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1.
J Med Chem ; 62(7): 3228-3250, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893553

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the Tec family of kinases and is essential for B cell receptor (BCR) mediated signaling. BTK also plays a critical role in the downstream signaling pathways for the Fcγ receptor in monocytes, the Fcε receptor in granulocytes, and the RANK receptor in osteoclasts. As a result, pharmacological inhibition of BTK is anticipated to provide an effective strategy for the clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. This article will outline the evolution of our strategy to identify a covalent, irreversible inhibitor of BTK that has the intrinsic potency, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties necessary to provide a rapid rate of inactivation systemically following a very low dose. With excellent in vivo efficacy and a very desirable tolerability profile, 5a (branebrutinib, BMS-986195) has advanced into clinical studies.

2.
ACS Sustain Chem Eng ; 6(3): 2878-2882, 2018 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271687

RESUMO

Production of value-added compounds from a renewable aromatic polymer, lignin, has proven to be challenging. Chemical procedures, involving harsh reaction conditions, are costly and often result in nonselective degradation of lignin linkages. Therefore, enzymatic catalysis with selective cleavage of lignin bonds provides a sustainable option for lignin valorization. In this study, we describe the first functionally characterized fungal intracellular ß-etherase from the wood-degrading white-rot basidiomycete Dichomitus squalens. This enzyme, Ds-GST1, from the glutathione-S-transferase superfamily selectively cleaved the ß-O-4 aryl ether bond of a dimeric lignin model compound in a glutathione-dependent reaction. Ds-GST1 also demonstrated activity on polymeric synthetic lignin fractions, shown by a decrease in molecular weight distribution of the laccase-oxidized guaiacyl dehydrogenation polymer. In addition to a possible role of Ds-GST1 in intracellular catabolism of lignin-derived aromatic compounds, the cleavage of the most abundant linkages in lignin under mild reaction conditions makes this biocatalyst an attractive green alternative in biotechnological applications.

3.
Bioanalysis ; 8(4): 265-74, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26807991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A target protein-based affinity extraction LC-MS/MS method was developed to enable plasma level determination following ultralow dosing (0.1-3 µg/kg) of an inhibitor of apoptosis proteins molecule. Methodology & results: Affinity extraction (AE) utilizing immobilized target protein BIR2/BIR3 was used to selectively capture the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins molecule from dog plasma and enable removal of background matrix components. Pretreatment of plasma samples using protein precipitation was found to provide an additional sensitivity gain. A LLOQ of 7.8 pM was achieved by combining protein precipitation with AE. The method was used to support an ultralow dose dog toxicity study. CONCLUSION: AE-LC-MS/MS, utilizing target protein, is a highly sensitive methodology for small molecule quantification with potential for broader applicability.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoquinolinas/análise , Limite de Detecção , Oligopeptídeos/análise , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas Imobilizadas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Imobilizadas/química , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/química , Isoquinolinas/química , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
4.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 12: E97, 2015 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26086610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Parks provide opportunities for physical activity for children. This study examined sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity because differences may indicate that a standard environmental intervention to increase activity among children may not equally benefit boys and girls. METHODS: The System for Observation Play and Recreation in Communities was used to measure physical activity among 2,712 children and adolescents in 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, North Carolina, in 2007. Sedentary activity, walking, vigorous park activity, and energy expenditure were the primary outcome variables. Hierarchical logit regression models of physical activity were estimated separately for boys and girls. RESULTS: Type of activity area and presence of other active children were positively associated with boys' and girls' physical activity, and presence of a parent was negatively associated. A significant interaction involving number of recreation facilities in combination with formal activities was positively associated with girls' activity. A significant interaction involving formal park activity and young boys (aged 0-5 y) was negatively associated with park-based physical activity. CONCLUSION: Activity area and social correlates of park-based physical activity were similar for boys and girls; findings for formal park programming, age, and number of facilities were mixed. Results show that girls' physical activity was more strongly affected by social effects (eg, presence of other active children) whereas boys' physical activity was more strongly influenced by the availability of park facilities. These results can inform park planning and design. Additional studies are necessary to clarify sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Área Programática (Saúde) , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Metabolismo Energético , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , North Carolina , Relações Pais-Filho , Jogos e Brinquedos , Recreação , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Caminhada/fisiologia
5.
Sleep Breath ; 19(3): 835-40, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25566940

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Physiologic changes in the cardiac, respiratory, and renal systems in pregnancy likely impact ventilatory control. Though obstructive sleep apnea and snoring are common in the pregnant population, the predisposition to central respiratory events during sleep and the prevalence of such events is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of central apneas during sleep in pregnant women and non-pregnant controls suspected of sleep disordered breathing. METHODS: Twenty-five pregnant women referred for polysomnography for sleep disordered breathing were compared with non-pregnant controls matched for age, body mass index, gender, and apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Central apnea index was defined as the number of central apneas per hour of sleep, and mixed apnea index was defined as the number of mixed apneas per hour of sleep. RESULTS: Sixty-four percent of pregnant women had a respiratory disturbance index >5 events per hour of sleep. Mean body mass index was 44.1 ± 6.9 kg/m(2) pregnant compared to 44.0 ± 7.3 kg/m(2) in controls. The total number of central apneas observed during sleep in the pregnant group consisted of two central apneas in one patient, and of 98 central apneas in 11 patients in the control group (p = 0.05). Median central apnea index was low in both groups (pregnant 0, interquartile range (IQR) 0, 0 vs. non-pregnant 0, IQR 0, 0.2, p = 0.04). Mixed apnea index was similarly low in both groups. CONCLUSION: Despite some physiologic changes of pregnancy that impact ventilatory control, the prevalence of central sleep apnea was low in our sample of overweight pregnant women with sleep-disordered breathing.


Assuntos
Polissonografia , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Apneia do Sono Tipo Central/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Apneia do Sono Tipo Central/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
6.
Bioanalysis ; 6(13): 1795-811, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25157486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The disease state can modulate the penetration of large antibody-sized therapeutic molecules into affected tissues. Suitable bioanalytical methods are required for the quantitative analysis of drug tissue levels to enable a better understanding of the parameters influencing drug penetration and target engagement. RESULTS: Described is a sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of human mAb molecules in mouse tissues. By homogenizing tissues directly into serum, a common serum calibration curve can be used for multiple tissues. A generic procedure was used for affinity enrichment. An analytical range of 20 - 20,000 ng/ml was achieved in serum. CONCLUSION: The method described here can be applied for the quantitative analysis of mAb and Fc-fusion therapeutic molecules in a variety of animal tissue matrices.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/sangue , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/análise , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/sangue , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/metabolismo , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Peptídeos/análise , Análise de Regressão , Pele/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo , Ustekinumab
7.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 10(5): 497-502, 2014 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24910550

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of using the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES) Unicorder for detecting obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in pregnant women. METHODS: Sixteen pregnant women, mean age (SD) = 29.8 (5.4) years, average gestational age (SD) = 28.6 (6.3) weeks, mean body mass index (SD) = 44.7 (6.9) kg/m(2) with signs and symptoms of OSA wore the ARES Unicorder during one night of laboratory polysomnography (PSG). PSG was scored according to AASM 2007 criteria, and PSG AHI and RDI were compared to the ARES 1%, 3%, and 4% AHIs calculated with the ARES propriety software. RESULTS: Median PSG AHI and PSG RDI were 3.1 and 10.3 events/h of sleep, respectively. Six women had a PSG AHI ≥ 5 events/h of sleep and 11 had a PSG RDI ≥ 5 events/h of sleep. PSG AHI and RDI were strongly correlated with the ARES AHI measures. When compared with polysomnographic diagnosis of OSA, the ARES 3% algorithm provided the best balance between sensitivity (1.0 for PSG AHI, 0.91 for PSG RDI) and specificity (0.5 for PSG AHI, 0.8 for PSG RDI) for detecting sleep disordered breathing in our sample. CONCLUSIONS: The ARES Unicorder demonstrated reasonable consistency with PSG for diagnosing OSA in this small, heterogeneous sample of obese pregnant women.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Polissonografia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sleep Med ; 15(5): 550-5, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24726569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Pregnancy physiology may predispose women to the development of airflow limitations during sleep. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether pregnant women suspected of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are more likely to have airflow limitations compared to non-pregnant controls. METHODS: We recruited pregnant women referred for polysomnography for a diagnosis of SDB. Non-pregnant female controls matched for age, body mass index (BMI), and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) were identified from a database. We examined airflow tracings for changes in amplitude and shape. We classified airflow limitation by (a) amplitude criteria defined as decreased airflow of > or =10 s without desaturation or arousal (FL 10), or decreased airflow of any duration combined with either 1-2% desaturation or arousal, (FL 1-2%); and (b) shape criteria defined as the presence of flattening or oscillations of the inspiratory flow curve. RESULTS: We identified 25 case-control pairs. Mean BMI was 44.0±6.9 in cases and 44.1±7.3 in controls. Using shape criteria, pregnant women had significantly more flow-limited breaths throughout total sleep time (32.4±35.8 vs. 9.4±17.9, p<0.0001) and in each stage of sleep (p<0.0001) than non-pregnant controls. In a subgroup analysis, pregnant women without a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) who had an AHI <5 had similar findings (p<0.0001). There was no difference in airflow limitation by amplitude criteria between pregnant women and controls (p=0.22). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women suspected of OSA have more frequent shape-defined airflow limitations than non-pregnant controls, even when they do not meet polysomnographic OSA criteria.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Polissonografia , Gravidez , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Fases do Sono/fisiologia
9.
Am J Health Promot ; 28(3 Suppl): S27-32, 2014 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24380462

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Preventing Obesity by Design (POD), a childcare center outdoor renovation intervention. DESIGN: Pre-post intervention evaluation. SETTING: North Carolina licensed childcare centers (N = 27). SUBJECTS: Preschool children. INTERVENTION: Outdoor renovation, teacher training. MEASURES: Behavior mapping, Preschool Outdoor Environment Measurement Scale (POEMS), center director interview. ANALYSIS: Descriptive statistics, ordinary least squares and logistic regressions calculated to assess levels of association between environmental change, children's physical activity (PA), social behaviors, and environmental quality. Qualitative interview data analyzed to help understand intervention impact. RESULTS: Behavior mapping showed that site layout attributes, such as the form (i.e., "single loop" and "double loop") of pathways (functioning as circulation routes and wheeled toy settings), are associated with higher levels of PA. Teacher interaction was associated with decreased children's PA. Absence of teacher or lack of child/child interaction was associated with increased PA. POEMS assessment of environmental quality was higher after renovation. POEMS domains (Physical Space and Teacher/Caregiver Roles) were positively associated with PA. After renovation, 68% of center directors reported positive changes in children's behavior and 40% mentioned edible plant installations as greatest success. CONCLUSION: Built environment renovation of childcare center outdoors, including looped pathways installation, coupled with teacher training, may support increased PA. Renovation, including food gardens, may be a key to success for preschool health promotion and support change in childcare policy.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Creches , Planejamento Ambiental , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Docentes , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço/métodos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Comportamento Social , Ensino/métodos
10.
Am J Prev Med ; 41(3): 258-65, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21855739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Availability of parks is associated with higher levels of physical activity among children and adolescents. Few studies examine actual park use and park-based physical activity in these populations. PURPOSE: This study examined associations among individual, park, and neighborhood environmental characteristics and children's and adolescent's park-based physical activity. METHODS: Data were collected in 2007 on 2712 children in 20 randomly selected parks in Durham NC. The System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) provided measures of physical activity. Hierarchic regression analysis assessed associations among individual, park, and neighborhood environmental characteristics and children's park-based physical activity. Data were analyzed in 2010. RESULTS: Of the 2712 children observed, 34.2% and 13.2% were engaged in walking or vigorous physical activity. Environmental features of parks were associated with activity levels whereas neighborhood characteristics were not. Physical activity was negatively associated with gender (girls) (p=0.003); presence of a parent (p<0.0001); presence of nonparental adult (p=0.006); and an interaction involving the 0-5 years age group and style of play (p=0.017). Higher level of physical activity was associated with presence of other active children (p<0.0001); courts (e.g., basketball); and an interaction between number of recreation facilities and formal activities (p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: These social factors and design features should be considered in order to stimulate higher levels of park-based physical activity among children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recreação , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais
11.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 18(4): 441-8, 2011 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21515544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the 6 years since the National Library of Medicine began monthly releases of RxNorm, RxNorm has become a central resource for communicating about clinical drugs and supporting interoperation between drug vocabularies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Built on the idea of a normalized name for a medication at a given level of abstraction, RxNorm provides a set of names and relationships based on 11 different external source vocabularies. The standard model enables decision support to take place for a variety of uses at the appropriate level of abstraction. With the incorporation of National Drug File Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) from the Veterans Administration, even more sophisticated decision support has become possible. DISCUSSION: While related products such as RxTerms, RxNav, MyMedicationList, and MyRxPad have been recognized as helpful for various uses, tasks such as identifying exactly what is and is not on the market remain a challenge.


Assuntos
Serviços de Informação sobre Medicamentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Vocabulário Controlado , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , National Library of Medicine (U.S.) , Terminologia como Assunto , Estados Unidos , Interface Usuário-Computador
12.
J Am Coll Surg ; 213(1): 83-92; discussion 93-4, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21420879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Operating rooms (ORs) are resource-intense and costly hospital units. Maximizing OR efficiency is essential to maintaining an economically viable institution. OR efficiency projects often focus on a limited number of ORs or cases. Efforts across an entire OR suite have not been reported. Lean and Six Sigma methodologies were developed in the manufacturing industry to increase efficiency by eliminating non-value-added steps. We applied Lean and Six Sigma methodologies across an entire surgical suite to improve efficiency. STUDY DESIGN: A multidisciplinary surgical process improvement team constructed a value stream map of the entire surgical process from the decision for surgery to discharge. Each process step was analyzed in 3 domains, ie, personnel, information processed, and time. Multidisciplinary teams addressed 5 work streams to increase value at each step: minimizing volume variation; streamlining the preoperative process; reducing nonoperative time; eliminating redundant information; and promoting employee engagement. Process improvements were implemented sequentially in surgical specialties. Key performance metrics were collected before and after implementation. RESULTS: Across 3 surgical specialties, process redesign resulted in substantial improvements in on-time starts and reduction in number of cases past 5 pm. Substantial gains were achieved in nonoperative time, staff overtime, and ORs saved. These changes resulted in substantial increases in margin/OR/day. CONCLUSIONS: Use of Lean and Six Sigma methodologies increased OR efficiency and financial performance across an entire operating suite. Process mapping, leadership support, staff engagement, and sharing performance metrics are keys to enhancing OR efficiency. The performance gains were substantial, sustainable, positive financially, and transferrable to other specialties.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Eficiência Organizacional , Salas Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Gestão da Qualidade Total/organização & administração , Humanos , Assistência Perioperatória , Avaliação de Processos (Cuidados de Saúde)/organização & administração
13.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 42(3): 513-9, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20068497

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The preschool that children attend has been shown to be a significant but variable predictor of physical activity of 3- to 5-yr-olds, whereas the time outdoors has been found to be a strong correlate of physical activity. Researchers speculate that variations in preschool physical activity may be attributed to variations in preschool policies and practices, including the form and content of outdoor physical environments. However, assessment methods linking them to physical activity are limited. Improved understanding of links between environment and activity could be used to influence childcare policy, which is highly regulated, usually at state level, to create outdoor environments more conducive to children's informal play and physical activity. The purpose of this article was to introduce behavior mapping as a direct observation method on the basis of the theories of behavior setting and affordance and to demonstrate its sensitivity to gathering physical activity and associated environmental data at a sufficiently detailed level to affect built environment design policy. METHODS: Behavior mapping data, including outdoor environmental characteristics and children's physical activity levels, were obtained in two preschool centers at the Research Triangle region, NC. RESULTS: Physical activity levels at the two centers varied across different types of behavior settings, including pathways, play structures, and open areas. The same type of setting with different attributes, such as circular versus straight pathways, and open areas with different ground surfaces, such as asphalt, compacted soil, woodchips, and sand, attracted different levels of physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Behavior mapping provides a promising method for objectively measuring relationships between physical behavior settings and directly associated activity levels.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Creches , Planejamento Ambiental , Exercício , Pré-Escolar , Coleta de Dados/normas , Humanos , North Carolina , Jogos e Brinquedos
14.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 38(4): 581-90, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20032194

RESUMO

Vabicaserin is a potent 5-hydroxtryptamine 2C full agonist with therapeutic potential for a wide array of psychiatric disorders. Metabolite profiles indicated that vabicaserin was extensively metabolized via carbamoyl glucuronidation after oral administration in humans. In the present study, the differences in the extent of vabicaserin carbamoyl glucuronide (CG) formation in humans and in animals used for safety assessment were investigated. After oral dosing, the systemic exposure ratios of CG to vabicaserin were approximately 12 and up to 29 in monkeys and humans, respectively, and the ratios of CG to vabicaserin were approximately 1.5 and 1.7 in mice and dogs, respectively. These differences in systemic levels of CG are likely related to species differences in the rate and extent of CG formation and elimination. Whereas CG was the predominant circulating metabolite in humans and a major metabolite in mice, dogs, and monkeys, it was a relatively minor metabolite in rats, in which oxidative metabolism was the major metabolic pathway. Although the CG was not detected in plasma or urine of rats, approximately 5% of the dose was excreted in bile as CG in the 24-h collection postdose, indicating the rat had the metabolic capability of producing the CG. In vitro, in a CO(2)-enriched environment, the CG was the predominant metabolite in dog and human liver microsomes, a major metabolite in monkey and mice, and only a very minor metabolite in rats. Carbamoyl glucuronidation and hydroxylation had similar contributions to vabicaserin metabolism in mouse and monkey liver microsomes. However, only trace amounts of CG were formed in rat liver microsomes, and other metabolites were more prominent than the CG. In conclusion, significant differences in the extent of formation of the CG were observed among the various species examined. The exposure ratios of CG to vabicaserin were highest in humans, followed by monkeys, then mice and dogs, and lowest in rats, and the in vitro metabolite profiles generally correlated well with the in vivo metabolites.


Assuntos
Azepinas/farmacocinética , Glucuronídeos/farmacocinética , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacocinética , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacocinética , Adulto , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Biotransformação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Microssomos Hepáticos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
15.
J Phys Act Health ; 6(6): 699-707, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20101912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To better measure physical activity (PA) in outdoor environments, McKenzie and colleagues developed the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). However, previous SOPARC research has focused on adults, seniors, teens and children. One avenue for extending this work is to expand the child age group code to capture important nuances that can influence children's PA and their environments. This study reports on the reliability of a measure designed to account for PA in parks among children in different childhood age groups. METHODS: Three groups were developed: 0 to 5-years-old (Young Children); 6 to 12 (Middle Childhood) and 13 to 18 (Older Children) based on Erikson's stages of child development. Data were obtained by direct observation in 3 neighborhood parks in Raleigh, NC and 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, NC. RESULTS: Kappa coefficients showed high agreement for all age group, gender, and PA codes. For the 3 assessments, the results show that the 3 age group category exhibit acceptable reliability for measuring PA in parks among children. CONCLUSIONS: The reliability of measuring PA among children by segmenting children by 3 age groups was established. This approach is recommended for future studies of PA among children in parks and other outdoor environments.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Atividade Motora , Recreação , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Observação , Jogos e Brinquedos , Logradouros Públicos
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 102(51): 18497-501, 2005 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16344485

RESUMO

Slowing rates of global biodiversity loss requires preventing species extinctions. Here we pinpoint centers of imminent extinction, where highly threatened species are confined to single sites. Within five globally assessed taxa (i.e., mammals, birds, selected reptiles, amphibians, and conifers), we find 794 such species, three times the number recorded as having gone extinct since 1500. These species occur in 595 sites, concentrated in tropical forests, on islands, and in mountainous areas. Their taxonomic and geographical distribution differs significantly from that of historical extinctions, indicating an expansion of the current extinction episode beyond sensitive species and places toward the planet's most biodiverse mainland regions. Only one-third of the sites are legally protected, and most are surrounded by intense human development. These sites represent clear opportunities for urgent conservation action to prevent species loss.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Geografia
18.
Am J Manag Care ; 11(9): 553-8, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16159045

RESUMO

The reduced availability of sophisticated tests and procedures in hospitals on weekends (the so-called "weekend effect") delays care. Addressing this problem requires hospital managers to balance the desire for timeliness with the need for efficient operations. We illustrate how a hospital can profile timeliness, demand, and capacity utilization across the week for multiple testing areas. This simple, practical method; using data extracted from the hospital's accounting system, makes visible the pattern and magnitude of delays caused by reduced availability on weekends, while also showing how capacity is deployed. We combined the analytical tool with a process of transparent feedback and local problem solving that engages multiple stakeholders in the hospital. The goal is to optimally configure capacity so as to balance the imperatives of timely availability and efficient resource utilization.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência Organizacional , Administração Hospitalar , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/instrumentação , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Laboratórios Hospitalares/organização & administração , Minnesota , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Oecologia ; 141(1): 139-47, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15338267

RESUMO

Introduced species have contributed significantly to the extinction of endemic species on islands. They also create new selection pressures on their prey that may result in modified life history strategies. Introduced viperine snakes ( Natrix maura) have been implicated in the decline of the endemic midwife toad of Mallorca ( Alytes muletensis). A comparison of A. muletensis tadpoles in natural pools with and without snakes showed that those populations subject to snake predation possessed longer tails with narrower tail fins but deeper tail muscles. Field and laboratory experiments showed that these changes in tail morphology could be induced by chemical and tactile cues from snakes. Populations of tadpoles that were subject to snake predation also displayed clear bimodal size-frequency distributions, with intermediate-sized tadpoles missing from the pools completely. Tadpoles in pools frequented by snakes developed faster in relation to their body size than those in pools without snakes. Variation in morphology between toad populations may therefore be caused by a combination of size-selective predation and tadpole plasticity. The results of this study indicate that the introduction of alien species can result in selection for induced defences, which may facilitate coexistence between predator and prey under certain conditions.


Assuntos
Anuros/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Ecossistema , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Serpentes/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/fisiologia , Ilhas do Mediterrâneo , Dinâmica Populacional , Cauda/anatomia & histologia , Fatores de Tempo
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