-6496, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29616118

RESUMO

Adenosine has been identified to occur abundantly intra-and extracellularly, and to exert diverse biological functions, including the suppression of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. Adenosine has been reported to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines; however, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of adenosine on head and neck cancer cells has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether adenosine exerts any anticancer effect via induction of apoptosis in human pharyngeal squamous carcinoma FaDu cells. An MTT assay demonstrated that adenosine-treated FaDu cells inhibited a dose-dependent rate of cell growth, whereas human oral keratinocytes cells were unaffected by adenosine treatment. In addition, A1 and A2a adenosine receptor mRNA was detected in FaDu cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and adenosine-induced FaDu cell death was significantly suppressed by treatment with ATL-444, an antagonist of these receptors. Furthermore, adenosine-induced cell growth inhibition was exerted via apoptosis, as confirmed by the analysis of DNA fragmentation, Hoechst nuclear staining and flow cytometry with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining. Adenosine was also demonstrated to induce an increase in Bcl-associated X expression, a decrease in B-cell lymphoma 2 expression, the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and the activation of caspase-3, -9 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in FaDu cells. Finally, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), RAC serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation was found to be significantly inhibited in adenosine-treated FaDu cells, as was phosphorylation of the mTOR downregulators, S6 kinase ß1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 γ1. Taken together, these results indicate that adenosine induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway, and activates caspase-3 and -9 activity via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

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