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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 718603, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484223

RESUMO

Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. The prevalence and type of infection changes over time and is influenced by the course of immune reconstitution post-transplant. The interaction between pathogens and host immune responses is complex in HCT settings, since the conditioning regimens create periods of neutropenia and immunosuppressive drugs are often needed to prevent graft rejection and limit graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Experimental murine models of transplantation are valuable tools for dissecting the procedure-related alterations to innate and adaptive immunity. Here we review mouse models of post-HCT infectious pulmonary complications, primarily focused on three groups of pathogens that frequently infect HCT recipients: bacteria (often P. aeruginosa), fungus (primarily Aspergillus fumigatus), and viruses (primarily herpesviruses). These mouse models have advanced our knowledge regarding how the conditioning and HCT process negatively impacts innate immunity and have provided new potential strategies of managing the infections. Studies using mouse models have also validated clinical observations suggesting that prior or occult infections are a potential etiology of noninfectious pulmonary complications post-HCT as well.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479991

RESUMO

COVID-19 induces a robust, extended inflammatory "cytokine storm" that contributes to an increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Macrophages are a key innate immune cell population responsible for the cytokine storm that has been shown, in T2D, to promote excess inflammation in response to infection. Using peripheral monocytes and sera from human patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and a murine hepatitis coronavirus (MHV-A59) (an established murine model of SARS), we identified that coronavirus induces an increased Mφ-mediated inflammatory response due to a coronavirus-induced decrease in the histone methyltransferase, SETDB2. This decrease in SETDB2 upon coronavirus infection results in a decrease of the repressive trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) at NFkB binding sites on inflammatory gene promoters, effectively increasing inflammation. Mφs isolated from mice with a myeloid-specific deletion of SETDB2 displayed increased pathologic inflammation following coronavirus infection. Further, IFNß directly regulates SETDB2 in Mφs via JaK1/STAT3 signaling, as blockade of this pathway altered SETDB2 and the inflammatory response to coronavirus infection. Importantly, we also found that loss of SETDB2 mediates an increased inflammatory response in diabetic Mϕs in response to coronavirus infection. Treatment of coronavirus-infected diabetic Mφs with IFNß reversed the inflammatory cytokine production via up-regulation of SETDB2/H3K9me3 on inflammatory gene promoters. Together, these results describe a potential mechanism for the increased Mφ-mediated cytokine storm in patients with T2D in response to COVID-19 and suggest that therapeutic targeting of the IFNß/SETDB2 axis in T2D patients may decrease pathologic inflammation associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/virologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(3): L518-L532, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231378

RESUMO

Macrophages are critical regulators of pulmonary fibrosis. Their plasticity, proximity, and ability to cross talk with structural cells of the lung make them a key cell type of interest in the regulation of lung fibrosis. Macrophages can express a variety of phenotypes, which have been historically represented through an "M1-like" to "M2-like" delineation. In this classification, M1-like macrophages are proinflammatory and have increased phagocytic capacity compared with alternatively activated M2-like macrophages that are profibrotic and are associated with wound healing. Extensive evidence in the field in both patients and animal models aligns pulmonary fibrosis with M2 macrophages. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to fully characterize M1- vs. M2-skewed bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and investigated the profibrotic abilities of M2 BMDM conditioned media (CM) to promote fibroblast migration and proliferation, alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis, and mRNA expression of key fibrotic genes in both fibroblasts and AECs. Although M2 CM-treated fibroblasts had increased migration and M2 CM-treated fibroblasts and AECs had increased expression of profibrotic proteins over M1 CM-treated cells, all differences can be attributed to M2 polarization reagents IL-4 and IL-13 also present in the CM. Collectively, these data suggest that the profibrotic effects associated with M2 macrophage CM in vitro are attributable to effects of polarization cytokines rather than additional factors secreted in response to those polarizing cytokines.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cocultura , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia
4.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(2): L451-L465, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161747

RESUMO

Millions of people who survive sepsis each year are rehospitalized and die due to late pulmonary complications. To prevent and treat these complications, biomarkers and molecular mediators must be identified. Persistent immune reprogramming in the form of immunoparalysis and impaired host defense is proposed to mediate late pulmonary complications after sepsis, particularly new pulmonary infections. However, immune reprogramming may also involve enhanced/primed responses to secondary stimuli, although their contribution to long-term sepsis complications remains understudied. We hypothesize that enhanced/primed immune responses in the lungs of sepsis survivors are associated with late pulmonary complications. To this end, we developed a murine sepsis model using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) followed 3 wk later by administration of intranasal lipopolysaccharide to induce inflammatory lung injury. Mice surviving sepsis exhibit enhanced lung injury with increased alveolar permeability, neutrophil recruitment, and enhanced Ly6Chi monocyte Tnf expression. To determine the mediators of enhanced lung injury, we performed flow cytometry and RNA sequencing of lungs 3 wk after CLP, prior to lipopolysaccharide. Sepsis survivor mice showed expanded Ly6Chi monocytes populations and increased expression of many inflammatory genes. Of these, S100A8/A9 was also elevated in the circulation of human sepsis survivors for months after sepsis, validating our model and identifying S100A8/A9 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for long-term pulmonary complications after sepsis. These data provide new insight into the importance of enhanced/primed immune responses in survivors of sepsis and establish a foundation for additional investigation into the mechanisms mediating this response.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Lesão Pulmonar/imunologia , Sepse/imunologia , Animais , Calgranulina A/imunologia , Calgranulina B/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Sepse/induzido quimicamente , Sepse/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
5.
J Exp Med ; 218(6)2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779682

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a life-threatening disease for which there is a lack of effective therapy preventing aortic rupture. During AAA formation, pathological vascular remodeling is driven by macrophage infiltration, and the mechanisms regulating macrophage-mediated inflammation remain undefined. Recent evidence suggests that an epigenetic enzyme, JMJD3, plays a critical role in establishing macrophage phenotype. Using single-cell RNA sequencing of human AAA tissues, we identified increased JMJD3 in aortic monocyte/macrophages resulting in up-regulation of an inflammatory immune response. Mechanistically, we report that interferon-ß regulates Jmjd3 expression via JAK/STAT and that JMJD3 induces NF-κB-mediated inflammatory gene transcription in infiltrating aortic macrophages. In vivo targeted inhibition of JMJD3 with myeloid-specific genetic depletion (JMJD3f/fLyz2Cre+) or pharmacological inhibition in the elastase or angiotensin II-induced AAA model preserved the repressive H3K27me3 on inflammatory gene promoters and markedly reduced AAA expansion and attenuated macrophage-mediated inflammation. Together, our findings suggest that cell-specific pharmacologic therapy targeting JMJD3 may be an effective intervention for AAA expansion.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(2): 197-208, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689671

RESUMO

Rationale: Disease activity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains highly variable, poorly understood, and difficult to predict. Objectives: To identify a predictor using short-term longitudinal changes in gene expression that forecasts future FVC decline and to characterize involved pathways and cell types. Methods: Seventy-four patients from COMET (Correlating Outcomes with Biochemical Markers to Estimate Time-Progression in IPF) cohort were dichotomized as progressors (≥10% FVC decline) or stable. Blood gene-expression changes within individuals were calculated between baseline and 4 months and regressed with future FVC status, allowing determination of expression variations, sample size, and statistical power. Pathway analyses were conducted to predict downstream effects and identify new targets. An FVC predictor for progression was constructed in COMET and validated using independent cohorts. Peripheral blood mononuclear single-cell RNA-sequencing data from healthy control subjects were used as references to characterize cell type compositions from bulk peripheral blood mononuclear RNA-sequencing data that were associated with FVC decline. Measurements and Main Results: The longitudinal model reduced gene-expression variations within stable and progressor groups, resulting in increased statistical power when compared with a cross-sectional model. The FVC predictor for progression anticipated patients with future FVC decline with 78% sensitivity and 86% specificity across independent IPF cohorts. Pattern recognition receptor pathways and mTOR pathways were downregulated and upregulated, respectively. Cellular deconvolution using single-cell RNA-sequencing data identified natural killer cells as significantly correlated with progression. Conclusions: Serial transcriptomic change predicts future FVC decline. An analysis of cell types involved in the progressor signature supports the novel involvement of natural killer cells in IPF progression.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Células Matadoras Naturais , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4268, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608602

RESUMO

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder characterized by cerebellar degeneration, cancer predisposition, and immune system defects. A major cause of mortality in A-T patients is severe pulmonary disease; however, the underlying causes of the lung complications are poorly understood, and there are currently no curative therapeutic interventions. In this study, we examined the lung phenotypes caused by ATM-deficient immune cells using a mouse model of A-T pulmonary disease. In response to acute lung injury, ATM-deficiency causes decreased survival, reduced blood oxygen saturation, elevated neutrophil recruitment, exaggerated and prolonged inflammatory responses and excessive lung injury compared to controls. We found that ATM null bone marrow adoptively transferred to WT recipients induces similar phenotypes that culminate in impaired lung function. Moreover, we demonstrated that activated ATM-deficient macrophages exhibit significantly elevated production of harmful reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings indicate that ATM-deficient immune cells play major roles in causing the lung pathologies in A-T. Based on these results, we examined the impact of inhibiting the aberrant inflammatory responses caused by ATM-deficiency with reparixin, a CXCR1/CXCR2 chemokine receptor antagonist. We demonstrated that reparixin treatment reduces neutrophil recruitment, edema and tissue damage in ATM mutant lungs. Thus, our findings indicate that targeted inhibition of CXCR1/CXCR2 attenuates pulmonary phenotypes caused by ATM-deficiency and suggest that this treatment approach represents a viable therapeutic strategy for A-T lung disease.

8.
JCI Insight ; 6(2)2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491663

RESUMO

The aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is an intracellular sensor of aromatic hydrocarbons that sits at the top of various immunomodulatory pathways. Here, we present evidence that AHR plays a role in controlling IL-17 responses and the development of pulmonary fibrosis in response to respiratory pathogens following bone marrow transplant (BMT). Mice infected intranasally with gamma-herpesvirus 68 (γHV-68) following BMT displayed elevated levels of the AHR ligand, kynurenine (kyn), in comparison with control mice. Inhibition or genetic ablation of AHR signaling resulted in a significant decrease in IL-17 expression as well as a reduction in lung pathology. Lung CD103+ DCs expressed AHR following BMT, and treatment of induced CD103+ DCs with kyn resulted in altered cytokine production in response to γHV-68. Interestingly, mice deficient in the kyn-producing enzyme indolamine 2-3 dioxygenase showed no differences in cytokine responses to γHV-68 following BMT; however, isolated pulmonary fibroblasts infected with γHV-68 expressed the kyn-producing enzyme tryptophan dioxygenase (TDO2). Our data indicate that alterations in the production of AHR ligands in response to respiratory pathogens following BMT results in a pro-Th17 phenotype that drives lung pathology. We have further identified the TDO2/AHR axis as a potentially novel form of intercellular communication between fibroblasts and DCs that shapes immune responses to respiratory pathogens.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Rhadinovirus/patogenicidade , Triptofano Oxigenase/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/deficiência , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/deficiência , Interleucina-17/biossíntese , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Ligantes , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/deficiência , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Rhadinovirus/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células Th17/imunologia
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 579628, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117383

RESUMO

The histopathology of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) includes hypoalveolarization and interstitial thickening due to abnormal myofibroblast accumulation. Chorioamnionitis and sepsis are major risk factors for BPD development. The cellular mechanisms leading to these lung structural abnormalities are poorly understood. We used an animal model with repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration into the airways of immature mice to simulate prolonged airway exposure to gram-negative bacteria, focusing on the role of C-C chemokine receptor type 2-positive (CCR2+) exudative macrophages (ExMf). Repetitive LPS exposure of immature mice induced persistent hypoalveolarization observed at 4 and 18 days after the last LPS administration. LPS upregulated the expression of lung pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-17a, IL-6, IL-1ß) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL7, CXCL1, and CXCL2), while the expression of genes involved in lung alveolar and mesenchymal cell development (PDGFR-α, FGF7, FGF10, and SPRY1) was decreased. LPS induced recruitment of ExMf, including CCR2+ ExMf, as well as other myeloid cells like DCs and neutrophils. Lungs of LPS-exposed CCR2-/- mice showed preserved alveolar structure and normal patterns of α-actin and PDGFRα expression at the tips of the secondary alveolar crests. Compared to wild type mice, a significantly lower number of ExMf, including TNF-α+ ExMf were recruited to the lungs of CCR2-/- mice following repetitive LPS exposure. Further, pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 with TAK-242 also blocked the effect of LPS on alveolarization, α-SMA and PDGFRα expression. TNF-α and IL-17a induced α-smooth muscle actin expression in the distal airspaces of E16 fetal mouse lung explants. In human preterm lung mesenchymal stromal cells, TNF-α reduced mRNA and protein expression of PDGFR-α and decreased mRNA expression of WNT2, FOXF2, and SPRY1. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that in immature mice repetitive LPS exposure, through TLR4 signaling increases lung inflammation and impairs lung alveolar growth in a CCR2-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Doença Crônica , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Receptores CCR2/genética , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Sci Adv ; 6(42)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067238

RESUMO

Antigen-specific particles can treat autoimmunity, and pulmonary delivery may provide for easier delivery than intravenous or subcutaneous routes. The lung is a "hub" for autoimmunity where autoreactive T cells pass before arriving at disease sites. Here, we report that targeting lung antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via antigen-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) particles modulates lung CD4+ T cells to tolerize murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Particles directly delivered to the lung via intratracheal administration demonstrated more substantial reduction in EAE severity when compared with particles delivered to the liver and spleen via intravenous administration. Intratracheally delivered particles were associated with lung APCs and decreased costimulatory molecule expression on the APCs, which inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation and reduced their population in the central nervous system while increasing them in the lung. This study supports noninvasive pulmonary particle delivery, such as inhalable administration, to treat autoimmune disease.

12.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(4): L675-L682, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877221

RESUMO

Mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to a microbiome consisting of microorganisms that heavily influence human immunity and health. In the lung these microorganisms consist of bacteria, viruses, and fungi and exist in a relatively low biomass state. Bacterial communities of the lung modulate local inflammation and correlate with changes in pulmonary physiology and clinical outcomes in patients with lung disease. Instrumental to this progress has been the study of these bacterial communities in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, a fatal and progressive disease culminating in respiratory failure. Key pathophysiological mechanisms in pulmonary fibrosis include recurrent idiopathic alveolar epithelial injury, unchecked collagen deposition, mucociliary dysfunction due to muc5b overexpression, hypoxia, and altered host defense. These key mechanisms and their related consequences promote severe progressive architectural lung destruction and loss of local homeostasis. As such, pulmonary fibrosis is an appropriate target disease for the study of the lung microbiome. Herein, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the role of the lung microbiome in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. We highlight fundamental clinical observations and mechanistic insights and identify crucial areas for further discovery science. An improved understanding of how the lung microbiome acts to influence outcomes in patients with pulmonary fibrosis will lead to enhanced therapies for this devastating lung disease.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia
13.
JCI Insight ; 5(17)2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879137

RESUMO

Macrophages are a primary immune cell involved in inflammation, and their cell plasticity allows for transition from an inflammatory to a reparative phenotype and is critical for normal tissue repair following injury. Evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play a critical role in establishing macrophage phenotype and function during normal and pathologic wound repair. Here, we find in human and murine wound macrophages that cyclooxygenase 2/prostaglandin E2 (COX-2/PGE2) is elevated in diabetes and regulates downstream macrophage-mediated inflammation and host defense. Using single-cell RNA sequencing of human wound tissue, we identify increased NF-κB-mediated inflammation in diabetic wounds and show increased COX-2/PGE2 in diabetic macrophages. Further, we identify that COX-2/PGE2 production in wound macrophages requires epigenetic regulation of 2 key enzymes in the cytosolic phospholipase A2/COX-2/PGE2 (cPLA2/COX-2/PGE2) pathway. We demonstrate that TGF-ß-induced miRNA29b increases COX-2/PGE2 production via inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 3b-mediated hypermethylation of the Cox-2 promoter. Further, we find mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) upregulates cPLA2 expression and drives COX-2/PGE2. Inhibition of the COX-2/PGE2 pathway genetically (Cox2fl/fl Lyz2Cre+) or with a macrophage-specific nanotherapy targeting COX-2 in tissue macrophages reverses the inflammatory macrophage phenotype and improves diabetic tissue repair. Our results indicate the epigenetically regulated PGE2 pathway controls wound macrophage function, and cell-targeted manipulation of this pathway is feasible to improve diabetic wound repair.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Dinoprostona/farmacologia , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização , Idoso , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ocitócicos/farmacologia , Fenótipo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Sci Adv ; 6(37)2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917680

RESUMO

Fibrosis, characterized by aberrant tissue scarring from activated myofibroblasts, is often untreatable. Although the extracellular matrix becomes increasingly stiff and fibrous during disease progression, how these physical cues affect myofibroblast differentiation in 3D is poorly understood. Here, we describe a multicomponent hydrogel that recapitulates the 3D fibrous structure of interstitial tissue regions where idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) initiates. In contrast to findings on 2D hydrogels, myofibroblast differentiation in 3D was inversely correlated with hydrogel stiffness but positively correlated with matrix fibers. Using a multistep bioinformatics analysis of IPF patient transcriptomes and in vitro pharmacologic screening, we identify matrix metalloproteinase activity to be essential for 3D but not 2D myofibroblast differentiation. Given our observation that compliant degradable 3D matrices amply support fibrogenesis, these studies demonstrate a departure from the established relationship between stiffness and myofibroblast differentiation in 2D, and provide a new 3D model for studying fibrosis and identifying antifibrotic therapeutics.

15.
EMBO J ; 39(16): e105057, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643835

RESUMO

Alveolar macrophages (AMs) and epithelial cells (ECs) are the lone resident lung cells positioned to respond to pathogens at early stages of infection. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important vectors of paracrine signaling implicated in a range of (patho)physiologic contexts. Here we demonstrate that AMs, but not ECs, constitutively secrete paracrine activity localized to EVs which inhibits influenza infection of ECs in vitro and in vivo. AMs exposed to cigarette smoke extract lost the inhibitory activity of their secreted EVs. Influenza strains varied in their susceptibility to inhibition by AM-EVs. Only those exhibiting early endosomal escape and high pH of fusion were inhibited via a reduction in endosomal pH. By contrast, strains exhibiting later endosomal escape and lower fusion pH proved resistant to inhibition. These results extend our understanding of how resident AMs participate in host defense and have broader implications in the defense and treatment of pathogens internalized within endosomes.


Assuntos
Endossomos , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Comunicação Parácrina/imunologia , Internalização do Vírus , Células A549 , Animais , Cães , Endossomos/imunologia , Endossomos/patologia , Endossomos/virologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Células THP-1
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12049, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694604

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and heterogeneous interstitial lung disease of unknown origin with a low survival rate. There are few treatment options available due to the fact that mechanisms underlying disease progression are not well understood, likely because they arise from dysregulation of complex signaling networks spanning multiple tissue compartments. To better characterize these networks, we used systems-focused data-driven modeling approaches to identify cross-tissue compartment (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage) and temporal proteomic signatures that differentiated IPF progressors and non-progressors. Partial least squares discriminant analysis identified a signature of 54 baseline (week 0) blood and lung proteins that differentiated IPF progression status by the end of 80 weeks of follow-up with 100% cross-validation accuracy. Overall we observed heterogeneous protein expression patterns in progressors compared to more homogenous signatures in non-progressors, and found that non-progressors were enriched for proteomic processes involving regulation of the immune/defense response. We also identified a temporal signature of blood proteins that was significantly different at early and late progressor time points (p < 0.0001), but not present in non-progressors. Overall, this approach can be used to generate new hypothesis for mechanisms associated with IPF progression and could readily be translated to other complex and heterogeneous diseases.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Progressão da Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Proteômica/métodos
19.
Matrix Biol ; 91-92: 35-50, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438056

RESUMO

The architectural complexity of the lung is crucial to its ability to function as an organ of gas exchange; the branching tree structure of the airways transforms the tracheal cross-section of only a few square centimeters to a blood-gas barrier with a surface area of tens of square meters and a thickness on the order of a micron or less. Connective tissue comprised largely of collagen and elastic fibers provides structural integrity for this intricate and delicate system. Homeostatic maintenance of this connective tissue, via a balance between catabolic and anabolic enzyme-driven processes, is crucial to life. Accordingly, when homeostasis is disrupted by the excessive production of connective tissue, lung function deteriorates rapidly with grave consequences leading to chronic lung conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis. Understanding how pulmonary fibrosis develops and alters the link between lung structure and function is crucial for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Further information gained could help elaborate how the healing process breaks down leading to chronic disease. Our understanding of fibrotic disease is greatly aided by the intersection of wet lab studies and mathematical and computational modeling. In the present review we will discuss how multi-scale modeling has facilitated our understanding of pulmonary fibrotic disease as well as identified opportunities that remain open and have produced techniques that can be incorporated into this field by borrowing approaches from multi-scale models of fibrosis beyond the lung.

20.
J Immunol ; 204(9): 2503-2513, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205424

RESUMO

Macrophages are critical for the initiation and resolution of the inflammatory phase of wound healing. In diabetes, macrophages display a prolonged inflammatory phenotype preventing tissue repair. TLRs, particularly TLR4, have been shown to regulate myeloid-mediated inflammation in wounds. We examined macrophages isolated from wounds of patients afflicted with diabetes and healthy controls as well as a murine diabetic model demonstrating dynamic expression of TLR4 results in altered metabolic pathways in diabetic macrophages. Further, using a myeloid-specific mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) knockout (Mll1f/fLyz2Cre+ ), we determined that MLL1 drives Tlr4 expression in diabetic macrophages by regulating levels of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation on the Tlr4 promoter. Mechanistically, MLL1-mediated epigenetic alterations influence diabetic macrophage responsiveness to TLR4 stimulation and inhibit tissue repair. Pharmacological inhibition of the TLR4 pathway using a small molecule inhibitor (TAK-242) as well as genetic depletion of either Tlr4 (Tlr4-/- ) or myeloid-specific Tlr4 (Tlr4f/fLyz2Cre+) resulted in improved diabetic wound healing. These results define an important role for MLL1-mediated epigenetic regulation of TLR4 in pathologic diabetic wound repair and suggest a target for therapeutic manipulation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/genética , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Cicatrização/genética , Idoso , Animais , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Feminino , Histonas/genética , Histonas/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/imunologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Cicatrização/imunologia
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