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1.
Health Commun ; : 1-13, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390033

RESUMO

In this article, we investigate the surge in use of COVID-19-related preprints by media outlets. Journalists are a main source of reliable public health information during crises and, until recently, journalists have been reluctant to cover preprints because of the associated scientific uncertainty. Yet, uploads of COVID-19 preprints and their uptake by online media have outstripped that of preprints about any other topic. Using an innovative approach combining altmetrics methods with content analysis, we identified a diversity of outlets covering COVID-19-related preprints during the early months of the pandemic, including specialist medical news outlets, traditional news media outlets, and aggregators. We found a ubiquity of hyperlinks as citations and a multiplicity of framing devices for highlighting the scientific uncertainty associated with COVID-19 preprints. These devices were rarely used consistently (e.g., mentioning that the study was a preprint, unreviewed, preliminary, and/or in need of verification). About half of the stories we analyzed contained framing devices emphasizing uncertainty. Outlets in our sample were much less likely to identify the research they mentioned as preprint research, compared to identifying it as simply "research." This work has significant implications for public health communication within the changing media landscape. While current best practices in public health risk communication promote identifying and promoting trustworthy sources of information, the uptake of preprint research by online media presents new challenges. At the same time, it provides new opportunities for fostering greater awareness of the scientific uncertainty associated with health research findings.

2.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039692, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847924

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify how parents judge the credibility of online health news stories with links to scientific research. DESIGN: This qualitative study interviewed parents who read online stories about e-cigarettes and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination published by top-tier US news organisations. Researchers asked participants to describe elements of a story that influenced their judgement about content credibility. Researchers analysed transcripts using inductive and deductive techniques. Deductive analysis drew on cognitive heuristics previously identified as being used by the public to judge online health information. Inductive analysis allowed the emergence of new heuristics, especially relating to health. SETTING: The US National Cancer Institute's Audience Research Lab in Maryland, in August-November 2018. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-four parents with at least one child between the ages of 9 and 17 residing in Maryland, Virginia, or the District of Columbia participated. Researchers randomly assigned 31 parents to the HPV vaccination story and 33 to the e-cigarette story. RESULTS: Evidence of existing heuristics, including reputation, endorsement, consistency, self-confirmation, expectancy violation and persuasive intent emerged from the interviews, with participants deeming stories credible when mentioning physicians (reputation heuristic) and/or consistent with information provided by personal physicians (consistency heuristic). Participants also described making credibility judgements based on presence of statistics, links to scientific research and their general feelings about news media. In relation to presence of statistics and links, participants reported these elements increased the credibility of the news story, whereas their feelings about the news media decreased their credibility judgement. CONCLUSIONS: Parents used a constellation of heuristics to judge the credibility of online health news stories. Previously identified heuristics for online health information are also applicable in the context of health news stories. The findings have implications for initiatives in education, health communication and journalism directed towards increasing the public's engagement with health news and their credibility judgements.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e025783, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterise how online media coverage of journal articles on cancer funded by the US government varies by cancer type and stage of the cancer control continuum and to compare the disease prevalence rates with the amount of funded research published for each cancer type and with the amount of media attention each receives. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: The United States. PARTICIPANTS: The subject of analysis was 11 436 journal articles on cancer funded by the US government published in 2016. These articles were identified via PubMed and characterised as receiving online media attention based on data provided by Altmetric. RESULTS: 16.8% (n=1925) of articles published on US government-funded research were covered in the media. Published journal articles addressed all common cancers. Frequency of journal articles differed substantially across the common cancers, with breast cancer (n=1284), lung cancer (n=630) and prostate cancer (n=586) being the subject of the most journal articles. Roughly one-fifth to one-fourth of journal articles within each cancer category received online media attention. Media mentions were disproportionate to actual burden of each cancer type (ie, incidence and mortality), with breast cancer articles receiving the most media mentions. Scientific articles also covered the stages of the cancer continuum to varying degrees. Across the 13 most common cancer types, 4.4% (n=206) of articles focused on prevention and control, 11.7% (n=550) on diagnosis and 10.7% (n=502) on therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Findings revealed a mismatch between prevalent cancers and cancers highlighted in online media. Further, journal articles on cancer control and prevention received less media attention than other cancer continuum stages. Media mentions were not proportional to actual public cancer burden nor volume of scientific publications in each cancer category. Results highlight a need for continued research on the role of media, especially online media, in research dissemination.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Financiamento Governamental , Internet , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Neoplasias/terapia , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estados Unidos
4.
BMJ Open ; 6(11): e012846, 2016 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27872121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the nature of physicians' use of research evidence in experimental conditions of open access to inform training and policy. DESIGN: This qualitative study was a component of a larger mixed-methods initiative that provided 336 physicians with relatively complete access to research literature via PubMed and UpToDate, for 1 year via an online portal, with their usage recorded in web logs. Using a semistructured interview protocol, a subset of 38 physician participants were interviewed about their use of research articles in general and were probed about their reasons for accessing specific articles as identified through their web logs. Transcripts were analysed using a general inductive approach. SETTING: Physician participants were recruited from and registered in the USA. PARTICIPANTS: 38 physicians from 16 US states, engaged in 22 medical specialties, possessing more than 1 year of experience postresidency training participated. RESULTS: 26 participants attested to the value of consulting research literature within the context of the study by making reference to their roles as clinicians, educators, researchers, learners, administrators and advocates. The physicians reported previously encountering what they experienced as a prohibitive paywall barrier to the research literature and other frustrations with the nature of information systems, such as the need for passwords. CONCLUSIONS: The findings, against the backdrop of growing open access to biomedical research, indicate that a minority of physicians, at least initially, is likely to seek out and use research and do so in a variety of common roles. Physicians' use of research in these roles has not traditionally been part of their training or part of the considerations for open access policies. The findings have implications for educational and policy initiatives directed towards increasing the effectiveness of this access to and use of research in improving the quality of healthcare.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pesquisa Biomédica , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Informática Médica/economia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
5.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0129708, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26200794

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Through funding agency and publisher policies, an increasing proportion of the health sciences literature is being made open access. Such an increase in access raises questions about the awareness and potential utilization of this literature by those working in health fields. METHODS: A sample of physicians (N=336) and public health non-governmental organization (NGO) staff (N=92) were provided with relatively complete access to the research literature indexed in PubMed, as well as access to the point-of-care service UpToDate, for up to one year, with their usage monitored through the tracking of web-log data. The physicians also participated in a one-month trial of relatively complete or limited access. RESULTS: The study found that participants' research interests were not satisfied by article abstracts alone nor, in the case of the physicians, by a clinical summary service such as UpToDate. On average, a third of the physicians viewed research a little more frequently than once a week, while two-thirds of the public health NGO staff viewed more than three articles a week. Those articles were published since the 2008 adoption of the NIH Public Access Policy, as well as prior to 2008 and during the maximum 12-month embargo period. A portion of the articles in each period was already open access, but complete access encouraged a viewing of more research articles. CONCLUSION: Those working in health fields will utilize more research in the course of their work as a result of (a) increasing open access to research, (b) improving awareness of and preparation for this access, and (c) adjusting public and open access policies to maximize the extent of potential access, through reduction in embargo periods and access to pre-policy literature.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Editoração/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/organização & administração , Saúde Pública
6.
Perspect Med Educ ; 3(5): 332-42, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24865885

RESUMO

Physicians have many information needs that arise at the point of care yet go unmet for a variety of reasons, including uncertainty about which information resources to select. In this study, we aimed to identify the various types of physician information needs and how these needs relate to physicians' use of the database PubMed and the evidence summary tool UpToDate. We conducted semi-structured interviews with physicians (Stanford University, United States; n = 13; and University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands; n = 9), eliciting participants' descriptions of their information needs and related use of PubMed and/or UpToDate. Using thematic analysis, we identified six information needs: refreshing, confirming, logistics, teaching, idea generating and personal learning. Participants from both institutions similarly described their information needs and selection of resources. The identification of these six information needs and their relation to PubMed and UpToDate expands upon previously identified physician information needs and may be useful to medical educators designing evidence-based practice training for physicians.

7.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 101(3): 205-12, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23930091

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The research sought to ascertain the types and quantity of research evidence accessed by health personnel through PubMed and UpToDate in a university medical center over the course of a year in order to better estimate the impact that increasing levels of open access to biomedical research can be expected to have on clinical practice in the years ahead. METHODS: Web log data were gathered from the 5,042 health personnel working in the Stanford University Hospitals (SUH) during 2011. Data were analyzed for access to the primary literature (abstracts and full-text) through PubMed and UpToDate and to the secondary literature, represented by UpToDate (research summaries), to establish the frequency and nature of literature consulted. RESULTS: In 2011, SUH health personnel accessed 81,851 primary literature articles and visited UpToDate 110,336 times. Almost a third of the articles (24,529) accessed were reviews. Twenty percent (16,187) of the articles viewed were published in 2011. CONCLUSION: When it is available, health personnel in a clinical care setting frequently access the primary literature. While further studies are needed, this preliminary finding speaks to the value of the National Institutes of Health public access policy and the need for medical librarians and educators to prepare health personnel for increasing public access to medical research.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Acesso à Informação , Pessoal de Saúde , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , California , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , PubMed
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