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2.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 40(3): 110-117, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-697

RESUMO

La prematuridad está asociada a riesgos en salud y neurodesarrollo, agravados por temores y desconocimiento de los padres para atender las necesidades del bebé. Por ello se requieren programas de atención temprana centrados en la familia y en entornos naturales, no disponibles en Ecuador. Este trabajo presenta la incidencia que puede presentar una intervención basada en rutinas (IBR) en la participación familiar para el desarrollo del lenguaje de sus bebés prematuros. Tres universidades internacionales y una organización no gubernamental que brinda servicio especializado, colaboraron en este estudio de casos que implementó durante 16 semanas la IBR con familias de bebés prematuros habitantes de sectores populares y usuarios de la ONG. Se recogieron datos cualicuantitativos pre- y postaplicación de la IBR. La ASQ-3 se aplicó para evaluar a los bebés y fortalecer el conocimiento de las familias sobre el desarrollo infantil. En una entrevista final, se analizan las percepciones de las madres sobre la incidencia de la intervención en participación familiar para el desarrollo del lenguaje de sus bebés. Los resultados evidencian cuantitativamente el avance de los bebés. Se destaca que las condiciones de desarrollo del bebé está mediada por las múltiples hospitalizaciones y poco conocimiento y temores de los padres sobre la condición de la prematuridad. Al finalizar, las familias manifiestan satisfacción con el proceso y reconocen el desarrollo del lenguaje de sus bebés como un resultado del incremento de la interacción familiar provocado por la IBR


Prematurity is associated with health and neurodevelopmental risks, aggravated by fears and lack of parental knowledge of their baby's needs. Therefore, early care programmes that focus on the family and natural environments, not available in Ecuador, are required. This paper presents the impact that a Routine Based Intervention (RBI) can have on family involvement in the development of their premature babies' language. Three international universities and a non-governmental organisation that provides specialist services collaborated in this case study, which implemented the IBR for 16 weeks with families of premature babies living in popular sectors and users of the NGO. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected pre- and post-implementation. The ASQ-3 was used to assess the babies and enhance the families' knowledge on child development. In a final interview, the mothers' perceptions of the impact of family involvement on their babies' language development were analysed. The results provide quantitative evidence of the babies' progress. It is noteworthy that the baby's developmental conditions were mediated by multiple hospitalisations and the parents' lack of knowledge about prematurity. At the end of the intervention, the families expressed their satisfaction with the process and recognised their babies' language development as a result of increased family interaction through the RBI

3.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 40(3): 118-127, jul.-sept. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-699

RESUMO

El logopeda, en su condición de profesional experto en comunicación y lenguaje, es un miembro clave e indispensable en los equipos de Atención Temprana. Las prácticas recomendadas en los países con larga tradición en servicios de intervención a la primera infancia destacan la importancia del logopeda en el acompañamiento y la capacitación de la familia, además del apoyo que este profesional brinda a los otros miembros del equipo. Los profesionales que intervienen en Atención Temprana se enfrentan día a día al reto de establecer relaciones de colaboración con padres y cuidadores, situaciones para las que en muchas ocasiones no están preparados. Este trabajo describe las estrategias necesarias, con las que el logopeda puede dar un apoyo efectivo durante ese acompañamiento, describe de forma general las actuaciones claves, con el fin de lograr la capacitación del cuidador principal, y presenta los principios andragógicos en que debemos basarnos, con el fin de lograr una mayor eficacia de actuación. En la última sección presentamos algunos supuestos prácticos, con el fin de visualizar aquellas situaciones habituales, en las que el profesional puede encontrarse en sus consultas colaborativas con la familia, y se plantean las posibles soluciones y acciones a emprender


The speech therapist, as a professional expert in communication and language, is a key and indispensable member of Early Intervention teams. Recommended practice in countries with a long tradition in early childhood intervention services, highlights the importance of the speech therapist in the accompaniment and capacity-building of the family, in addition to their support to other team members. The professionals involved in Early Intervention, face the challenge of establishing collaborative relationships with parents and caregivers, situations for which they are often not prepared. This paper describes the strategies required for the speech therapist to provide effective support during this accompaniment. It describes in a general way key actions in training the main caregiver, and presents the andragogical principles we must use to achieve greater performance efficiency. In the last section we present some practical assumptions, in order to visualise the routine situations faced by the professional in their collaborative consultations with the family, and consider possible solutions and actions to be undertaken

4.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(7): e00180019, 2020.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696832

RESUMO

Based on a constructivist inter-sector approach and considering the possible agency and negotiations within violent relationships, the study aimed to understand how black women redefined gender violence according to their affective-sexual relationships. The procedures included participant observation in discussion groups and individual interviews with women seen at a Specialized Center for Women's Care in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. According to the results, gender violence is present throughout the women's lives. The narratives reveal a feeling of affective-sexual loneliness caused by neglect by their partners or potential partners, as well as experiences with racist and sexist treatment in their own relationships at school and work. Violence, apparently limited to intimate partner relations, spills over into other family relations. Understanding violence as "lack of respect" produced a kind of "collective surveillance" among the women, evidencing the building of a solidarity network. By retelling their life stories, these women remember the past, present, and future with expectations by poor black working women of reinventing themselves. A joint on-going effort is needed by civil society, teaching institutions, and the political sphere to deconstruct culturally instituted models that persistently keep black women in a place of submission, inferiority, and marginalization.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3845, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123221

RESUMO

Plants that inhabit Antarctica have raised scientific interest due to their resilience to climate change, abiotic tolerance mechanisms and potential biological applications. In vitro propagation is useful for conservation, genetic material availability of these species and avoiding mass collection in their habitat. In vitro culture protocols for the native plants Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica and the non-native Juncus bufonius have been affected by endophytic microorganisms that proliferate when introduced to tissue cultures. This study evaluated the microbicidal and phytotoxic effect of calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2), silver nitrate (AgNO3) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and their use at different concentrations for different time periods. The Ca(ClO)2 at 100 mg mL-1 showed the best microbial contamination control in D. antarctica (applied for 20 min) and for the three C. quitensis populations (applied for 15 min). In J. bufonius, AgNO3 at 10 mg mL-1 for 10 min reduced the microbial growth, but oxidative damage was generated. AgNPs did not prevent contamination or have adverse effects on tissues. Survival plantlets from each treatment, population or species were effectively introduced to the tissue culture and their propagation was successful. These results constitute a fundamental advance for the introduction, propagation and conservation of Antarctic species and their use in scientific research.

6.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 24: e180626, 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056572

RESUMO

Buscou-se analisar as representações da sexualidade e prevenção em cartazes produzidos pelo Departamento de Doenças de Condições Crônicas e Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (DCCI) a partir da diretriz da prevenção combinada (PC), adotada em 2013. Realizou-se análise de conteúdo, de caráter descritivo e documental, dos cartazes de campanhas do dia 1º de dezembro (2013-2017). Resultados apontam que aspectos relacionais do uso do preservativo teriam menos relevância, ao passo que a individualização do cuidado vem se acirrando sob a lógica de "testar para se conhecer". Nota-se a oferta de alternativas de prevenção, por meio do símbolo do tripé "preservativo, teste e comprimido", ou de novas tecnologias como a profilaxia pré-exposição (PrEP) e Profilaxia Pós Exposição (PEP). Isso sugere que, desde seu lançamento, a PC passou a orientar as campanhas do DCCI, em oposição a campanhas anteriores que privilegiavam populações-alvo e o preservativo masculino.(AU)


El objetivo fue analizar las representaciones de la sexualidad y prevención en carteles producidos por el Departamento de Enfermedades de Condiciones Crónicas e Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual (DCCI, por sus siglas en portugués), a partir de la directriz de prevención combinada (PC), adoptada en 2013. Se realizó el análisis de contenido, de carácter descriptivo y documental de los carteles de campañas del día 1º de diciembre (2013-2017). Los resultados señalan que aspectos relacionales del uso del preservativo tendrían menos relevancia, mientras que la individualización del cuidado se recrudece bajo la lógica de "hacer test para conocerse". Se observa la oferta de alternativas de prevención a través del símbolo del trípode: "preservativo, test y comprimido" o de nuevas tecnologías como PrEP y PEP. Eso sugiere que, desde su lanzamiento, la PC pasó a orientar las campañas del DCCI, en oposición a campañas anteriores que privilegiaban a poblaciones-objetivo y el preservativo masculino.(AU)


The article sought to analyze representations of sexuality and prevention on posters produced by the Department of Chronic Conditions Diseases and Sexually Transmitted Infections (DCCI) stemming from the combination prevention (CP) guidelines adopted in 2013. A descriptive and documental content analysis of posters relative to the World Aids Day (December 1st) was carried out (2013-2017). Results indicate that relational aspects of condom use appear to be less relevant, and increments of the individualization of care under the logic of "know your status" are becoming stronger. It is also possible to notice preventive alternatives, by way of the tripod symbol: "condom, test and pill", or new technologies such as PrEP and PEP. This suggests that the CP has been guiding the DCCI campaigns since its launch, as opposed to previous campaigns focusing on target populations and male condoms.(AU)

7.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 24: e180626, 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090701

RESUMO

Buscou-se analisar as representações da sexualidade e prevenção em cartazes produzidos pelo Departamento de Doenças de Condições Crônicas e Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (DCCI) a partir da diretriz da prevenção combinada (PC), adotada em 2013. Realizou-se análise de conteúdo, de caráter descritivo e documental, dos cartazes de campanhas do dia 1º de dezembro (2013-2017). Resultados apontam que aspectos relacionais do uso do preservativo teriam menos relevância, ao passo que a individualização do cuidado vem se acirrando sob a lógica de "testar para se conhecer". Nota-se a oferta de alternativas de prevenção, por meio do símbolo do tripé "preservativo, teste e comprimido", ou de novas tecnologias como a profilaxia pré-exposição (PrEP) e Profilaxia Pós Exposição (PEP). Isso sugere que, desde seu lançamento, a PC passou a orientar as campanhas do DCCI, em oposição a campanhas anteriores que privilegiavam populações-alvo e o preservativo masculino.(AU)


El objetivo fue analizar las representaciones de la sexualidad y prevención en carteles producidos por el Departamento de Enfermedades de Condiciones Crónicas e Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual (DCCI, por sus siglas en portugués), a partir de la directriz de prevención combinada (PC), adoptada en 2013. Se realizó el análisis de contenido, de carácter descriptivo y documental de los carteles de campañas del día 1º de diciembre (2013-2017). Los resultados señalan que aspectos relacionales del uso del preservativo tendrían menos relevancia, mientras que la individualización del cuidado se recrudece bajo la lógica de "hacer test para conocerse". Se observa la oferta de alternativas de prevención a través del símbolo del trípode: "preservativo, test y comprimido" o de nuevas tecnologías como PrEP y PEP. Eso sugiere que, desde su lanzamiento, la PC pasó a orientar las campañas del DCCI, en oposición a campañas anteriores que privilegiaban a poblaciones-objetivo y el preservativo masculino.


The article sought to analyze representations of sexuality and prevention on posters produced by the Department of Chronic Conditions Diseases and Sexually Transmitted Infections (DCCI) stemming from the combination prevention (CP) guidelines adopted in 2013. A descriptive and documental content analysis of posters relative to the World Aids Day (December 1st) was carried out (2013-2017). Results indicate that relational aspects of condom use appear to be less relevant, and increments of the individualization of care under the logic of "know your status" are becoming stronger. It is also possible to notice preventive alternatives, by way of the tripod symbol: "condom, test and pill", or new technologies such as PrEP and PEP. This suggests that the CP has been guiding the DCCI campaigns since its launch, as opposed to previous campaigns focusing on target populations and male condoms..(AU)

8.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 24: e180626, 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040199

RESUMO

Buscou-se analisar as representações da sexualidade e prevenção em cartazes produzidos pelo Departamento de Doenças de Condições Crônicas e Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (DCCI) a partir da diretriz da prevenção combinada (PC), adotada em 2013. Realizou-se análise de conteúdo, de caráter descritivo e documental, dos cartazes de campanhas do dia 1º de dezembro (2013-2017). Resultados apontam que aspectos relacionais do uso do preservativo teriam menos relevância, ao passo que a individualização do cuidado vem se acirrando sob a lógica de "testar para se conhecer". Nota-se a oferta de alternativas de prevenção, por meio do símbolo do tripé "preservativo, teste e comprimido", ou de novas tecnologias como a profilaxia pré-exposição (PrEP) e Profilaxia Pós Exposição (PEP). Isso sugere que, desde seu lançamento, a PC passou a orientar as campanhas do DCCI, em oposição a campanhas anteriores que privilegiavam populações-alvo e o preservativo masculino.(AU)


El objetivo fue analizar las representaciones de la sexualidad y prevención en carteles producidos por el Departamento de Enfermedades de Condiciones Crónicas e Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual (DCCI, por sus siglas en portugués), a partir de la directriz de prevención combinada (PC), adoptada en 2013. Se realizó el análisis de contenido, de carácter descriptivo y documental de los carteles de campañas del día 1º de diciembre (2013-2017). Los resultados señalan que aspectos relacionales del uso del preservativo tendrían menos relevancia, mientras que la individualización del cuidado se recrudece bajo la lógica de "hacer test para conocerse". Se observa la oferta de alternativas de prevención a través del símbolo del trípode: "preservativo, test y comprimido" o de nuevas tecnologías como PrEP y PEP. Eso sugiere que, desde su lanzamiento, la PC pasó a orientar las campañas del DCCI, en oposición a campañas anteriores que privilegiaban a poblaciones-objetivo y el preservativo masculino.(AU)


The article sought to analyze representations of sexuality and prevention on posters produced by the Department of Chronic Conditions Diseases and Sexually Transmitted Infections (DCCI) stemming from the combination prevention (CP) guidelines adopted in 2013. A descriptive and documental content analysis of posters relative to the World Aids Day (December 1st) was carried out (2013-2017). Results indicate that relational aspects of condom use appear to be less relevant, and increments of the individualization of care under the logic of "know your status" are becoming stronger. It is also possible to notice preventive alternatives, by way of the tripod symbol: "condom, test and pill", or new technologies such as PrEP and PEP. This suggests that the CP has been guiding the DCCI campaigns since its launch, as opposed to previous campaigns focusing on target populations and male condoms.(AU)


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Sexualidade , Pôsteres como Assunto , Promoção da Saúde/provisão & distribução , Brasil , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(5): 1793-1807, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166513

RESUMO

According to current global AIDS guidelines, HIV testing is key to the success of the 'treatment as prevention' (TasP) strategy and the control of AIDS. In view of Brazil's commitment to these guidelines, this article characterizes the principles and justifications underpinning TasP and discusses implementation challenges. The analysis draws on a systematic review of the literature (2005 to 2015) on recruitment and testing strategies for men who have sex with men. This approach was adopted based on the assumption that current knowledge on HIV testing can offer valuable insights into the foundations of global AIDS policies and their uptake in local contexts. Based on the analysis of the 65 articles selected, we suggest that TasP represents a shift in the AIDS prevention paradigm. There is an overlap between prevention and care and the new approach places major emphasis on biomedical and psychological knowledge. The TasP approach fails to address the factors associated with HIV vulnerability and the stigma surrounding AIDS and undermines the participation of activists and PLWHA as autonomous producers of preventive of preventive practices. We argue that, to ensure the effective implementation of TasP in Brazil, it is necessary to discuss issues such as the protection of human rights and the structural problems facing Brazil's public health system.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Brasil , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estigma Social
10.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 29(3): 381-388, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020582

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The value of propolis is scientifically and commercially measured through the content of biologically active molecules as phenolic compounds and flavonoids; on the other hand, a high percentage of waxes in the propolis composition makes it a substandard beekeeping product. Colombian propolis is characterized by a high content of waxes; however, this drawback turns into an advantage when this material is used for preparing lipid nanocarriers. Accordingly, in this research work, a propolis-extracted material obtained by Randall method is characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Then, it is used for obtaining nanostructured lipid carriers by the emulsification-diffusion technique, whose recipe and operating work conditions were established by a Plackett-Burman statistical screening design. The obtained particles exhibit sizes less than 300 nm, polydispersity indices around 0.1, zeta potential values less than ±2 mV, good physical stability and they show to be safe in the in vitro irritation test. Thus, Colombian propolis arises as an attractive natural source for obtaining lipid carriers that could be used in pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries for developing innovative products.

11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(5): 1793-1807, Mai. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001801

RESUMO

Resumo Segundo as diretrizes globais atuais, a realização do teste anti-HIV é crucial para o sucesso da estratégia do 'tratamento como prevenção' (TcP) e controle da Aids. Dado o compromisso do Brasil com essa política, este artigo objetiva caracterizar os princípios e justificativas do TcP e discutir os desafios da sua implementação. A reflexão é orientada por uma revisão sistemática da literatura internacional de 2005 a 2015 sobre estratégias de captação e oferta do teste do HIV entre homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSHs). Tal escolha parte do pressuposto de que a produção acadêmica é uma fonte relevante para compreender os fundamentos e apropriações das políticas globais de Aids nos contextos locais. Segundo a análise dos 65 artigos selecionados, a TcP opera uma transformação no paradigma preventivo. Prevalece uma superposição entre prevenção e assistência, sugerindo maior peso aos conhecimentos e práticas biomédicos. Esse enfoque não contempla o enfrentamento de fatores estruturais associados à vulnerabilidade ao HIV e ao estigma da Aids e a participação de ativistas e PVHA como produtores autônomos de praticas preventivas. Argumentamos que a efetividades da TcP no Brasil requer uma discussão sobre a garantia dos direitos humanos e problemas estruturais e programáticos do sistema público de saúde.


Abstract According to current global AIDS guidelines, HIV testing is key to the success of the 'treatment as prevention' (TasP) strategy and the control of AIDS. In view of Brazil's commitment to these guidelines, this article characterizes the principles and justifications underpinning TasP and discusses implementation challenges. The analysis draws on a systematic review of the literature (2005 to 2015) on recruitment and testing strategies for men who have sex with men. This approach was adopted based on the assumption that current knowledge on HIV testing can offer valuable insights into the foundations of global AIDS policies and their uptake in local contexts. Based on the analysis of the 65 articles selected, we suggest that TasP represents a shift in the AIDS prevention paradigm. There is an overlap between prevention and care and the new approach places major emphasis on biomedical and psychological knowledge. The TasP approach fails to address the factors associated with HIV vulnerability and the stigma surrounding AIDS and undermines the participation of activists and PLWHA as autonomous producers of preventive of preventive practices. We argue that, to ensure the effective implementation of TasP in Brazil, it is necessary to discuss issues such as the protection of human rights and the structural problems facing Brazil's public health system.

12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 240: 111875, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034952

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Buddleja cordata Humb. Bonpl. & Kunth, known by the population as Tepozán blanco, is a shrub plant used in traditional herbal medicine in Mexico for the treatment of tumors, cancer, sores, skin burns, rheumatic pains and diseases related to inflammatory processes such as arthritis; authors adjudicate this etno-medicinal effect to the presence of secondary metabolites in the plant such as verbascoside, however due to its low concentration in recent years biotechnological tools are applied as cell culture to biosynthesize these pharmacological active metabolites in greater quantities. AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluate the possible toxic effect after a daily administration of MeOH extracts from wild plant leaves (Bc-Wp), and cell culture (Bc-Cc) of B. cordata for 28 days, and after their anti-edematous and antioxidant activities in vivo, as well their effect on the cytokines profile during experimental arthritis induced by complete Freund's adjuvant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both extracts were evaluated in CD1 male mice first in a toxicity test of repeated dose administrations (1 g/kg) for 28 days, after which pharmacological activity of both extracts was measure during experimental induced arthritis where three doses were tested, at the end of the study edema formation, body weight gain and antioxidant activity were measure in edema and ganglionic tissues. Finally, dose that exerted the best protective effect (250 mg/kg) was evaluated to quantify its effect over ganglionic tissue concentration of lymphocytes T CD4+, and cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-10), as well histological analysis in arthritic mice. RESULTS: Both extracts (Bc-Wp and Bc-Cc) did not exert lethality, however body weight gain and food in-take were lower than in healthy mice administered with vehicles, also extract-treated animals showed a decrease in serum lipid concentration and only Bc-Wp extract treated animals decrease serum alkaline phosphatase after 28 daily administration compared to healthy un-treated mice. During experimental arthritis best inhibition effect over edema development was observed in those animals administered with both extracts at dose of 250 mg/kg (Bc-Wp and Bc-Cc) on day 28, compared to CFA un-treated mice. Also both extracts reduce oxidative damage over lipids and proteins at the same dose, in both ganglionic and edema tissue, as well antioxidant enzymatic response was reduced in both tissues compared to arthritic un-treated group. In ganglionic tissue of arthritic mice, CD4+ lymphocytes concentration was reduced by Bc-Wp and Bc-Cc treatment (250 mg/kg) respectively, as well IL-1ß, and TNF-α levels. Only arthritic animals treated with Bc-Cc extract at 250 mg/kg generated a significant increase of IL-10 doubling the levels compared to CFA un-treated group. Histological analysis of popliteal ganglion showed that both extracts decrease the incidence of lytic lesions, lipid inclusions and leukocyte infiltration. CONCLUSION: Methanolic extracts of wild Buddleja cordata and its cell cultures did not generated lethality after a daily administration for 28 days at 1 g/kg, but it was observed that both showed a lipid-lowering effect. Also at dose of 250 mg/kg both extracts exerted anti-edematous, protection against the oxidation of lipid and proteins, regulation on antioxidant enzymatic response, down-regulation on lymphocytes CD4+ producers of IL-1ß and TNF-α, an increase in IL-10 levels, which caused a decrease in leukocyte infiltration in ganglionic tissue during experimental arthritis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Buddleja , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metanol/química , Camundongos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Solventes/química
13.
Glob Public Health ; 14(5): 764-776, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442074

RESUMO

Global AIDS policy points to a new prevention rationale centred on the identification and treatment of people infected with HIV, particularly among the so-called key populations. This study analyses the continuities and changes in HIV testing strategies based on a meta-narrative review of academic output (2005-2015) focusing on men who have sex with men. We reviewed 65 articles based on their prevention approaches, testing strategies and the involvement of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and community-based organisations. The analysis found continuities in HIV testing strategies in addition to changes. A new focus is reflected in the expansion and diversification of testing offered, the reduced importance of counselling, an emphasis on condom use associated with test results and on the absence of active participation of NGOs in implementing social responses to AIDS. Our findings indicate a systematic lack of problematising the potential ethical, political and cultural issues surrounding HIV testing as a strategy to control the epidemic. The findings of our study reinforce criticisms of the biomedicalization of current HIV-related policies, and reiterate the importance of combining progress achieved in increasing access to diagnosis and treatment with the historical achievements of social responses to AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Medicalização , Aconselhamento , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Narrativa
14.
Ars pharm ; 59(4): 227-233, oct.-dic. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177737

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate, in accordance with international standards, a chromatographic method to determine the mangiferin in Cuban’s samples, obtained from Mangifera indica leaves. Materials and Methods: A GraceSmart RP -18 (150 mm x 4,6 mm i.d., 5µm particle size) column and mobile phase of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (0.01 M) pH 2.7 ± 0.2 - acetonitrile (85:15, v/v) with the flow rate of 1,0 mL/min and UV detection at 254 nm wavelength is used. The validated method was compared with the established method for the quality control of the Cuban's mangiferin samples, through the Student test. In the validation study the parameters were evaluated: specificity, precision (repeatability, intermediate precision and reproducibility), accuracy, linearity, robustness and detection and quantification limits. Results and Discussion: It was demonstrated that the developed procedure, was the sufficiently lineal thing, with a detection limit of 10 % and 30 % like quantification limit, specific, precise, exact and robust for the determination of mangiferin content in the Cuban's samples. The results obtained from the validation process provided documentary evidence of the reliability of the chromatographic method; In addition, no significant differences were observed between the chromatographic methods evaluated, so that the validated method can be applied in the quality control of the Cuban's samples. Conclusions: The method used in the quantification of mangiferin was was specific, lineal, precise, exact and robust, for quality control and stability study


Objetivo: Se validó un método cromatográfico para la determinación de Mangiferina en muestras cubanas obtenidas de hojas de Mangiferina indica. Materiales y métodos: Se empleó una columna GraceSmart RP -18 (150 mm x 4,6 mm i.d., 5µm particle size) y una fase móvil de dihidrógeno ortofosfato de potasio (0,01 M) pH 2,7 ± 0,2 - acetonitrilo (85:15, v/v) con un flujo de 1,0 mL/min y una detección UV a 254 nm. El método validado fue comparado con el método establecido para el control de la calidad de las muestras cubanas de mangiferina, mediante la prueba de Student. En el estudio de validación fueron evaluados los parámetros: especificidad, precisión (repetibilidad, precisión intermedia y reproducibilidad), exactitud, linealidad, robustez y límites de cuantificación y detección. Resultados y Discusión: Se demostró que el procedimiento desarrollado, fue lo suficientemente lineal, con un límite de detección de 10 % y 30 % como límite de cuantificación, específico, preciso, exacto y robusto para la determinación del contenido de mangiferina en las muestras cubanas. Los resultados obtenidos en el proceso de validación demostraron a través de pruebas documentales la confiabilidad del método cromatográfico; Además no se observaron diferencias significativas entre los métodos evaluados, el método validado puedo aplicarse en el control de la calidad de las muestras cubanas. Conclusiones: El método usado en la cuantificación de mangiferina resultó específico, lineal, preciso, exacto y robusto y puede ser empleado en el control de la calidad y estudio de estabilidad


Assuntos
Mangifera/análise , Mangifera/farmacologia , Cromatografia/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Composição de Medicamentos , Plantas Medicinais
16.
An. psicol ; 34(3): 500-509, oct. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177950

RESUMO

Actualmente en España estamos viviendo un proceso de transformación en Atención Temprana hacia un modelo centrado en la familia. Ésta empieza a cobrar un especial protagonismo como eje fundamental de la intervención, participando activamente en el proceso educativo y rehabilitador del niño. La evidencia científica señala que la adecuada interacción del profesional con la familia, a través de la implementación de prácticas relacionales y participativas, es fundamental para el éxito de la intervención. Por ello, resulta interesante conocer cómo se realizan esas interacciones y cómo son percibidas por los dos agentes. Se aplicó el cuestionario de Estilos de Interacción entre Padres y Profesionales en Atención Temprana (EIPPAT) (Escorcia, García-Sánchez, Sánchez-López & Hernández-Pérez, 2016) para analizar las estrategias y estilos de interacción de los profesionales con las familias. El cuestionario fue cumplimentado por 504 familias y 187 profesionales. Los resultados demuestran que los profesionales españoles desarrollan más prácticas relacionales y menos prácticas participativas con las familias. Sin embargo, creen que hacen más prácticas participativas de las que las familias realmente reciben, según la percepción de estas familias. Se concluye sobre la necesidad de mejorar la formación del profesional en las implicaciones de las prácticas centradas en la familia en Atención Temprana


Currently in Spain we are living a process of transformation in Early childhood intervention towards a model centred on the family. This model begins to take on a special role as the fundamental axis of the intervention, participating actively in the educational and rehabilitation process of the child. Scientific evidence shows that suitable interaction of professionals with the family, through the implementation of relational and participatory practices, is fundamental for the success of the intervention. Therefore, it is crucial to know how these interactions are carried out and how they are perceived by them. The Styles Questionnaire of Interaction between Parents and Professionals in Early Intervention (SIPPEI) (Escorcia-Mora, García-Sánchez, Sánchez-López & Hernández-Pérez, 2016) was applied in order to analyze the strategies and styles of interaction of professionals with families. The questionnaire was completed by 504 families and 187 professionals. The results obtained show that Spanish professionals develop more relational practices and less participatory practices with families. However, professionals believe that they do more participatory practices than families actually receive, from the perception of these families. This leads us to conclude, about the need to improve professional training about the implications of family-centred practices in Early Intervention


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Fatorial , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Estatística
18.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 28(2): e280204, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-955479

RESUMO

Abstract Global AIDS guidelines have prioritized the expansion of HIV testing among the groups most exposed to the virus, such as those referred to as men who have sex with men (MSM). This paper analyses the relationships between the production of prevention strategies and sexual moralities based on the results of a systematic review of academic literature about testing with gays and MSM (2005-2015, using the PubMed, Sociological Abstract and Lilacs databases). The analysis of 65 articles reveals the recruitment strategies for identifying target-subjects and how they are held responsible for their serological self-surveillance, including routine tests. The findings also point to a diversification of testing locations. Implicit assumptions about sexuality and gay affection are conveyed through the interventions' emphasis on sociability spaces and occasional sex, especially when facilitated by the use of apps. Attentive to the symbolic dimensions of the new prevention technologies and strategies, we argue that the expansion of testing with a focus on "MSM" signals a displacement of health interventions. If before actions to control the epidemic sought to intervene in sexual practices, the current efforts are concentrated on promoting self-surveillance of one's serological status.


Resumo As diretrizes globais de prevenção da Aids têm priorizado a ampliação da testagem do HIV entre grupos mais expostos ao vírus, como os denominados homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH). Com base em revisão sistemática da produção acadêmica (2005-2015) nas bases PubMed, Sociological Abstract e Lilacs, sobre testagem com gays e HSH e formas de captação para diagnóstico, este trabalho analisa as relações entre produção de estratégias de prevenção e moralidades sexuais. O exame dos 65 artigos revela os modos de identificação dos sujeitos-alvo das estratégias de captação e de responsabilização pela própria vigilância sorológica, incluindo a testagem de rotina. Os achados apontam ainda a diversificação de lugares para testagem. Os pressupostos implícitos sobre sexualidade e afetividade gay se exprimem através da ênfase das intervenções nos espaços de sociabilidade e de sexo ocasional, particularmente quando facilitado pelo uso de aplicativos. Atentos à dimensão simbólica das novas estratégias e tecnologias de prevenção, argumentamos que a ampliação da testagem com foco nos "HSH" opera um deslocamento da intervenção sanitária. Se antes as medidas de controle da epidemia visavam intervir no exercício da sexualidade dos sujeitos, os esforços atuais se concentram em promover a autovigilância do estado sorológico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Testes Sorológicos/tendências , HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina , Sexualidade , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Estigma Social , Moral
19.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 17(1): 31, 2017 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29202754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is an HIV prevention strategy that promotes the principles of confidentiality and informed consent. International research has highlighted VCT counselors' isolation from service planning and the contradictions they negotiate between local values and global testing recommendations. In Brazil, studies have identified many limitations, including counselors' difficulties to implement a vulnerability approach to HIV prevention as recommended in the country's national guidelines. These studies, however, have not considered the particularities of the institutional contexts where counselors work. This research addresses these gaps in the VCT literature by exploring how VCT services are organized and how counselors perceive and perform their practices in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: This is a case study of VCT services in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The research design included individual structured interviews with seven VCT service coordinators and twenty individual semi-structured interviews with VCT counselors. Participants were sampled according to gender, undergraduate degree and work trajectory to capture a diverse range counselor narratives. RESULTS: The VCT services were relatively homogenous in terms of functioning and had a similar restricted roll of activities including individual counseling and occasional external prevention activities with groups vulnerable to HIV. All VCT services reported reductions in staff size. Some counselors used dialogical practices to build trust, guarantee confidentiality and adjust their practices in accordance with their clients' values and practices. Others emphasized imperative messages or focused on risk and individual responsibility. Connections between how counselors perceive their practices and the organization of their work environment were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the importance of counseling as a prevention strategy we recommend rethinking the relationship between counselors' practices and the organization of VCT services. The challenges brought about by the expansion of "test and treat" programs globally and other social and symbolic aspects of the HIV epidemic, such as gender inequalities, must also be taken into account. Further reflection is also needed on the relationship between counseling guidelines and practices within the vulnerability approach to HIV prevention.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Aconselhamento , Conselheiros , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Instalações de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Adulto , Brasil , Confidencialidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Narração , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança , Local de Trabalho
20.
Cad Saude Publica ; 33(12): e00099816, 2017 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267684

RESUMO

Since 2009, legislation of the National School Feeding Program of Brazil (PNAE) institutionalizes its linkage with family farming as it establishes the requirement that at least 30% out of the total financial resources allocated by the federal government to the states and municipalities for school feeding must be used in the purchase of products directly from this sector. This study analyzes the process of drafting this legislation, focusing on the elements related to the procurement from family farming, through a historical contextualization, and it also presents a graphical representation with the main elements of this linkage: its objectives, target population, actions implemented and expected results. Actors involved with the drafting of the legislation were interviewed. The analyses show that the procurement from family farming is a far-reaching initiative in terms of the concept, execution and results. It has also showed that a strong articulation between the actors and institutions of the different sectors involved is critical to its success. The education, agriculture, planning, procurement and civil society sectors should work articulately at national, state and local level. The results of this study demonstrate that initiatives like this, of institutional procurement from family farming, which are currently being implemented in several countries, constitute as an important strategy of food and nutrition security, for the fulfillment of the human right to adequate food and the promotion of long-term sustainable development.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Assistência Alimentar/tendências , Serviços de Alimentação/tendências , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Brasil , Família , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
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