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1.
Head Neck ; 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parotid gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) has published five-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates of 77%-97%, with variance related to grade. METHODS: Patients receiving primary surgery for parotid gland MEC from 1995 to 2014 at a tertiary medical center underwent clinical review, histopathologic review, and cytogenetic analysis. Survival outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Among 58 patients, T/N/M classification was as follows: T1 in 35 patients, T2 in 14, T4a in 9, N0 in 53, N1 in 2, N2b in 3. Histologic grade was low in 27, intermediate in 17, and high in 12 patients with 98% MAML2 positivity. All patients underwent parotidectomy, and seven patients received adjuvant radiation therapy. CSS was 100% at 5 years and 94.1% at 10 and 15 years. Two patients experienced locoregional recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with adequate surgical resection and adjuvant radiation therapy for high-grade or advanced-stage tumors yields excellent survival, independent of clinical stage or pathologic grade.

2.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(5): 103029, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare clinical, surgical, and cost outcomes in patients undergoing head and neck free-flap reconstructive surgery in the setting of postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) against general floor management. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of head and neck free-flap reconstructive surgery patients at a single tertiary academic medical center. Clinical data was obtained from medical records. Cost data was obtained via the Mayo Clinic Rochester Cost Data Warehouse, which assigns Medicare reimbursement rates to all professional billed services. RESULTS: A total of 502 patients were included, with 82 managed postoperatively in the ICU and 420 on the general floor. Major postoperative outcomes did not differ significantly between groups (Odds Ratio[OR] 1.54; p = 0.41). After covariate adjustments, patients managed in the ICU had a 3.29 day increased average length of hospital stay (Standard Error 0.71; p < 0.0001) and increased need for take-back surgery (OR 2.35; p = 0.02) when compared to the general floor. No significant differences were noted between groups in terms of early free-flap complications (OR 1.38;p = 0.35) or late free-flap complications (Hazard Ratio 0.81; p = 0.61). Short-term cost was $8772 higher in the ICU (range = $5640-$11,903; p < 0.01). Long-term cost did not differ significantly. CONCLUSION: Postoperative management of head and neck oncologic free-flap patients in the ICU does not significantly improve major postoperative outcomes or free-flap complications when compared to general floor care, but does increase short-term costs. General floor management may be appropriate when cardiopulmonary compromise is not present.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792635

RESUMO

Importance: Maxillectomy can commonly be performed through a transoral approach, but maxillectomy defect reconstruction can be difficult to precisely design, contour, and inset through this approach. Objective: To evaluate whether the use of virtual surgical planning (VSP) and 3-dimensional (3-D) modeling is associated with a decrease in the requirement of lateral rhinotomy (LR) for patients undergoing total and partial maxillectomy reconstruction. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients undergoing subtotal or total maxillectomy with microvascular free flap reconstruction with or without VSP and 3-D modeling at a single tertiary care academic medical center between January 1, 2008, and October 3, 2019. Interventions: Maxillectomy and free flap reconstruction with or without VSP. Main Outcomes and Measures: Necessity of LR or other external incision for contouring, placement, and fixation of reconstruction as well as surgical complications. Results: Fifteen patients (12 men [80%]; mean age, 64 years) underwent maxillectomy with free flap reconstruction without VSP. Eight patients (53%) in this group underwent total maxillectomy, and 4 patients in this group (27%) underwent partial maxillectomy. Twenty-three patients (18 men [78%]; mean age, 58 years) underwent maxillectomy with free flap reconstruction and VSP and 3-D modeling. Twelve of these patients (52%) underwent total maxillectomy, and 11 (48%) underwent partial maxillectomy. Lateral rhinotomy was necessary for 1 patient (4%) in the VSP group vs 12 patients (80%; 95% CI, 54%-98%) in the pre-VSP group. There were no LR complications in the VSP group vs 6 in the pre-VSP group. Among both groups, 14 patients underwent fibula free flap, 22 patients underwent subscapular system free flap, and 2 patients underwent cutaneous or osteocutaneous radial forearm free flap. There were no flap failures in the LR group and 1 flap failure in the group without LR. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study suggests that the use of VSP and 3-D modeling for maxillectomy reconstruction is associated the a decrease in the need for external incisions without compromising reconstructive flap utility.

4.
Head Neck ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine whether virtual surgical planning and three-dimensional printed cutting guides (3D/VSP) improved radiographic bone union compared to conventional methods (CM) in fibula free flap (FFF) reconstruction of the mandibles. METHODS: Retrospective study from the years 2000-2018 at a tertiary hospital. Osseous union was evaluated by a radiologist blinded to each patient's treatment. RESULTS: Two hundred sixty patients who underwent FFF tissue transfer, 28 with VSP and 3D cutting guides. Bony union was not achieved in 46 (20%) patients who underwent CM compared to 1 (4%) of patients with VSP and guides (p = 0.036). FFF complication was significantly higher in CM with 87 patients (38%) compared to three patients (11%) in 3D/VSP (p = 0.005). Median time to bony union for patients who underwent CM was 1.4 years compared to 0.8 years in 3D/VSP. CONCLUSIONS: 3D/VSP reduced the rate of radiographic nonunion and flap-related complications in FFF reconstruction for mandibular defects.

5.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1945998211000426, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diagnostic delay in human papillomavirus-associated oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma (HPV(+)OPSCC) is common due to nonspecific symptoms. We aim to describe the disease burden and oncologic outcomes of patients with HPV(+)OPSCC diagnosed >12 months after symptom onset. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study of HPV(+)OPSCC patients receiving intent-to-cure treatment (including surgery ± adjuvant therapy or primary chemoradiation). SETTING: 2006-2016, tertiary care center. METHODS: Tumor stage was compared between patients with and without delayed diagnosis using χ2 tests. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with univariate and multivariable Cox regressions were used to determine the effect of diagnostic delay on oncologic outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 664 patients were included. Compared to patients diagnosed <12 months from symptom onset (n = 601), those diagnosed at >12 months (n = 63) were more likely to have T4 disease and higher overall American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) clinical stage at presentation (P < .01 for both). At 5 years, rates of overall survival, cancer-specific survival, progression-free survival, and distant metastases-free survival in the delayed diagnosis cohort were 80%, 90%, 80%, and 89%, respectively. A >12-month delay in diagnosis did not significantly impact overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.16; 95% CI, 0.58-2.31), cancer-specific survival (aHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.29-2.39), progression-free survival (aHR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.56-2.37), or distant metastases-free survival (aHR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.42-2.40) after adjusting for age, sex, and clinical AJCC stage (P > .05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed diagnosis of HPV(+)OPSCC is associated with greater burden of disease at presentation, but oncologic outcomes remain favorable across treatment modalities. When appropriate, intent-to-cure therapy should be pursued despite diagnostic delay. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(6): 742-751, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancers have excellent outcomes but experience clinically significant toxicities when treated with standard chemoradiotherapy (70 Gy). We hypothesized that functional imaging could identify patients who could be safely deescalated to 30 Gy of radiotherapy. METHODS: In 19 patients, pre- and intratreatment dynamic fluorine-18-labeled fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography (PET) was used to assess tumor hypoxia. Patients without hypoxia at baseline or intratreatment received 30 Gy; patients with persistent hypoxia received 70 Gy. Neck dissection was performed at 4 months in deescalated patients to assess pathologic response. Magnetic resonance imaging (weekly), circulating plasma cell-free DNA, RNA-sequencing, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) were performed to identify potential molecular determinants of response. Samples from an independent prospective study were obtained to reproduce molecular findings. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Fifteen of 19 patients had no hypoxia on baseline PET or resolution on intratreatment PET and were deescalated to 30 Gy. Of these 15 patients, 11 had a pathologic complete response. Two-year locoregional control and overall survival were 94.4% (95% confidence interval = 84.4% to 100%) and 94.7% (95% confidence interval = 85.2% to 100%), respectively. No acute grade 3 radiation-related toxicities were observed. Microenvironmental features on serial imaging correlated better with pathologic response than tumor burden metrics or circulating plasma cell-free DNA. A WGS-based DNA repair defect was associated with response (P = .02) and was reproduced in an independent cohort (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Deescalation of radiotherapy to 30 Gy on the basis of intratreatment hypoxia imaging was feasible, safe, and associated with minimal toxicity. A DNA repair defect identified by WGS was predictive of response. Intratherapy personalization of chemoradiotherapy may facilitate marked deescalation of radiotherapy.

7.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 194599820982662, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Failure to recognize symptoms of human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV(+)OPSCC) at presentation can delay diagnosis and treatment. This study aims to identify patient factors and provider patterns that contribute to delayed diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary care center. METHODS: Patients with HPV(+)OPSCC receiving intent-to-cure treatment from 2006 to 2016. Clinical data, workup, and care timelines were abstracted. Univariate and multivariable linear regressions were performed to determine associations. RESULTS: Of 703 included patients, 627 (89%) were male, and mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 59 (9) years. The mean (SD) delay to diagnosis was 148.8 (243.51) days, with an average delay of 63 (154.91) days from symptom onset to first presentation and 82.8 (194.25) days from first presentation to diagnosis. Most patients visited at least 2 providers (n = 546, 78%) before diagnosis and saw their primary care physician at first presentation (n = 496, 71%). The most common imaging and biopsy obtained before diagnosis was neck computed tomography (n = 391, 56%) and neck fine-needle aspiration (n = 423, 60%), respectively. On multivariable linear regression, being a homemaker, being a current smoker, seeing 3 or more providers, and getting a magnetic resonance imaging scan were associated with significant delays in diagnosis (P < .01, all). Treatment with antibiotics and a suspicion for HPV(+)OPSCC at first presentation were associated with decreased delays in diagnosis (P < .01, both). CONCLUSIONS: Patient delays in seeking medical attention and provider delays in recognizing the appropriate diagnosis both contribute to delays of care in HPV(+)OPSCC. Improved patient and provider education is necessary to expedite the diagnosis of HPV(+)OPSCC.

8.
Head Neck ; 43(1): 229-237, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aggressive dose de-escalated adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in patients with human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV(+)OPSCC). METHODS: Patients with HPV(+)OPSCC on a phase II clinical trial of primary surgery and neck dissection followed by dose de-escalated RT (N = 79) were compared with a cohort of patients who received standard adjuvant therapy (N = 115). Local recurrence-free, regional recurrence-free, distant metastases-free survival, and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed. RESULTS: Of 194 patients, 23 experienced progression at a median of 1.1 years following surgery (interquartile range [IQR] 0.7-2.0; range 0.3-5.4); 10 patients in the de-escalated cohort and 13 patients in the standard cohort. The 3-year PFS rate for the de-escalated cohort was 87%, and in the standard cohort was 90% (hazard ratio [HR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.50-2.75]). CONCLUSION: Patients with HPV(+)OPSCC who undergo surgical resection and neck dissection and meet criteria for adjuvant therapy can undergo aggressive dose de-escalation of RT without increasing risk of progression locally, regionally or at distant sites.

9.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 110(2): 396-402, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: De-escalated treatment for human papillomavirus (HPV)+ oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has shown promising initial results. Health-care policy is increasingly focusing on high-value care. This analysis compares the cost of care for HPV+ OPSCC treated with definitive chemoradiation (CRT), surgery and adjuvant radiation (RT), and surgery and de-escalated CRT on MC1273. METHODS AND MATERIALS: MC1273 is a prospective, phase 2 study evaluating adjuvant CRT to 30 to 36 Gy plus docetaxel for HPV+ OPSCC after surgery for high-risk patients. Matched standard-of-care control groups were retrospectively identified for patients treated with definitive CRT or adjuvant RT. Standardized costs were evaluated before radiation, during treatment (during RT), and at short-term (6 month) and long-term (7-24 month) follow-up periods. RESULTS: A total of 56 definitive CRT, 101 adjuvant RT, and 66 MC1273 patients were included. The CRT arm had more T3-4 disease (63% vs 17-21%) and higher N2c-N3 disease (52% vs 20-24%) vs both other groups. The total treatment costs in the CRT, adjuvant RT, and MC1273 groups were $47,763 (standard deviation [SD], $19,060], $57,845 (SD, $17,480), and $46,007 (SD, $9019), respectively, and the chemotherapy and/or RT costs were $39,936 (SD, $18,480), $26,603 (SD, $12,542), and $17,864 (SD, $3288), respectively. The per-patient, per-month, average short-term follow-up costs were $3860 (SD, $10,525), $1072 (SD, $996), and $972 (SD, $833), respectively, and the long-term costs were $978 (SD, $2294), $485 (SD, $1156), and $653 (SD, $1107), respectively. After adjustment for age, T-stage, and N-stage, treatment costs remained lower for CRT and MC1273 versus adjuvant RT ($45,450 and $47,114 vs $58,590, respectively; P < .001), whereas the total per-patient, per-month follow-up costs were lower in the MC1273 study group and adjuvant RT versus CRT ($853 and $866 vs $2030, respectively; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: MC1273 resulted in 10% and 20% reductions in global costs compared with standard-of-care adjuvant RT and definitive CRT treatments. Substantial cost savings may be an added benefit to the already noted low toxicity and maintained quality of life of treatment per MC1273.

10.
Head Neck ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA) can be a lifelong disease, and rates of subsequent recurrence are high. METHODS: Patients between 2000 and 2015 were identified. Primary outcome was subsequent recurrence after surgical salvage. RESULTS: Twenty-seven of 84 patients developed a subsequent recurrence. Risk factors for subsequent recurrence included a higher number of previous recurrences (P < .01), worse preoperative facial nerve function (P < .01), and deep parotid lesion(s) (P < .01). Interval since last surgery was protective (P < .01), specifically >10 years since last surgery (P < .01). For patients with a >10-year interval since their last surgery, the subsequent recurrence-free rate at 10 years follow-up was 80.2% vs 31.8%. CONCLUSIONS: For patients presenting with a >10-year interval since their last surgery, subsequent recurrence rates are low, which may allow for as needed surveillance recommendations. For patients presenting with recurrent PA and ≤10 years since their last surgery, a closer surveillance is warranted.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151273

RESUMO

Importance: Regional lymph node metastasis remains an important prognostic factor in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Although survival among patients with regional metastasis in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OPSCC is more favorable compared with patients who are HPV negative, prognostic variables associated with failure in patients with single-node metastasis are not known. Objective: To evaluate recurrence and survival in patients with HPV-related OPSCC with single-lymph node metastasis treated with transoral surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 207 adults with newly diagnosed p16-positive OPSCC and pathology-confirmed single-node disease who underwent surgical resection with or without adjuvant therapy at 2 tertiary academic medical centers from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2016. Statistical analysis was performed from September 1, 2018, to September 1, 2020. Interventions: Surgery alone (n = 59), surgery with adjuvant radiation (n = 75), or surgery with adjuvant chemoradiation (n = 73). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was regional recurrence. Secondary outcomes included overall survival, any recurrence, and identification of factors associated with regional recurrence and overall survival. Results: Among 207 patients, 178 (86%) were men, with a median age of 57 years (range, 35-82 years) at the time of surgery. Median follow-up was 36.2 months (range, 7-127 months). Regional recurrence occurred in 11 patients (5%). Of these, 1 patient (9%) was lost to follow-up after diagnosis, 1 (9%) was treated with palliative chemotherapy, and 9 (82%) were treated with curative intent. Ultimately, 7 patients received successful salvage treatment, and 3 died with disease. Overall, there were 21 patients (10%) with any recurrence, with 4 patients (19%) experiencing local recurrence, 11 (52%) experiencing regional recurrence, and 6 (29%) experiencing distant metastasis. The 5-year overall survival was 95% (95% CI, 89%-98%) for all patients. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2), advanced T stage (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.9-14.0), and positive margins (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 1.8-67.5) were associated with increased regional recurrence. Extranodal extension (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.8), lymph node size greater than 3 cm (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), and adjuvant therapy (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.02-0.4) were associated with decreased regional recurrence. Advanced comorbidities (hazard ratio, 6.20; 95% CI, 1.4-27.7), lymphovascular invasion (hazard ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.0-21.2), and regional recurrence (hazard ratio, 16.0; 95% CI, 3.1-82.0) were associated with worse overall survival. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that patients with HPV-related OPSCC and single-node disease undergoing surgical resection with or without adjuvant treatment have excellent survival. Adjuvant therapy appears to improve regional control. Among patients with regional recurrence of OPSCC, there is a high rate of successful salvage treatment.

12.
Head Neck ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients presenting with recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (rPA), clinical evaluation can fail to recognize carcinoma ex PA (cxPA). We aim to identify the risk factors for cxPA. METHODS: This is a single institution retrospective case-control study from 2000 to 2015. CxPA was diagnosed based on surgical pathology. Demographics, clinical, and social histories were collected. RESULTS: A number of 13/106 (12.3%) patients were diagnosed with cxPA, of which only 4/13 (31%) had clinical features suspicious for malignancy. Compared to benign rPA, factors associated with cxPA included age >50 (odds ratio [OR] 6.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.71-25.98, P < .01), >10 pack-years of smoking history (OR 3.36, 95% CI: 1.01-11.14, P = .04), and the largest tumor being >2 cm on pathology (OR 4.42, 95% CI: 1.14-17.10, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: In patients presenting with rPA, risk factors for malignant transformation include age >50, significant smoking history, and tumors larger than 2 cm. Clinical signs of malignancy such as rapid growth or pain are not always present.

13.
Laryngoscope ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The spine is the most common site of bone metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The role of surgery in the management of cervical spine (C-spine) metastases (CSpM) has not been adequately explored. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary referral center from 2002 to 2018. Inclusion criteria were pathologic diagnosis of DTC and imaging/pathologic diagnosis of CSpM. Statistical analysis utilized t tests for continuous variables and χ2 tests for categorical variables. Survival analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier curves with univariate and multivariate Cox regressions. RESULTS: Fifty patients with DTC and CSpM were identified. Of those, 16 underwent surgical resection of the C-spine, whereas 34 did not. The most common presenting symptom was neck pain (N = 37, 74%). Patients in the surgery group were more likely to report a subjective improvement of symptoms (P < .01) and to have local (P < .01) and systemic (P = .04) disease control. Five-year overall survival was 44.7% for the surgery group (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.1-69.3) and 11.1% (95% CI: 2.1-28.8) for the nonsurgery group (P = .01). The strongest risk factor for improved overall survival after C-spine metastasis was local disease control at the C-spine (multivariate hazard ratio [HR] = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.85, P = .02). Surgical intervention was significantly associated with improved survival on both univariate (HR = 0. 35, 95% CI: 0.15-0.82, P = .02) and multivariate (HR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14-0.98, P = .04) analysis. CONCLUSION: Surgical management of CSpM in differentiated thyroid cancers is associated with significantly improved local disease control and overall survival. Referral to spine surgeons should be considered after diagnosis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV. Laryngoscope, 2020.

14.
Methods Enzymol ; 644: 35-61, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943150

RESUMO

Myoglobin has recently emerged as a versatile metalloprotein scaffold for the design of efficient and selective biocatalysts for abiological carbene transfer reactions, including asymmetric cyclopropanation reactions. Over the past few years, our group has explored several strategies to modulate the carbene transfer reactivity of myoglobin-based catalysts, including the substitution of the native heme cofactor and conserved histidine axial ligand with non-native porphynoid ligands and alternative natural and unnatural amino acids as the metal-coordinating ligands, respectively. Herein, we report protocols for the generation and reconstitution in vitro and in vivo of myoglobin-based artificial carbene transferases incorporating non-native iron-porphynoid cofactors, also in combination with unnatural amino acids as the proximal ligand. These strategies are effective for imparting these myoglobin-based cyclopropanation biocatalysts with altered and improved function, including tolerance to aerobic conditions and improved reactivity toward electrondeficient olefins.

15.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(6): 102642, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682193

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare recurrent pleomorphic adenoma tumor burden as detected on magnetic resonance and computerized tomography imaging with postoperative histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 44 patients were identified at a tertiary medical center between 2000 and 2015. Patients were included if they had viewable preoperative imaging and a postoperative diagnosis of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Primary outcomes were differences in the number and size of lesions detected on imaging and pathology. RESULTS: The size in greatest dimension between pathology and imaging was not significant on aggregate MRI + CT (p = 0.78), MRI (p = 0.41), or CT (p = 0.69). There were more lesions found on pathology compared to both aggregate MRI + CT (p = 0.003) and CT alone (p = 0.014). The number of lesions between MRI and pathology failed to reach significance (p = 0.06). On univariate analysis, the interval between imaging and pathology (recurrent surgery) did not significantly affect the number of lesions detected (p = 0.18). On multivariable analysis, CT as the primary imaging modality and >1 recurrence was independently associated with greater inaccuracy with respect to number of lesions detected (p = 0.006; p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: The size of the largest lesion on pathology can be accurately determined with imaging. Compared to MRI, CT scans significantly underpredict the number of lesions found on pathology. MRI should be prioritized unless contraindications exist. These findings will help guide imaging choice, preoperative planning, and patient counseling.

16.
Oral Oncol ; 111: 104894, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated T cell clonality (TCC) and T cell fraction (TCF) in human papilloma virus associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV(+)OPSCC) progressors [cases] vs. non-progressors [controls]. METHODS: This nested case-control study included patients undergoing intent-to-cure surgery ± adjuvant therapy from 6/1/2007-10/3/2016. Patients experiencing local/regional/distant disease (progressors), and a consecutive sample of non-progressors were matched (2 controls: 1 case) on tumor subsite, T-stage and number of metastatic lymph nodes. We performed imunosequencing of the CDR3 regions of human TCRß chains. RESULTS: 34 progressors and 65 non-progressors were included. There was no statistically significant difference in baseline TCF (range: 0.039-1.084) and TCC (range: 0.007-0.240) (p > 0.05). Female sex was associated with higher TCF (p = 0.03), while extranodal extension (ENE) was associated with lower TCF (p = 0.01). There was a positive correlation between tumor size and clonality (R = 0.34, p < 0.01). The strongest predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) was TCF (HR 0.80, 95%CI 0.66-0.96, p = 0.02). The strongest predictors of cancer specific survival (CSS) were TCF (HR0.69, 95%CI 0.47-1.00, p < 0.05) and Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27) score (p < 0.05). Similarly, the strongest predictors of overall survival (OS) were TCF (HR 0.62, 95%CI 0.43-0.91, p = 0.01) and ACE-27 score (p = 0.03). On multivariable modeling, TCF ≥ 0.4 was independently associated with PFS (HR 0.34, 95%CI 0.14-0.85, p = 0.02) while an ACE-27 score of ≥ 2 independently predicted CSS (HR 3.85, 95%CI 1.07-13.85, p = 0.04) and OS (HR 3.51, 95%CI 1.10-11.20, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HPV(+)OPSCC, TCF was higher in female patients and those without ENE, suggesting differential immune responses. Lower TCF was significantly and independently associated with disease progression. Better ACE-27 scores appear to predict improved oncologic control.

17.
Laryngoscope ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Use validated eye-tracking technology to objectively measure 1) the attentional distraction of facial contour defects after superficial and total parotidectomy and 2) changes in attentional distraction with abdominal dermal fat graft reconstruction. METHODS: Standardized frontal and oblique facial images of 16 patients who had undergone superficial or total parotidectomy with or without fat graft reconstruction; four normal controls were obtained. One hundred casual observers were recruited to view these images, and gaze data were collected using a Tobii Pro eye-tracking system. Gaze durations for predefined facial areas of interest were analyzed using mixed-effects linear regression to test study hypotheses. RESULTS: For frontal images, total parotidectomy increased gaze to the operated parotid area compared to the contralateral nonoperated parotid area (92 milliseconds, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 48-138 milliseconds, P < .001). Fat grafting normalized the attentional distraction, with no difference in gaze time on the operated parotid region compared to normal control faces (P = .414). For oblique images, total parotidectomy increased gaze to the operated parotid area compared to the contralateral nonoperated parotid area (658 milliseconds, 95% CI: 463-854 milliseconds, P < .001). Fat grafting normalized this attentional distraction, with no difference in gaze time on the operated parotid region compared to normal control faces (P = .504). In both views, superficial parotidectomy demonstrated no significant attentional distractions, with or without fat grafting. CONCLUSIONS: This eye-tracking study objectively demonstrates that total parotidectomy results in a facial contour deformity that is distracting to observers, whereas superficial parotidectomy does not. For total parotidectomy, this attentional distraction can be normalized with dermal fat graft reconstruction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3b Laryngoscope, 2020.

18.
Oral Oncol ; 108: 104822, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prognostic factors specific to surgically managed human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV(+)OPSCC) are not fully understood. Medical co-morbidities may have an impact on survival after surgical treatment. We aimed to identify co-morbidities associated with distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in HPV(+)OPSCCs. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of HPV(+)OPSCC patients at a tertiary referral center from 2007 to 2016. All patients in the study underwent primary intent-to-cure transoral resection with concomitant neck dissection ± adjuvant radiation ± chemotherapy. Exclusion criteria included a history of previous head and neck cancer or distant metastases at diagnosis. Associations with DMFS and CSS were evaluated using univariable and multivariable Cox regression and summarized with hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: 406 patients were included in the cohort (100% HPV(+), 90% Male). All had tumors of the tonsil (62%) or base of tongue (38%). Median follow-up for the cohort was 4.0 years (IQR: 2.6-6.2). Higher tumor stage and a higher Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 score were significantly associated with worse DMFS and CSS (p < 0.02 for all). A history of diabetes mellitus (N = 36, 9%) was significantly associated with DMFS (HR 3.05 [95%CI 1.26-7.37], p = 0.014) and CSS (HR 4.82 [95%CI 1.84-12.61], p = 0.001). On multivariable analysis, after adjusting for tumor stage, diabetes remained significantly associated with worse DMFS (HR 2.58 [95%CI 1.06-6.26], p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus may be associated with worse DMFS and CSS in surgically managed HPV(+)OPSCC.

19.
Laryngoscope ; 130(8): E469-E478, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe pain experience and opioid use after major head and neck reconstructive surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Patients undergoing major head and neck surgery with microvascular free tissue transfer (free flaps) at a tertiary academic center were included. Pain scores (0-10) and demographic and clinical data were ascertained from medical records. Discharge opioid prescriptions and refills obtained within 30 days were recorded. Patient characteristics were compared with pain scores using nonparametric rank-sum tests and with likelihood of refill using logistic regression models to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The study population comprised 445 patients. Median age was 60 years (interquartile range 50-68). Most patients had cancer (N = 350, 78%). The majority of free flaps were fibula (N = 153, 34%) or radial forearm (N = 159, 36%). Older patients reported significantly lower pain scores, whereas patients with opioid tolerance, anxiety, current smokers, and those undergoing larger volume resections or boney free flaps reported significantly higher pain scores. One-quarter (N = 115, 26%) of patients obtained opioid refills. Patients aged ≥ 60 years had one-half the odds of obtaining a refill compared with patients aged < 60 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33-0.84), whereas surgical defect volume ≥ 100 cm3 (aOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.21-3.07) and higher pain score (aOR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.07-1.32 per 1 point increase) increased the odds of refill. CONCLUSION: Continued opioid use after discharge is common among patients undergoing major head and neck reconstruction, particularly for younger patients and after more extensive surgery. Older patients reported lower pain intensity and were less likely to obtain opioid refills, highlighting the wisdom of judicious opioid use for this vulnerable population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV Laryngoscope, 130: E469-E478, 2020.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(3): 531-537, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clinical variables affecting anesthetic recovery following transoral robotic surgery (TORS) to resect oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma have not been described. We aimed to explore risk factors associated with prolonged postanesthesia recovery following TORS. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center, January 2010 to November 2016. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients included adults undergoing primary TORS ± neck dissection for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Patients were categorized by phase I recovery time into the "goal" recovery group (75th percentile [lower 3 quartiles], n = 272) and the "prolonged" recovery group (n = 91). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between clinical characteristics and prolonged phase I recovery. RESULTS: A total of 363 patients were included. Median (interquartile range) duration of postanesthesia recovery was 1.5 hours (1.0-2.0). Prolonged recovery was associated with isoflurane (odds ratio, 2.83 [95% CI, 1.56-5.14], P < .001), midazolam (2.77 [1.50-5.12], P = .001), and larger opioid doses (1.26 [1.01-1.58] per 10-mg intravenous morphine equivalents, P = .040) and inversely associated with multimodal antiemetic therapy (0.34 [0.15-0.78], P = .011). Prolonged cases had higher rates of postoperative nausea and vomiting (n = 43 [47.2%] vs 86 [31.6%], P = .008), respiratory depression (28 [30.8%] vs 12 [4.4%], P < .001), sedation (Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale < -2; 26 [28.6%] vs 35 [12.9%], P = .001), severe pain (numeric rating score ≥7; 31 [34.4%] vs 45 [17.2%], P = .001), and longer hospital stays (4 vs 3 days, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Several anesthetic factors are associated with anesthesia recovery duration, which may be shortened by efforts to reduce postoperative sedation, severe pain, and nausea/vomiting. Shortened anesthesia recovery time may reduce hospital stay.

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