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1.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(2): 496, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873011

RESUMO

Listeners must accommodate acoustic differences between vocal tracts and speaking styles of conversation partners-a process called normalization or accommodation. This study explores what acoustic cues are used to make this perceptual adjustment by listeners with normal hearing or with cochlear implants, when the acoustic variability is related to the talker's gender. A continuum between /ʃ/ and /s/ was paired with naturally spoken vocalic contexts that were parametrically manipulated to vary by numerous cues for talker gender including fundamental frequency (F0), vocal tract length (formant spacing), and direct spectral contrast with the fricative. The goal was to examine relative contributions of these cues toward the tendency to have a lower-frequency acoustic boundary for fricatives spoken by men (found in numerous previous studies). Normal hearing listeners relied primarily on formant spacing and much less on F0. The CI listeners were individually variable, with the F0 cue emerging as the strongest cue on average.

2.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1783957, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of disasters and conflicts are widespread and heavily studied. While attention to disasters' impacts on mental health is growing, mental health effects are not well understood due to inconsistencies in measurement. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to review mental health assessment tools and their use in populations affected by disasters and conflicts. METHOD: Tools that assess posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, substance use disorder, and general mental health were examined. This review began with a search for assessment tools in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. Next, validation studies for the tools were obtained through snowball sampling. A final search was conducted for scientific studies using the selected tools in humanitarian settings to collect the data for analysis. The benefits and limitations described for each tool were compiled into a complete table. RESULTS: Twelve assessment tools were included, with 88 studies using them. The primary findings indicate that half of the studies used the Impact of Events Scale-Revised. The most common limitation discussed is that self-report tools inaccurately estimate the prevalence of mental health problems. This inaccuracy is further exacerbated by a lack of cultural appropriateness of the tools, as many are developed for Western contexts. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that researchers and humanitarian workers reflect on the effectiveness of the mental health assessment tool they use to accurately represent the populations under study in emergency settings. In addition, mental health assessment should be coupled with action.

3.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 162, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two spliceosomal intron types co-exist in eukaryotic precursor mRNAs and are excised by distinct U2-dependent and U12-dependent spliceosomes. In the diplomonad Giardia lamblia, small nuclear (sn) RNAs show hybrid characteristics of U2- and U12-dependent spliceosomal snRNAs and 5 of 11 identified remaining spliceosomal introns are trans-spliced. It is unknown whether unusual intron and spliceosome features are conserved in other diplomonads. RESULTS: We have identified spliceosomal introns, snRNAs and proteins from two additional diplomonads for which genome information is currently available, Spironucleus vortens and Spironucleus salmonicida, as well as relatives, including 6 verified cis-spliceosomal introns in S. vortens. Intron splicing signals are mostly conserved between the Spironucleus species and G. lamblia. Similar to 'long' G. lamblia introns, RNA secondary structural potential is evident for 'long' (> 50 nt) Spironucleus introns as well as introns identified in the parabasalid Trichomonas vaginalis. Base pairing within these introns is predicted to constrain spatial distances between splice junctions to similar distances seen in the shorter and uniformly-sized introns in these organisms. We find that several remaining Spironucleus spliceosomal introns are ancient. We identified a candidate U2 snRNA from S. vortens, and U2 and U5 snRNAs in S. salmonicida; cumulatively, illustrating significant snRNA differences within some diplomonads. Finally, we studied spliceosomal protein complements and find protein sets in Giardia, Spironucleus and Trepomonas sp. PC1 highly- reduced but well conserved across the clade, with between 44 and 62 out of 174 studied spliceosomal proteins detectable. Comparison with more distant relatives revealed a highly nested pattern, with the more intron-rich fornicate Kipferlia bialata retaining 87 total proteins including nearly all those observed in the diplomonad representatives, and the oxymonad Monocercomonoides retaining 115 total proteins including nearly all those observed in K. bialata. CONCLUSIONS: Comparisons in diplomonad representatives and species of other closely-related metamonad groups indicates similar patterns of intron structural conservation and spliceosomal protein composition but significant divergence of snRNA structure in genomically-reduced species. Relative to other eukaryotes, loss of evolutionarily-conserved snRNA domains and common sets of spliceosomal proteins point to a more streamlined splicing mechanism, where intron sequences and structures may be functionally compensating for the minimalization of spliceosome components.


Assuntos
Sequência Conservada , Diplomonadida/genética , Íntrons/genética , Parabasalídeos/genética , Filogenia , Spliceossomos/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Pareamento de Bases/genética , Sequência de Bases , Genoma , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Processamento de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/química , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética
5.
Trends Hear ; 22: 2331216518808962, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375282

RESUMO

Contextual cues can be used to improve speech recognition, especially for people with hearing impairment. However, previous work has suggested that when the auditory signal is degraded, context might be used more slowly than when the signal is clear. This potentially puts the hearing-impaired listener in a dilemma of continuing to process the last sentence when the next sentence has already begun. This study measured the time course of the benefit of context using pupillary responses to high- and low-context sentences that were followed by silence or various auditory distractors (babble noise, ignored digits, or attended digits). Participants were listeners with cochlear implants or normal hearing using a 12-channel noise vocoder. Context-related differences in pupil dilation were greater for normal hearing than for cochlear implant listeners, even when scaled for differences in pupil reactivity. The benefit of context was systematically reduced for both groups by the presence of the later-occurring sounds, including virtually complete negation when sentences were followed by another attended utterance. These results challenge how we interpret the benefit of context in experiments that present just one utterance at a time. If a listener uses context to "repair" part of a sentence, and later-occurring auditory stimuli interfere with that repair process, the benefit of context might not survive outside the idealized laboratory or clinical environment. Elevated listening effort in hearing-impaired listeners might therefore result not just from poor auditory encoding but also inefficient use of context and prolonged processing of misperceived utterances competing with perception of incoming speech.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear/instrumentação , Implantes Cocleares , Sinais (Psicologia) , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/reabilitação , Pupila/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Audiometria da Fala , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mascaramento Perceptivo , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
RNA Biol ; 15(10): 1309-1318, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252600

RESUMO

Previous mRNA transcriptome studies of Euglena gracilis have shown that this organism possesses a large and diverse complement of protein coding genes; however, the study of non-coding RNA classes has been limited. The natural extensive fragmentation of the E. gracilis large subunit ribosomal RNA presents additional barriers to the identification of non-coding RNAs as size-selected small RNA libraries will be dominated by rRNA sequences. In this study we have developed a strategy to significantly reduce rRNA amplification prior to RNA-Seq analysis thereby producing a ncRNA library allowing for the identification of many new E. gracilis small RNAs. Library analysis reveals 113 unique new small nucleolar (sno) RNAs and a large collection of snoRNA isoforms, as well as the first significant collection of nuclear tRNAs in this organism. A 3' end AGAUGN consensus motif and conserved structural features can now be defined for E. gracilis pseudouridine guide RNAs. snoRNAs of both classes were identified that target modification of the 3' extremities of rRNAs utilizing predicted base-pairing interactions with internally transcribed spacers (ITS), providing insight into the timing of steps in rRNA maturation. Cumulatively, this represents the most comprehensive analysis of small ncRNAs in Euglena gracilis to date.


Assuntos
RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Euglena gracilis/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Pseudouridina/genética , RNA Guia/genética , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/classificação , RNA não Traduzido/genética
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(32): 894-897, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114000

RESUMO

Several countries in Europe and Australia are reporting an increasing incidence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (NmW) as a consequence of the rapid expansion of a single NmW clone belonging to clonal complex 11 (1-5). Because this clone is reported to be associated with more severe disease, unusual clinical presentations, and a high case fatality ratio (CFR), it is considered a hypervirulent strain (1,6). In the United States, NmW accounts for approximately 5% of meningococcal disease reported each year, and this proportion has remained stable for several years (7). However, localized increases in NmW have been reported, most notably in Florida during 2008-2009 (8). In Georgia, NmW accounted for only 3% of meningococcal disease cases reported during 2006-2013; however, between January 2014 and December 2016, 42% of all reported cases were NmW. Surveillance data from Georgia were analyzed to describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of NmW cases, and whole-genome sequencing of NmW isolates was performed for comparison with NmW strains circulating in the United States and worldwide. These data indicate that the U.S. NmW strains might have evolved from the same ancestor as the hypervirulent strain that is circulating globally. Genetic analysis demonstrates that these strains are closely related, which would suggest that genetic variation led to the rise of different strains from the same ancestor. Given the recent global expansion of this potentially hypervirulent NmW lineage, clinicians and public health officials need to remain vigilant in obtaining isolates to monitor changes in circulating strains.


Assuntos
Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/microbiologia , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo W-135/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria meningitidis/genética , Neisseria meningitidis/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo W-135/genética , Sorogrupo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(1S Suppl 2): S68-S76, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injured warfighters air evacuated to tertiary medical care facilities are subjected to many stresses that may promote the development of sepsis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to "in-flight" hypobaria and/or hyperoxia within 24 hours after onset of intra-abdominal infection in rats accelerates the development and/or severity of sepsis and neurologic injury in survivors. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats underwent cecal ligation/puncture (CLP) or sham procedures. Twenty-four hours later, rats were then placed in hypobaric chambers for 6 hours and assigned to normobaric conditions and maintained at either 21% or 100% O2, or under hypobaric conditions (pressure equivalent to an altitude of 8,000 ft) but maintained under either 28% or 100% O2. Two days after CLP or sham, blood samples were obtained for cytokine levels, and mitochondria were isolated from the brain and heart of a subset of animals for analysis of mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Animals were also evaluated for neuromotor impairment before and 15 days postsurgery. RESULTS: Among the 70 rats studied, 16.7% of CLP but none of the sham-treated rats died. All of the CLP but none of the sham rats had evidence of peritonitis at 2 days. Twenty percent (6 of 30) CLP rats undergoing hypobaria versus 12.5% (3 of 24) of CLP rats exposed to normobaria died (p = 0.715) while 12% (3 of 25) of CLP rats exposed to hyperoxia versus 20.7% (6 of 29) of CLP rats exposed to normoxia died (p = 0.48). The ratio of mitochondrial ATP-generating O2 consumption to resting respiration was higher in the CLP plus hypobaria under 100% compared with shams. The only difference in H2O2 production was observed in mitochondria from CLP rats exposed to hyperoxia under normobaric conditions. Composite neurologic scores obtained 15 days postinjury were lower than those at baseline for shams. CONCLUSION: We conclude that neither "in-flight" hyperoxia nor hypobaria exacerbate sepsis or neurologic injury.


Assuntos
Pressão Atmosférica , Metabolismo Energético , Hiperóxia/complicações , Sepse/complicações , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/metabolismo , Sepse/mortalidade
9.
Int J Audiol ; 55(9): 483-90, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27409278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study measured help-seeking readiness and acceptance of existing internet-based hearing healthcare (IHHC) websites among a group of older adults who failed a hearing screening (Phase 1). It also explored the effects of brief training on participants' acceptance of IHHC (Phase 2). STUDY SAMPLE: Twenty-seven adults (age 55+) who failed a hearing screening participated. DESIGN: During Phase 1 participants were administered the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) and patient technology acceptance model (PTAM) Questionnaire. During Phase 2 participants were randomly assigned to a training or control group. Training group participants attended an instructional class on existing IHHC websites. The control group received no training. The PTAM questionnaire was re-administered to both groups 4-6 weeks following the initial assessment. RESULTS: The majority of participants were either considering or preparing to do something about their hearing loss, and were generally accepting of IHHC websites (Phase 1). The participants who underwent brief IHHC training reported increases in hearing healthcare knowledge and slight improvements in computer self-efficacy (Phase 2). CONCLUSIONS: Older adults who fail hearing screenings may be good candidates for IHHC. The incorporation of a simple user-interface and short-term training may optimize the usability of future IHHC programs for this population.


Assuntos
Correção de Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Perda Auditiva/reabilitação , Testes Auditivos/métodos , Audição , Internet , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/reabilitação , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente aos Computadores , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Humanos , Kentucky , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Interface Usuário-Computador
10.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 43(2): E56-63, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26906139

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To understand the benefits of making art and listening to music and whether those activities may be beneficial for reducing symptoms associated with blood and marrow transplantation. 
. DESIGN: A randomized, three-group, pre-/post-pilot design.
. SETTING: Outpatient Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinic at the University of Kansas Cancer Center in Kansas City.
. SAMPLE: 39 adults aged from 22-74 years receiving blood and marrow transplantations.
. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Therapy-related symptoms, state anxiety, and physiologic distress.
. FINDINGS: Of the 39 participants, 14 were randomized to the control group, 14 to the art group, and 11 to the diversional music group. No significant differences in age, gender, ethnicity, or diagnosis existed between groups. No statistical differences were found between groups on all measures following the intervention. 
. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results of the current study did not indicate significant differences, healthcare professionals may still consider creative therapies as a viable option for patients within hospital or outpatient clinics because they do not require specialty training or costly resources, and they may be an enjoyable activity to occupy time for patients and caregivers.
. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Art making and music listening are safe and desirable for patients undergoing blood and marrow transplantation in an outpatient clinic. Nurses might consider partnering with therapists to offer these creative therapies as diversion during treatment.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/enfermagem , Terapia pela Arte , Transplante de Medula Óssea/enfermagem , Transplante de Medula Óssea/psicologia , Musicoterapia , Enfermagem Oncológica/métodos , Pacientes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Kansas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Audiol ; 24(3): 280-3, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26649530

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to offer design considerations in developing Internet-based hearing health care for older adults by analyzing and discussing the relationship between chronological age, computer skills, and the acceptance of Internet-based hearing health care. METHOD: This article reports baseline data from a training study measuring the acceptance of Internet-based hearing health care. Participants (n = 26; 20 men, 6 women) were aged 55­95 years. All passed a cognitive screen and failed a hearing screen. Participants completed the Patient- Technology Acceptance questionnaire (Or, 2008). Computer literacy was measured using the Northstar Digital Literacy Assessment (Cytron-Hysom, Hadley, Vanek, Graif, & Asp, 2012). RESULTS: Computer literacy was negatively correlated with increasing age. Additional negative relationships were seen between computer literacy and computer anxiety and between computer literacy and computer self-efficacy. Finally, there was a negative relationship between computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety. CONCLUSION: These results suggest computer literacy is lower in adults of advanced age than in those who are a few years younger. Indirect relationships were observed between age and computer self-efficacy and between age and computer anxiety. Consideration should be given to addressing discrepancies in self-efficacy and computer literacy in older adults to increase the likelihood of acceptance of Internet-based hearing health care.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente aos Computadores , Alfabetização Digital , Correção de Deficiência Auditiva , Perda Auditiva/reabilitação , Internet , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Clin Microbiol ; 52(3): 849-53, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24371236

RESUMO

An outbreak at a university in Georgia was identified after 83 cases of probable pneumonia were reported among students. Respiratory specimens were obtained from 21 students for the outbreak investigation. The TaqMan array card (TAC), a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based multipathogen detection technology, was used to initially identify Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the causative agent in this outbreak. TAC demonstrated 100% diagnostic specificity and sensitivity compared to those of the multiplex qPCR assay for this agent. All M. pneumoniae specimens (n=12) and isolates (n=10) were found through genetic analysis to be susceptible to macrolide antibiotics. The strain diversity of M. pneumoniae associated with this outbreak setting was identified using a variety of molecular typing procedures, resulting in two P1 genotypes (types 1 [60%] and 2 [40%]) and seven different multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) profiles. Continued molecular typing of this organism, particularly during outbreaks, may enhance the current understanding of the epidemiology of M. pneumoniae and may ultimately lead to a more effective public health response.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Surtos de Doenças , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Secreções Corporais/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Variação Genética , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem Molecular , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
13.
Biochimie ; 95(9): 1711-21, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23770441

RESUMO

Inosine triphosphate (ITP) pyrophosphohydrolase, or ITPase, is an intracellular enzyme that is responsible for the hydrolysis of the acidic anhydride bond between the alpha and beta phosphates in ITP, and other noncanonical nucleoside triphosphates, producing the corresponding nucleoside monophosphate and pyrophosphate. This activity protects the cell by preventing noncanonical nucleoside triphosphates from accumulating in (deoxy) nucleoside triphosphate ((d)NTP) pools and/or being integrated into nucleic acids. This enzyme is encoded by the ITPA gene in mammals. It has been reported that Itpa homozygous-null knock-out mice die before weaning and have gross cardiac abnormalities. Additionally, certain variations in the human ITPA gene have been linked to adverse reactions to the immunosuppressive prodrugs azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine and protection against ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia. These drugs are bioactivated to form noncanonical nucleoside triphosphates. Human ITPase enzymes engineered to modulate nucleobase specificity may be valuable tools for studying the role of ITPase in heart development and drug metabolism or developing gain-of-function mutants or inhibitory molecules. Based on x-ray crystallography and amino acid sequence data, a panel of putative human ITPase nucleobase specificity mutants has been generated. We targeted eight highly conserved amino acid positions within the ITPase sequence that correspond to amino acids predicted to directly interact with the nucleobase or help organize the nucleobase binding pocket. The ability of the mutants to protect against exogenous and endogenous noncanonical purines was tested with two Escherichia coli complementation assays. Nucleobase specificity of the mutants was investigated with an in vitro biochemical assay using ITP, GTP and ATP as substrates. This methodology allowed us to identify gain-of-function mutants and categorize the eight amino acid positions according to their ability to protect against noncanonical purines as follows: Glu-22, Trp-151 and Arg-178, essential for protection; Phe-149, Asp-152, Lys-172 and Ser-176, intermediate protection; His-177, dispensable for protection against noncanonical purines.


Assuntos
Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Pirofosfatases/metabolismo , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/toxicidade , Sequência Conservada , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Pirofosfatases/química , Pirofosfatases/genética , Pirofosfatases/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
14.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 14(12): 828-35, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23205749

RESUMO

Patient inertia is defined as an individual's failure to take responsibility for proactive lifestyle change and health conditions including hypertension. Generalized and hypertension-specific patient inertia factors were compared in 110 patients (48% women; 52% African American) from a Forsyth County, NC, emergency department (ED) and 104 community members (79% women; 70% African American) using the patient inertia-facilitated survey Patient Inertia-36. Statistically, more ED than community participants added salt to food at the table and consumed fast foods 5 to 7 days a week. ED patients agreed less often with health literacy questions about salt and BP. Hypertension associated Patient inertia questions asked of 45 ED and 40 community participants with a personal history of hypertension revealed a statistically higher sense of hopelessness surrounding blood pressure management in ED participants. Past BP control experiences of family members had statistically greater impact on community participants regarding their own BP control. Using a logistic regression model, advancing age and being surveyed in the ED were correlated with hopelessness towards BP control. ED patients make unhealthier diet choices and possess heightened generalized and hypertension-specific patient inertia including hopelessness towards controlling their BP that increases with age. These factors may contribute to this population's poor BP control, particularly self-efficacy barriers.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/psicologia , Participação da Comunidade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Hipertensão , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Hipossódica/psicologia , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde/métodos , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 40(21): 10995-1008, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23019220

RESUMO

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have diverse essential biological functions in all organisms, and in eukaryotes, two such classes of ncRNAs are the small nucleolar (sno) and small nuclear (sn) RNAs. In this study, we have identified and characterized a collection of sno and snRNAs in Giardia lamblia, by exploiting our discovery of a conserved 12 nt RNA processing sequence motif found in the 3' end regions of a large number of G. lamblia ncRNA genes. RNA end mapping and other experiments indicate the motif serves to mediate ncRNA 3' end formation from mono- and di-cistronic RNA precursor transcripts. Remarkably, we find the motif is also utilized in the processing pathway of all four previously identified trans-spliced G. lamblia introns, revealing a common RNA processing pathway for ncRNAs and trans-spliced introns in this organism. Motif sequence conservation then allowed for the bioinformatic and experimental identification of additional G. lamblia ncRNAs, including new U1 and U6 spliceosomal snRNA candidates. The U6 snRNA candidate was then used as a tool to identity novel U2 and U4 snRNAs, based on predicted phylogenetically conserved snRNA-snRNA base-pairing interactions, from a set of previously identified G. lamblia ncRNAs without assigned function. The Giardia snRNAs retain the core features of spliceosomal snRNAs but are sufficiently evolutionarily divergent to explain the difficulties in their identification. Most intriguingly, all of these snRNAs show structural features diagnostic of U2-dependent/major and U12-dependent/minor spliceosomal snRNAs.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia/genética , Processamento de Terminações 3' de RNA , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/química , RNA não Traduzido/química , Spliceossomos/química , Sequência de Bases , Sequência Conservada , Evolução Molecular , Giardia lamblia/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Ribonucleico , Trans-Splicing
16.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 287(1): 55-66, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22134850

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that the eukaryotic microbe Euglena gracilis contains an unusually large assortment of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) modification sites. However, little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms contributing to this situation. In this study, we have examined the organization and evolution of snoRNA genes in Euglena with the additional objective of determining how these properties relate to the rRNA modification pattern in this protist. We have identified and extensively characterized a clustered pattern of genes encoding previously biochemically isolated snoRNA sequences in E. gracilis. We show that polycistronic transcription is a prevalent snoRNA gene expression strategy in this organism. Further, we have identified 121 new snoRNA coding regions through sequence analysis of these clusters. We have identified an E. gracilis U14 snoRNA homolog clustered with modification-guide snoRNA genes. The U14 snoRNAs in other eukaryotic organisms examined to date typically contain both a modification and a processing domain. E. gracilis U14 lacks the modification domain but retains the processing domain. Our analysis of U14 structure and evolution in Euglena and other eukaryotes allows us to propose a model for its evolution and suggest its processing role may be its more important function, explaining its conservation in many eukaryotes. The preponderance of apparent small and larger-scale duplication events in the genomic regions we have characterized in Euglena provides a mechanism for the generation of the unusually diverse collection and abundance of snoRNAs and modified rRNA sites. Our findings provide the framework for more extensive whole genome analysis to elucidate whether these snoRNA gene clusters are spread across multiple chromosomes and/or form dense "arrays" at a limited number of chromosomal loci.


Assuntos
Euglena gracilis/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Sequência de Bases , Biologia Computacional , Genômica/métodos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 3(6): 668-74, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20923992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the effectiveness of multifaceted interventions from the study participants' perspective. We conducted qualitative interviews to understand patients' experiences with a multifaceted blood pressure (BP) control intervention involving interactive voice response technology, home BP monitoring, and pharmacist-led BP management. In the randomized study, the intervention resulted in clinically significant decreases in BP. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used insights generated from in-depth interviews from all study participants randomly assigned to the multifaceted intervention or usual care (n=146) to create a model explaining the observed improvements in health behavior and clinical outcomes. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis methods and consultative and reflexive team analysis. Six explanatory factors emerged from the patients' interviews: (1) improved relationships with medical personnel; (2) increased knowledge of hypertension; (3) increased participation in their health care and personal empowerment; (4) greater understanding of the impact of health behavior on BP; (5) high satisfaction with technology used in the intervention; and, for some patients, (6) increased health care utilization. Eighty-six percent of the intervention patients and 62% of the usual care patients stated that study participation had a positive effect on them. Of those expressing a positive effect, 68% (intervention) and 55% (usual care) reached their systolic BP goal. CONCLUSIONS: Establishing bidirectional conversations between patients and providers is a key element of successful hypertension management. Home BP monitoring coupled with interactive voice response technology reporting facilitates such conversations.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Ciência de Laboratório Médico , Satisfação do Paciente , Relações Médico-Paciente , Idoso , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Ciência de Laboratório Médico/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente , Interface para o Reconhecimento da Fala , Interface Usuário-Computador
19.
J Pediatr Surg ; 45(2): e17-20, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20152333

RESUMO

Phyllodes tumor is uncommon in children, and the malignant form is rare. There have only been a few cases of benign phyllodes tumor reported in peripubertal children and only one malignant case. We report the second case of malignant phyllodes tumor in a premenarchal 11-year-old girl.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Tumor Filoide/patologia , Tumor Filoide/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Tumor Filoide/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Strength Cond Res ; 21(2): 385-8, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17530959

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine performance differences between individual and competitive trials of the 40-yard dash. Physically active college men (n = 25) and women (n = 29) performed an individual 40-yard dash, followed by completion of the Sports Competition Trait Inventory (SCTI) before performing a paired 40-yard dash against a time-matched competitor. All sprints were performed on an indoor rubberized track using photoelectric gates to start and stop a digital timer. In addition, 3 timers used hand-held stopwatches to record the individual sprint time. There was no significant difference (p = 0.10) between men (120.3 +/- 16.6) and women (111.7 +/- 20.3) on the SCTI. There was no significant difference between individual and competitive 40-yard dash times for either men (5.21 +/- 0.24 and 5.19 +/- 0.23 seconds, respectively) or women (6.12 +/- 0.31 and 6.11 +/- 0.32 seconds, respectively). The correlation between SCTI and both individual and competitive 40-yard dashes was significant (p < 0.05) for women (r = -0.45 and -0.44, respectively) but not for men (r = -0.10 and 0.10, respectively). Electronic times (5.70 +/- 0.54 seconds) were not significantly different from 1 hand-timer (5.71 +/- 0.56 seconds) but were significantly faster than the other 2 timers (5.80 +/- 0.58 and 5.82 +/- 0.57 seconds). Averaging the 3 hand times (5.78 +/- 0.56 seconds) for comparison with the electronic timing (5.70 +/- 0.54 seconds) produced a high correlation (r = 0.96) but a significantly slower time (p < 0.05). A competitive environment does not appear to improve short sprint times in either men or women. In addition, hand timing may not always produce faster times compared to electronic timing.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
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