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1.
Z Rheumatol ; 79(6): 503-504, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748094
2.
Z Rheumatol ; 79(7): 679-685, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757030

RESUMO

A few days after the SARS-CoV-2 infection was declared a pandemic, the German Society for Rheumatology (DGRh) compiled first recommendations for the care of patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD). These first recommendations were based on an expert consensus and were largely non-evidence-based. Now that the first scientific data from registers, cross-sectional studies, case reports and case series are available, the present update is intended to update the previous recommendations and to add new findings. The current recommendations are based on a literature search of publications available up to 15 June 2020 and address preventive measures (such as hygiene measures or vaccinations) and the use of immunomodulatory/immunosuppressive drugs. An important goal of the current recommendations is also to prevent harm to patients with IRD through unjustified restriction of care. The DGRh will continue to update its recommendations in the case of new aspects and will publish them as well as further information on the COVID-19 pandemic on its homepage ( www.dgrh.de ) in an ongoing process.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Inflamação/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/terapia , Reumatologia/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Alemanha , Humanos , Pandemias , Sociedades Médicas
3.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to measure long-term effectiveness and safety of tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in daily German practice. METHODS: ICHIBAN was a prospective, multi-centre, non-interventional study (ML22928) that enrolled adult patients with active moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis. Patients were to be treated according to tocilizumab label and observed for up to two years. Effectiveness outcomes included DAS28-ESR remission, EULAR response, CDAI and HAQ. RESULTS: Overall, 3164 patients received at least one dose of tocilizumab. Patient mean age was 55.5±13.1 years (74.8% female). At baseline, 72.1% of patients had at least one comorbidity. Approximately 50.9% of patients received concomitant csDMARDs, mostly methotrexate, and 80.7% received concomitant glucocorticoids (GCs). In patients receiving GCs at baseline, the mean dose decreased from 9.32±16.36 mg/d to 4.60±4.48 mg/d at week 104. In the effectiveness population with no prior TCZ (n=2902), 61.4% of patients achieved the primary outcome, DAS28-ESR remission. Improvements were seen as early as week 4. At week 104, 77.9% of patients had DAS28-ESR low disease activity, 89.6% achieved good or moderate EULAR response, and 29.5% achieved a CDAI-based remission. Effectiveness outcomes were similar in all previous therapy subgroups. The incidence of serious infections was similar to the rates in former studies involving tocilizumab. Patients receiving GC at baseline experienced slightly higher rates of treatment-related serious adverse events, mainly infections. No new safety signals were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term effectiveness and safety in ICHIBAN were in line with previously reported tocilizumab efficacy and safety studies.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584187

RESUMO

An international consensus on anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) testing in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is presented. ANCA, specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO), can be detected in 30-35% of EGPA patients. MPO-ANCA should be tested with antigen-specific immunoassays in any patient with eosinophilic asthma and clinical features suggesting EGPA, including constitutional symptoms, purpura, polyneuropathy, unexplained heart, gastrointestinal or kidney disease, and/or pulmonary infiltrates or hemorrhage. A positive MPO-ANCA result contributes to the diagnostic work­up for EGPA. Patients with MPO-ANCA associated EGPA have more frequently vasculitis features, such as glomerulonephritis, neuropathy, and skin manifestations than patients with ANCA negative EGPA. However, the presence of MPO-ANCA is neither sensitive nor specific enough to identify whether a patient should be subclassified as having "vasculitic" or "eosinophilic" EGPA. At present, ANCA status cannot guide treatment decisions, that is, whether cyclophosphamide, rituximab or mepolizumab should be added to conventional glucocorticoid treatment. In EGPA, monitoring of ANCA is only useful when MPO-ANCA was tested positive at disease onset.

7.
J Clin Med ; 9(3)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155774

RESUMO

Sarcoidosis is characterized by multiorgan involvement and granulomatous inflammation. Its origin is unknown and the potential role of autoimmunity has not been sufficiently determined. We investigated the presence of autoantibodies in sarcoidosis using protein array technology. The derivation cohort consisted of patients with sarcoidosis (n = 25) and controls including autoimmune disease and blood donors (n = 246). In addition, we tested a validation cohort including pulmonary sarcoidosis patients (n = 58) and healthy controls (n = 13). Initially, sera of three patients with sarcoidosis were screened using a protein array with 28.000 proteins against controls. Thereby we identified the Negative Elongation Factor E (NELF-E) as an autoantigen. With confirmatory Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)testing, 29/82 patients (35%) with sarcoidosis had antibodies against NELF-E of the Immunoglobulin (Ig) G type, whereas 18/253 (7%) sera of the controls were positive for NELF-E. Clinically, there was an association of the frequency of NELF-E antibody detection with lung parenchymal involvement and corresponding x-ray types. NELF-E autoantibodies are associated with sarcoidosis and should be further investigated.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5120, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719529

RESUMO

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown cause. 30% of patients have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Here, we describe a genome-wide association study in 676 EGPA cases and 6809 controls, that identifies 4 EGPA-associated loci through conventional case-control analysis, and 4 additional associations through a conditional false discovery rate approach. Many variants are also associated with asthma and six are associated with eosinophil count in the general population. Through Mendelian randomisation, we show that a primary tendency to eosinophilia contributes to EGPA susceptibility. Stratification by ANCA reveals that EGPA comprises two genetically and clinically distinct syndromes. MPO+ ANCA EGPA is an eosinophilic autoimmune disease sharing certain clinical features and an HLA-DQ association with MPO+ ANCA-associated vasculitis, while ANCA-negative EGPA may instead have a mucosal/barrier dysfunction origin. Four candidate genes are targets of therapies in development, supporting their exploration in EGPA.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/genética , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/imunologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
9.
Z Rheumatol ; 78(9): 832-838, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197458

RESUMO

This article presents a retrospective analysis of patients who attended a rheumatology specialist practice (with two specialist rheumatologists) between 2016 and 2018 via an appointment arranged by the appointment service office (Terminservicestelle, TSS). Patients were analyzed in a pseudonymized manner and categorized according to the following criteria: 1. patient did not keep the appointment, 2. patient had no inflammatory rheumatic disease, 3. patient suffered from an inflammatory rheumatic disease but had no urgent indications to be seen and 4. patient suffered from an inflammatory rheumatic disease with urgent indications to be seen. Since the start of the TSS at the beginning of 2016 until the end of 2018 a total of 103 patients were allocated to this specialist practice via the TSS. An appointment was offered to 102 patients who underwent further analysis: 4.9% of the patients (n = 5) suffered from an acute inflammatory rheumatic disease and had urgent indications to be seen, 18.63% of patients (n = 19) suffered from an inflammatory rheumatic disease with no urgent indications to attend, 28.43% of patients (n = 29) did not keep the appointment and 48.04% of patients (n = 49) did not have an inflammatory rheumatic disease but other diseases, such as osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia and other forms of chronic pain syndromes. The positive predictive value (PPV) for patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease and urgent indications was 0.05 when all patients were included in the analysis and 0.07 when only patients who showed up were included. This retrospective analysis demonstrates that the TSS does not fulfill its purpose, namely to promptly arrange appointments at a specalist rheumatologist practice for patients with an acute inflammatory rheumatic disease.


Assuntos
Pacientes não Comparecentes , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Reumáticas , Humanos , Pacientes não Comparecentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(9): 595-600, 2019 05.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026868

RESUMO

To prevent serious complications such as permanent loss of vision and structural vascular damage, treatment must be initiated quickly in patients with giant-cell arteritis (GCA). So far, usually long-term corticosteroids in cumulative high dosages have been the standard therapy option. However, steroids are often insufficient to achieve adequate disease control and are associated with serious adverse events. Therefore, steroid-sparing therapy options are the focus of interest.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2170-2177, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a recent phase III trial (NCT02020889) 53% of mepolizumab-treated versus 19% of placebo-treated patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) achieved protocol-defined remission. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate post hoc the clinical benefit of mepolizumab in patients with EGPA using a comprehensive definition of benefit encompassing remission, oral glucocorticoid (OGC) dose reduction, and EGPA relapses. METHODS: The randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial recruited patients with relapsing/refractory EGPA receiving stable OGCs (prednisolone/prednisone, ≥7.5-50 mg/d) for 4 or more weeks. Patients received 300 mg of subcutaneous mepolizumab or placebo every 4 weeks for 52 weeks. Clinical benefit was defined post hoc as follows: remission at any time (2 definitions used), 50% or greater OGC dose reduction during weeks 48 to 52, or no EGPA relapses. The 2 remission definitions were Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score of 0 plus OGC dose of 4 mg/d or less (remission 1/clinical benefit 1) or 7.5 mg/d or less (remission 2/clinical benefit 2). Clinical benefit was assessed in all patients and among subgroups with a baseline blood eosinophil count of less than 150 cells/µL, baseline OGC dosage of greater than 20 mg/d, or weight of greater than 85 kg. RESULTS: With mepolizumab versus placebo, 78% versus 32% of patients experienced clinical benefit 1, and 87% versus 53% of patients experienced clinical benefit 2 (both P < .001). Significantly more patients experienced clinical benefit 1 with mepolizumab versus placebo in the blood eosinophil count less than 150 cells/µL subgroup (72% vs 43%, P = .033) and weight greater than 85 kg subgroup (68% vs 23%, P = .005); in the OGC greater than 20 mg/d subgroup, results were not significant but favored mepolizumab (60% vs 36%, P = .395). CONCLUSION: When a comprehensive definition of clinical benefit was applied to data from a randomized controlled trial, 78% to 87% of patients with EGPA experienced benefit with mepolizumab.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Granuloma Eosinófilo/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-5/antagonistas & inibidores , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Z Rheumatol ; 77(5): 397-408, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808333

RESUMO

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a necrotizing arteritis of medium-sized vessels, which is often fatal if untreated. It frequently affects the skin (nodules and ulcers), the peripheral nervous system (mononeuritis multiplex) and the visceral vessels (stenoses and microaneurysms). The complex diagnostic work-up requires discriminating PAN from infectious, malignant, drug-induced and other inflammatory conditions. It can be subclassified into further variants (idiopathic, associated with hepatitis B, associated with hereditary inflammatory diseases or isolated cutaneous disease). While idiopathic and hereditary inflammatory variants require immunosuppressive treatment, the hepatitis B-associated variant is treated with virustatic agents and plasmapheresis. The isolated cutaneous variant has a good prognosis and rarely requires highly potent immunosuppressives.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Poliarterite Nodosa , Hepatite B/complicações , Humanos , Imunossupressores , Plasmaferese , Poliarterite Nodosa/complicações , Poliarterite Nodosa/diagnóstico , Poliarterite Nodosa/terapia
16.
N Engl J Med ; 376(20): 1921-1932, 2017 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28514601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is an eosinophilic vasculitis. Mepolizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody, reduces blood eosinophil counts and may have value in the treatment of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned participants with relapsing or refractory eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis who had received treatment for at least 4 weeks and were taking a stable prednisolone or prednisone dose to receive 300 mg of mepolizumab or placebo, administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks, plus standard care, for 52 weeks. The two primary end points were the accrued weeks of remission over a 52-week period, according to categorical quantification, and the proportion of participants in remission at both week 36 and week 48. Secondary end points included the time to first relapse and the average daily glucocorticoid dose (during weeks 48 through 52). The annualized relapse rate and safety were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 136 participants underwent randomization, with 68 participants assigned to receive mepolizumab and 68 to receive placebo. Mepolizumab treatment led to significantly more accrued weeks of remission than placebo (28% vs. 3% of the participants had ≥24 weeks of accrued remission; odds ratio, 5.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.68 to 13.03; P<0.001) and a higher percentage of participants in remission at both week 36 and week 48 (32% vs. 3%; odds ratio, 16.74; 95% CI, 3.61 to 77.56; P<0.001). Remission did not occur in 47% of the participants in the mepolizumab group versus 81% of those in the placebo group. The annualized relapse rate was 1.14 in the mepolizumab group, as compared with 2.27 in the placebo group (rate ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.70; P<0.001). A total of 44% of the participants in the mepolizumab group, as compared with 7% of those in the placebo group, had an average daily dose of prednisolone or prednisone of 4.0 mg or less per day during weeks 48 through 52 (odds ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.41; P<0.001). The safety profile of mepolizumab was similar to that observed in previous studies. CONCLUSIONS: In participants with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, mepolizumab resulted in significantly more weeks in remission and a higher proportion of participants in remission than did placebo, thus allowing for reduced glucocorticoid use. Even so, only approximately half the participants treated with mepolizumab had protocol-defined remission. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02020889 .).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eosinófilos , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão
17.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 35 Suppl 103(1): 33-39, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28281454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyse the role of netting neutrophils in the pathogenesis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), especially their interplay with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). METHODS: The amount of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) was determined in sera from GPA patients (pairs active/inactive state of disease, n=18) and from healthy controls (HCs, n=10). Furthermore, we performed in vitro incubation experiments using PBMCs and NETs from patients and HCs for accessing the effect of NETs on PBMC behaviour. We determined proliferation of T- and B-cells (CSFE assay), B-cell maturation (CD38 staining and flow cytometry), production of IgG (ELISpot, ELISA), and secretion of the cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17A (ELISA). RESULTS: We detected a significant increase in serum cfDNA levels of GPA patients compared to HCs. The concentration of cfDNA was associated with disease activity. NETs of patients and HCs induced proliferation of CD4+ T- cells and CD19+ B-cells and maturation of B-cells. Furthermore, we detected an increase in IL-17A secretion after stimulating PBMCs with NETs. A significant difference between PBMCs from GPA patients and HCs was not detectable. CONCLUSIONS: NETs activate PBMCs of HCs and GPA patients. Our findings give supportive evidence that NETosis plays a role in the pathogenesis of GPA.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Comunicação Parácrina , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , DNA/sangue , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Feminino , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/sangue , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Interleucina-17/sangue , Masculino , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo
18.
J Autoimmun ; 78: 79-91, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28040323

RESUMO

Autoimmune diseases are initiated by a combination of predisposing genetic and environmental factors resulting in self-perpetuating chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Autoantibody production and an imbalance of effector and regulatory T-cells are hallmarks of autoimmune dysregulation. While expansion of circulating effector memory T-cells is linked to disease pathogenesis and progression, the causes driving alterations of the peripheral T-cell compartment have remained poorly understood so far. In granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), a prototypical autoimmune disorder of unknown aetiology, we performed for the first time a combined approach using phenotyping, transcriptome and functional analyses of T-cell populations to evaluate triggers of memory T-cell expansion. In more detail, we found increased percentages of circulating CD4+CD28-, CD8+CD28- and CD4+CD161+ single-positive and CD4+CD8+ double-positive T-cells in GPA. Transcriptomic profiling of sorted T-cell populations showed major differences between GPA and healthy controls reflecting antigen- (bacteria, viruses, fungi) and cytokine-driven impact on T-cell populations in GPA. Concomitant cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - positivity was associated with a significant increase in the percentage of CD28- T-cells in GPA-patients compared to sole CMV- or EBV-positivity or CMV- and EBV-negativity. T-cells specific for other viruses (influenza A virus, metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus) and the autoantigen proteinase 3 (PR3) were infrequently detected in GPA. Antigen-specific T-cells were not specifically enriched in any of the T-cell subsets. Altogether, on a genetic and cellular basis, here we show that alterations of the peripheral T-cell compartment are driven by inflammation and various environmental factors including concomitant CMV and EBV infection. Our study provides novel insights into mechanisms driving autoimmune disease and on potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/etiologia , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Análise por Conglomerados , Biologia Computacional , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 76(4): 647-653, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27481830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This multicentre study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a wide spectrum of novel technologies nowadays available for detection of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). METHODS: Sera (obtained at the time of diagnosis) from 251 patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), including granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis, and from 924 disease controls were tested for the presence of cytoplasmic pattern/perinuclear pattern and atypical ANCA (A-ANCA) by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) (at two sites) and for the presence of PR3-ANCA and MPO-ANCA by eight different immunoassays. RESULTS: The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve to discriminate AAV from controls was 0.923 (95% CI 0.902 to 0.944) and 0.843 (95% CI 0.814 to 0.871) for the two IIF methods. For the antigen-specific immunoassays, the AUC varied between 0.936 (95% CI 0.912 to 0.960) and 0.959 (95% CI 0.941 to 0.976), except for one immunoassay for which the AUC was 0.919 (95% CI 0.892 to 0.945). CONCLUSIONS: Our comparison of various ANCA detection methods showed (i) large variability between the two IIF methods tested and (ii) a high diagnostic performance of PR3-ANCA and MPO-ANCA by immunoassay to discriminate AAV from disease controls. Consequently, dual IIF/antigen-specific immunoassay testing of each sample is not necessary for maximal diagnostic accuracy. These results indicate that the current international consensus on ANCA testing for AAV needs revision.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/sangue , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/sangue , Mieloblastina/imunologia , Peroxidase/imunologia , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Imunoensaio/métodos , Curva ROC
20.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 35 Suppl 103(1): 94-97, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27974093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To date, no specific serum marker for giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica has been established in routine practice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether immunoglobulin G4 serum concentrations could be a potential biomarker for the differentiation of both diseases. METHODS: Serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) concentrations were measured in patients with giant cell arteritis (n=41) and polymyalgia rheumatica (n=27) by an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the subgroup of untreated patients with disease activity (polymyalgia rheumatica n=27, giant cell arteritis n=19) additional parameters of T-helper 2 cell inflammatory responses were analysed. RESULTS: IgG4-values above the prior determined cut-off value of 1400 µg/ml in giant cell arteritis were rare and also significantly less frequent in giant cell arteritis than in polymyalgia rheumatica patients (7.3% vs. 44.4%; p<0.001). The relative risk that patients with clinical features of PMR, presenting without elevated IgG4 levels, have simultaneously GCA was 5.8 compared to those patients with elevated IgG4 levels. In untreated patients absolute counts of eosinophilic leukocytes were lower in giant cell arteritis than in polymyalgia rheumatica (p=0.002) and the cytokines interleukin-4 (p=0.013) and interleukin-10 (p=0.033) were less frequently detectable in giant cell arteritis than in polymyalgia rheumatica. CONCLUSIONS: In giant cell arteritis serum levels of IgG4 usually are within the normal range. In polymyalgia rheumatica however, increased IgG4 serum levels are frequently found. Normal IgG4 serum levels in polymyalgia rheumatica may have predictive value in identifying patients with additional, clinically non-apparent giant cell arteritis.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Polimialgia Reumática/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Arterite de Células Gigantes/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimialgia Reumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Polimialgia Reumática/imunologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Regulação para Cima
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