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1.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554894

RESUMO

IntroductionThe burden of non-motor symptoms is a major determinant of quality of life and outcome in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and has profound negative effect also on caregivers.Areas coveredNon-motor symptoms in ALS include cognitive impairment, neurobehavioral symptoms, depression and anxiety, suicidal ideation, pain, disordered sleep, fatigue, weight loss and reduced appetite, and autonomic dysfunctions. This review summarize the measures used for the assessment of non-motor symptoms and their properties and recaps the frequency and progression of these symptoms along the course of ALS.Expert opinionNon-motor symptoms in ALS represent a major component of the disease and span over several domains. These symptoms require a high level of medical attention and should be checked at each visit using ad hoc questionnaires and should be proactively treated. Several instruments assessing non-motor symptoms have been used in ALS. Specific screening questionnaires for non-motor symptoms can be used for monitoring patients during telehealth visits and for remote surveillance through sensors and apps installed on smartphones. Novel trials for non-motor symptoms treatment specifically designed for ALS are necessary to increase and refine the therapeutic armamentarium. Finally, scales assessing the most frequent and burdensome non-motor symptoms should be included in clinical trials.

2.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 52, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multifactorial, multisystem motor neuron disease for which currently there is no effective treatment. There is an urgent need to identify biomarkers to tackle the disease's complexity and help in early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanostructures released by any cell type into body fluids. Their biophysical and biochemical characteristics vary with the parent cell's physiological and pathological state and make them an attractive source of multidimensional data for patient classification and stratification. METHODS: We analyzed plasma-derived EVs of ALS patients (n = 106) and controls (n = 96), and SOD1G93A and TDP-43Q331K mouse models of ALS. We purified plasma EVs by nickel-based isolation, characterized their EV size distribution and morphology respectively by nanotracking analysis and transmission electron microscopy, and analyzed EV markers and protein cargos by Western blot and proteomics. We used machine learning techniques to predict diagnosis and prognosis. RESULTS: Our procedure resulted in high-yield isolation of intact and polydisperse plasma EVs, with minimal lipoprotein contamination. EVs in the plasma of ALS patients and the two mouse models of ALS had a distinctive size distribution and lower HSP90 levels compared to the controls. In terms of disease progression, the levels of cyclophilin A with the EV size distribution distinguished fast and slow disease progressors, a possibly new means for patient stratification. Immuno-electron microscopy also suggested that phosphorylated TDP-43 is not an intravesicular cargo of plasma-derived EVs. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis unmasked features in plasma EVs of ALS patients with potential straightforward clinical application. We conceived an innovative mathematical model based on machine learning which, by integrating EV size distribution data with protein cargoes, gave very high prediction rates for disease diagnosis and prognosis.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348536

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the role of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis parameters (blood carbon dioxide, pCO2; oxygen, pO2; carbonate, HCO3-; standard base excess, SBE) in monitoring respiratory function and ventilation compliance after noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) adaptation, predicting survival in ALS patients. Methods: We selected the first ABG performed after NIV start in ALS patients followed from 2000 to 2015 in Turin ALS Center. Correlations between ABG parameters and survival were calculated. Risk for death/tracheostomy was computed at modifying ABG parameters by using Cox regression models, adjusted for the main prognostic factors. Kaplan-Meier curves were then performed and compared. Results: A total of 186 post-NIV ABGs were included. HCO3- and SBE showed a significant correlation with survival after NIV (respectively, R = -0.183, p = 0.018 and R = -0.200, p = 0.010). Risk for death/tracheostomy after NIV was significantly higher at increasing HCO3- and SBE blood levels, especially when HCO3- was >29 mmol/L and SBE >4 mmol/L (respectively, HR 1.466, 95% CI 1.068-2.011, p = 0.018 and HR = 1.411, 95% CI 1.030-1.32, p = 0.032). Survival in NIV was higher in patients with HCO3- < 29.0 mmol/L and SBE < 4.0 mmol/L. Conclusions: HCO3- and SBE blood levels are markers of ventilation compliance, tolerance and efficacy, being able to predict survival after NIV start in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Gasometria , Carbonatos , Humanos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
4.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(10): 1236-1248, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459874

RESUMO

Importance: Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare form of ALS characterized by age of symptom onset less than 25 years and a variable presentation. Objective: To identify the genetic variants associated with juvenile ALS. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter family-based genetic study, trio whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the disease-associated gene in a case series of unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and severe growth retardation. The patients and their family members were enrolled at academic hospitals and a government research facility between March 1, 2016, and March 13, 2020, and were observed until October 1, 2020. Whole-exome sequencing was also performed in a series of patients with juvenile ALS. A total of 66 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS participated in the study. Patients were selected for the study based on their diagnosis, and all eligible participants were enrolled in the study. None of the participants had a family history of neurological disorders, suggesting de novo variants as the underlying genetic mechanism. Main Outcomes and Measures: De novo variants present only in the index case and not in unaffected family members. Results: Trio whole-exome sequencing was performed in 3 patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and their parents. An additional 63 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS were subsequently screened for variants in the SPTLC1 gene. De novo variants in SPTLC1 (p.Ala20Ser in 2 patients and p.Ser331Tyr in 1 patient) were identified in 3 unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and failure to thrive. A fourth variant (p.Leu39del) was identified in a patient with juvenile ALS where parental DNA was unavailable. Variants in this gene have been previously shown to be associated with autosomal-dominant hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy, type 1A, by disrupting an essential enzyme complex in the sphingolipid synthesis pathway. Conclusions and Relevance: These data broaden the phenotype associated with SPTLC1 and suggest that patients presenting with juvenile ALS should be screened for variants in this gene.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355622

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate how Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients' mortality rates change, based on different levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) and disease duration, providing a scheme of mortality rates of a real population of ALS patients to improve the design of future RCTs. Methods: One random spirometry for each ALS patient was selected during four time intervals from disease onset: (1) ≤12 months; (2) ≤18 months; (3) ≤24 months; (4) ≤36 months. Date of spirometry corresponded to date of trial entry, while time interval onset-spirometry to disease duration at enrollment. Mortality rates from inclusion were computed at different time intervals. Based on progression rates, patients were stratified in slow, intermediate and fast progressors. Survival from recruitment was calculated depending on FVC, disease duration and progression rate. Results: We included 659 patients in group 1, 888 in group 2, 1019 in group 3 and 1102 in group 4. Mortality rates were higher in each group at reducing the FVC cutoff used for recruitment (p < 0.001). Median survival decreased when lowering FVC and disease duration cutoffs (p < 0.001); a higher median disease progression rate of included patients led to lower median survival from recruitment. The proportion of recruited fast progressors raised when shortening disease duration and lowering FVC cutoff. Conclusions: This is a simple model for setting eligibility criteria, based on mortality rates of patients depending on FVC and disease duration, to select the best population for RCTs, tailored to trials' primary endpoints and duration.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279169

RESUMO

Objective. Up to 50% of patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) show behavioral changes within the spectrum of frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). Behavioral dysfunctions in ALS patients negatively impact on management, prognosis and survival. It is, thus, crucial to develop ALS-specific psychometric tools for early detecting alterations in behavior. This study aimed at investigating psychometric properties and feasibility of the Beaumont Behavioral Impairment (BBI), a proxy-report questionnaire designed to screen for FTD-like behavioral symptoms in ALS patients.Methods. Ninety ALS patients were compared to 100 healthy participants (HPs) on the BBI. ALS patients underwent clinical, cognitive, mood/anxiety and further behavioral (Frontal System Behavior Scale, FrSBe; Frontal Behavioral Inventory, FBI) evaluation. Validity, reliability, sensitivity and specificity of the BBI were assessed.Results. The BBI was significantly related to FrSBe and FBI scores, whereas not to other measures. A Principal Component Analysis yielded a mono-component structure; Cronbach's α was .93. The BBI proved to be sensitive to changes in behavior as well as to discriminate between different degrees of dysfunction. By addressing the FrSBe as the gold standard, the BBI reached optimal sensitivity (85.7%) and specificity (79.7%) at a cutoff of 10.5. Moreover, the BBI proved to be more accurate than the FrSBe and the FBI in clinical classifications.Conclusion. The BBI showed high internal consistency, as well as good construct, convergent and divergent validity. Its clinical usability is encouraged in ALS patients as being able to sensitively and specifically detect FTD-like behavioral changes.

8.
Brain ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905493

RESUMO

Strong evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through an altered regulation of proteostasis. Robust preclinical findings demonstrated that guanabenz selectively inhibits ER stress-induced eIF2α-phosphatase allowing misfolded protein clearance, reduces neuronal death and prolongs survival in in vitro and in vivo models. Its efficacy and safety in ALS patients are unknown. To address these issues, we conducted a multicentre, randomised, double-blind trial, with futility design. ALS patients with onset of symptoms within the previous 18 months were randomly assigned to receive in a 1:1:1:1 ratio guanabenz 64 mg, 32 mg, 16 mg or placebo daily for 6 months as add-on therapy to riluzole. The purpose of the placebo group blinding was safety but not efficacy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients progressing to higher stages of disease in 6 months as measured by the ALS Milano-Torino staging compared to a historical cohort of 200 ALS patients. The secondary outcomes were the rate of decline in ALSFRS-R total score, slow vital capacity change, time to death, tracheotomy or permanent ventilation and serum light neurofilament level at 6 months. The primary analysis of efficacy was performed by intention-to-treat. Guanabenz 64 mg and 32 mg arms, both alone and combined, reached the primary hypothesis of non-futility with proportions of patients who progressed to higher stage of disease at 6 months significantly lower than that expected under the hypothesis of non-futility and significantly lower difference in the median rate of change of the ALSFRS-R total score. This effect was driven by patients with bulbar onset, none of whom (0/18) progressed to a higher stage of disease at 6 months compared with those in guanabenz 16 mg (4/8; 50%), historical cohort alone (21/49; 43%; p = 0.001) or plus placebo (25/60; 42%; p = 0.001). The proportion of patients who experienced at least one adverse event was higher in any guanabenz arm than in the placebo arm, with higher dosing arms having significantly higher proportion of drug-related side effects and the 64 mg arm significantly higher drop-out rate. The number of serious adverse events did not significantly differ between guanabenz arms and placebo. Our findings indicate that a larger trial with a molecule targeting the UPR pathway without the alpha-2 adrenergic related side-effect profile of guanabenz is warranted.

9.
Nat Genet ; 53(3): 294-303, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589841

RESUMO

The genetic basis of Lewy body dementia (LBD) is not well understood. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing in large cohorts of LBD cases and neurologically healthy controls to study the genetic architecture of this understudied form of dementia, and to generate a resource for the scientific community. Genome-wide association analysis identified five independent risk loci, whereas genome-wide gene-aggregation tests implicated mutations in the gene GBA. Genetic risk scores demonstrate that LBD shares risk profiles and pathways with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, providing a deeper molecular understanding of the complex genetic architecture of this age-related neurodegenerative condition.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Glucosilceramidase/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/genética
12.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 32(8): e13859, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is common in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), leading to a reduction of swallowing safety and efficacy. The tongue has an important role in swallowing function for oral processing and bolus propulsion through the pharynx. The study aims to analyze the association between instrumental findings of OD and tongue pressure. METHODS: Patients with ALS referred for fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) were recruited. FEES was conducted to test swallowing function with liquid (5, 10, and 20 ml), semisolid (5, 10, and 20 ml), and solid. FEES recordings were assessed for swallowing safety, using the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), and for swallowing efficacy, using the Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale (YPRSRS). PAS scores >2 were suggestive of penetration, PAS scores >5 of aspiration, and YPRSRS scores >2 of residue. Maximum tongue pressure (MTP) and tongue endurance were measured using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Tongue pressure measurements were compared between patients with and without penetration, aspiration, or residue. KEY RESULTS: Fifty-five patients with ALS were included. Mean MTP was 29.7 kPa, and median tongue endurance was 10 seconds. Patients with residue in the pyriform sinus had a significantly lower MTP than patients without residue in the pyriform sinus with semisolids 10 ml (P = .011) and 20 ml (P = .032). Patients with a tongue endurance <10 seconds exhibited higher frequency of penetration with liquids 5 ml (P = .046), liquids 10 ml (P = .015), and solids (P = .22). CONCLUSION AND INFERENCES: In patients with ALS, MTP is significantly associated with an impairment of swallowing efficacy and tongue endurance was significantly associated with an impairment of swallowing safety.

13.
Neurobiol Dis ; 139: 104815, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087285

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease for which there are no validated biomarkers. Previous exploratory studies have identified a panel of candidate protein biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that include peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A (PPIA), heat shock cognate protein 71 kDa (HSC70), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNPA2B1) and TDP-43. It has also been found that PPIA plays a key role in the assembly and dynamics of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes and interacts with TDP-43. Its absence accelerates disease progression in a SOD1 mouse model of ALS, and low levels of PPIA in PBMCs are associated with early-onset ALS. However, the diagnostic and prognostic values of PPIA and the other candidate protein biomarkers have not been established. We analyzed the PBMC proteins in a well-characterized cohort of ALS patients (n=93), healthy individuals (n=104) and disease controls (n=111). We used a highly controlled sample processing procedure that implies two-step differential detergent fractionation. We found that the levels of the selected PBMC proteins in the soluble and insoluble fraction, combined, have a high discriminatory power for distinguishing ALS from controls, with PPIA, hnRNPA2B1 and TDP-43 being the proteins most closely associated with ALS. We also found a shift toward increased protein partitioning in the insoluble fraction in ALS and this correlated with a worse disease phenotype. In particular, low PPIA soluble levels were associated with six months earlier death. In conclusion, PPIA is a disease modifier with prognostic potential. PBMC proteins indicative of alterations in protein and RNA homeostasis are promising biomarkers of ALS, for diagnosis, prognosis and patient stratification.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Peptidilprolil Isomerase/metabolismo , Prognóstico
14.
Neuropharmacology ; 167: 107986, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062193

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder of adult life, causing weakness and wasting of voluntary muscles, associated in about 50% of cases with a cognitive impairment. Pathologically, the disease is characterized by a degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. A hallmark of the pathological process is the aggregation of the protein TDP43 in the cytoplasm of affected neurons detected in almost 97% of cases. About 15% of cases has a family history. Currently, only two drugs have been demonstrated to be effective in ALS, riluzole and edaravone, which show only modest effects on disease progression. The quest for disease-modifying therapies in ALS has several obstacles, the most important being the sub-optimal quality of the design of clinical trials, and the clinical and pathological heterogeneity of the disease. In this paper the pathological mechanisms relevant to ALS and current and future pharmacological and non-pharmacological trials, including gene and stem cells therapies, will be presented. This article is part of the special issue entitled 'The Quest for Disease-Modifying Therapies for Neurodegenerative Disorders'.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Riluzol/farmacologia , Riluzol/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco/tendências
15.
Neurology ; 94(8): e802-e810, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) phenotypes in a population-based cohort. METHODS: The study population included 2,839 patients with ALS diagnosed in Piemonte, Italy (1995-2015). Patients were classified according to motor (classic, bulbar, flail arm, flail leg, predominantly upper motor neuron [PUMN], respiratory) and cognitive phenotypes (normal, ALS with cognitive impairment [ALSci], ALS with behavioral impairment [ALSbi], ALSci and ALSbi combined [ALScbi], ALS-frontotemporal dementia [FTD]). Binary logistic regression analysis was adjusted for sex, age, and genetics. RESULTS: Bulbar phenotype correlated with older age (p < 0.0001), women were more affected than men at increasing age (p < 0.0001), classic with younger age (p = 0.029), men were more affected than women at increasing age (p < 0.0001), PUMN with younger age (p < 0.0001), flail arm with male sex (p < 0.0001) and younger age (p = 0.04), flail leg with male sex with increasing age (p = 0.008), and respiratory with male sex (p < 0.0001). C9orf72 expansions correlated with bulbar phenotype (p < 0.0001), and were less frequent in PUMN (p = 0.041); SOD1 mutations correlated with flail leg phenotype (p < 0.0001), and were less frequent in bulbar (p < 0.0001). ALS-FTD correlated with C9orf72 (p < 0.0001) and bulbar phenotype (p = 0.008), ALScbi with PUMN (p = 0.014), and ALSci with older age (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the spatial-temporal combination of motor and cognitive events leading to the onset and progression of ALS is characterized by a differential susceptibility to the pathologic process of motor and prefrontal cortices and lower motor neurons, and is influenced by age, sex, and gene variants. The identification of those factors that regulate ALS phenotype will allow us to reclassify patients into pathologically homogenous subgroups, responsive to targeted personalized therapies.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/classificação , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência Frontotemporal/epidemiologia , Transtornos Motores/epidemiologia , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Comorbidade , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/classificação , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Motores/classificação , Transtornos Motores/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fatores Sexuais
16.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(3): 291-297, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The lack of prognostic biomarkers in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) induced researchers to develop clinical evaluation tools for stratification and survival prediction. We assessed the correlation between patterns of functional involvement, considered as a cumulative number of body regions involved, and overall survival in a population-based series of patients with ALS (PARALS). METHODS: We derived the functional involvement of four body regions at diagnosis using ALSFRS-R subscores for bulbar, upper limbs, lower limbs and respiratory/thoracic regions. We analysed the effect of number of body regions involved (NBRI) at diagnosis on overall survival, adjusting for age at onset, sex, site of onset, diagnostic delay, forced vital capacity, body mass index, mutational status, cognition and comparing it with King's staging system. RESULTS: The NBRI was strongly related to survival, with a progressive increase of death/tracheostomy risk among groups (two body regions HR=1.24, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.45, p=0007; three body regions HR=1.65, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.98, p<0.001; four body regions HR=2.68, 95% CI 2.11 to 3.39, p<0.001). Using ALSFRS-R score, the consistency between the number of regions involved and King's clinical stage at diagnosis was very high (81%). The evaluation of respiratory/thoracic region and cognition allowed to subdivide patients into different prognostic categories. Regional spreading of the disease is associated with survival, independently from the initial region involved. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of NBRI, with the inclusion of initial respiratory/thoracic involvement and cognition, can be useful in many research fields, improving the stratification of patients. Our findings highlight the importance of the spatial spreading of functional impairment in the prediction of ALS outcome.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Tardio , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Avaliação de Sintomas , Capacidade Vital
17.
Neurology ; 93(10): e984-e994, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of the degree of severity of motor impairment to that of cognitive impairment in a large cohort of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: This is a population-based cross-sectional study on patients with ALS incident in Piemonte, Italy, between 2007 and 2015. Cognitive status was classified according to the revised ALS-FTD Consensus Criteria. The King system and the Milano Torino Staging system (MiToS) were used for defining the severity of motor impairment. RESULTS: Of the 797 patients included in the study, 163 (20.5%) had ALS-frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 38 (4.8%) cognitive and behavioral impairment (ALScbi), 132 (16.6%) cognitive impairment (ALSci), 63 (7.9%) behavioral impairment (ALSbi), 16 (2.0%) nonexecutive impairment, and 385 (48.2%) were cognitively normal. According to King staging, the frequency of cases with ALS-FTD progressively increased from 16.5% in stage 1-44.4% in stage 4; conversely, the frequency of ALSci, ALSbi, and ALScbi increased from King stage 1 to King stage 3 and decreased thereafter. A similar pattern was observed with the MiToS staging. ALS-FTD was more frequent in patients with bulbar involvement at time of cognitive testing. Patients with C9ORF72 expansion (n = 61) showed more severe cognitive impairment with increasing King and MiToS stages. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that ALS motor and cognitive components may worsen in parallel, and that cognitive impairment becomes more pronounced when bulbar function is involved. Our data support the hypothesis that ALS pathology disseminates in a regional ordered sequence, through a cortico-efferent spreading model.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Progressão da Doença , Vigilância da População , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
18.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 485, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156370

RESUMO

We investigated whether the C9orf72 repeat expansion is associated with specific clinical features, comorbidities, and prognosis in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A cohort of 1417 ALS patients, diagnosed between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013 by 13 Italian ALS Referral Centers, was screened for the C9orf72 repeat expansion, and the analyses were performed comparing patients carrying this expansion (ALS-C9Pos) to those negative for this and other explored ALS-related mutations (ALS without genetic mutations, ALSwoGM). Compared to the ALSwoGM group, ALS-C9Pos patients (n = 84) were younger at disease onset, at the first clinical observation and at diagnosis (p < 0.001). After correcting for these differences, we found that ALS-C9Pos patients had higher odds of bulbar onset, diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and family history of ALS, FTD, and Alzheimer's disease and had lower odds of spinal onset, non-invasive ventilation, hypertension and psychiatric diseases than ALSwoGM patients. Among these variables, those related to shorter survival time were: bulbar onset, presence of FTD, hypertension, psychiatric disease, and family history of ALS (p < 0.05). Cox proportional hazards regression multivariate analysis suggested that carrying the C9orf72 repeat expansion was an independent factor negatively impacting on survival time in men (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.07-2.33, p = 0.021), but not in women (p > 0.05) as well as in the whole sample (p > 0.05). When compared to ALSwoGM, ALS-C9Pos showed an earlier disease onset, no significant diagnostic delay and a higher odds of bulbar onset, FTD and family history of ALS and dementia. Moreover, male sex drove the negative effect of expanded variant on survival, confirming the hypothesis that sex is likely to be a crucial factor in the biology of C9orf72-related disease.

19.
Ann Neurol ; 85(4): 470-481, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify shared polygenic risk and causal associations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: Linkage disequilibrium score regression and Mendelian randomization were applied in a large-scale, data-driven manner to explore genetic correlations and causal relationships between >700 phenotypic traits and ALS. Exposures consisted of publicly available genome-wide association studies (GWASes) summary statistics from MR Base and LD-hub. The outcome data came from the recently published ALS GWAS involving 20,806 cases and 59,804 controls. Multivariate analyses, genetic risk profiling, and Bayesian colocalization analyses were also performed. RESULTS: We have shown, by linkage disequilibrium score regression, that ALS shares polygenic risk genetic factors with a number of traits and conditions, including positive correlations with smoking status and moderate levels of physical activity, and negative correlations with higher cognitive performance, higher educational attainment, and light levels of physical activity. Using Mendelian randomization, we found evidence that hyperlipidemia is a causal risk factor for ALS and localized putative functional signals within loci of interest. INTERPRETATION: Here, we have developed a public resource (https://lng-nia.shinyapps.io/mrshiny) which we hope will become a valuable tool for the ALS community, and that will be expanded and updated as new data become available. Shared polygenic risk exists between ALS and educational attainment, physical activity, smoking, and tenseness/restlessness. We also found evidence that elevated low-desnity lipoprotein cholesterol is a causal risk factor for ALS. Future randomized controlled trials should be considered as a proof of causality. Ann Neurol 2019;85:470-481.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos
20.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(7): 734-739, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In 2017, the diagnostic criteria for cognitive and behavioural impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with frontotemporal dementia (ALSFTD-1) have been modified (ALSFTD-2) with the inclusion of a novel category (ALS with combined cognitive and behavioural impairment, ALScbi) and with changes of operational criteria of the other categories (ALS with cognitive impairment (ALSci), ALS with behavioural impairment (ALSbi) and ALS with frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD)). We compared the two sets of criteria to assess the effect of the revised criteria on the cognitive classification of patients with ALS. METHODS: Two cohorts of patients with ALS were included in this study: a population-based cohort including patients identified through the Piemonte/Valle d'Aosta register for ALS in the 2014-2017 period (n=321), and a referral cohort recruited at the Turin ALS centre and at the ALS centre of the Maugeri Institute in Milan in the same period (n=205). Cognitive function was classified in blind by two neuropsychologists expert in ALS. RESULTS: ALSFTD-2 criteria determined a shift of about 15% of patients from their original category to a new one. In both cohorts, about 9% of patients were reclassified to the novel category ALScbi. Among patients previously classified as cognitively normal, 14 (4.3%, population-based cohort) and 19 (9.3%, referral cohort) were reclassified as ALSbi or ALSci. The median survival of the different categories was significantly different with both with sets of criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The new ALSFTD-2 criteria, compared with the old ones, have positive effects on the clinical practice being more sensitive to the early cognitive impairment and having a better prognostic yield.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência Frontotemporal , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/classificação , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/classificação , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
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