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1.
Atherosclerosis ; 294: 46-61, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928713

RESUMO

The joint consensus panel of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) and the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) recently addressed present and future challenges in the laboratory diagnostics of atherogenic lipoproteins. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and calculated non-HDL cholesterol (=total - HDL cholesterol) constitute the primary lipid panel for estimating risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and can be measured in the nonfasting state. LDL cholesterol is the primary target of lipid-lowering therapies. For on-treatment follow-up, LDL cholesterol shall be measured or calculated by the same method to attenuate errors in treatment decisions due to marked between-method variations. Lipoprotein(a)-cholesterol is part of measured or calculated LDL cholesterol and should be estimated at least once in all patients at risk of ASCVD, especially in those whose LDL cholesterol decline poorly upon statin treatment. Residual risk of ASCVD even under optimal LDL-lowering treatment should be also assessed by non-HDL cholesterol or apolipoprotein B, especially in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia (2-10 mmol/L). Non-HDL cholesterol includes the assessment of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol and shall be reported in all standard lipid panels. Additional apolipoprotein B measurement can detect elevated LDL particle numbers often unidentified on the basis of LDL cholesterol alone. Reference intervals of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins are reported for European men and women aged 20-100 years. However, laboratories shall flag abnormal lipid values with reference to therapeutic decision thresholds.

2.
Thyroid ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910748

RESUMO

Background: Uncertainty in the mechanism and directionality of observational associations between thyroid function and kidney function may be addressed by genetic analysis with an instrumental variable method termed bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR). Methods: In the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS), observational associations between thyroid measures and kidney function were evaluated. Genetic instruments for MR were from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of hypothyroidism, thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations within the reference range, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), estimated glomerular filtration rate from creatinine (eGFRcrea), eGFR from cystatin C (eGFRcys), and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In WGHS individual-level data, these instruments were used for bidirectional MR between thyroid (N = 3336) and kidney (N = 23,186) functions. To increase power, MR was also performed using GWAS summary statistics from the Chronic Kidney Disease Genetics Consortium (CKDGen) for eGFRcrea (N = 567,460), eGFRcys (N = 24,063), CKD [N(total) = 480,698, N(cases) = 41,395], and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR/N = 54,450). Results: In the WGHS, hypothyroidism was observationally associated with decreased eGFRcrea [beta (standard error, SE): -0.024 (0.009) ln(mL/min/1.73 m2), p = 0.01]. By MR, hypothyroidism was associated with decreased eGFRcrea in the WGHS [beta (SE): -0.007 (0.002) per doubled odds hypothyroidism, p = 1.7 × 10-3] and in CKDGen [beta (SE): -0.004 (0.0005), p = 2.0 × 10-22], and robust to sensitivity analysis. Hypothyroidism was also associated by MR with increased CKD in CKDGen (odds ratio, OR [confidence interval, CI]: 1.05 [1.03-1.08], p = 3.3 × 10-5), but not in the WGHS (OR [CI]: 1.02 [0.95-1.10], p = 0.57). Increased TSH within the reference range had an MR association with increased eGFRcrea in the WGHS [beta (SE): -0.018 (0.007) ln(mL/min/1.73 m2)/standard deviation, SD, p = 6.5 × 10-3] and CKDGen [beta (SE): -0.008 (0.001) ln(mL/min/1.73 m2)/SD, p = 6.8 × 10-17], and with CKD in CKDGen (OR [CI]: 1.10 [1.04-1.15], p = 3.1 × 10-4). There were no MR associations of hypothyroidism or TSH with eGFRcys or UACR, and MR associations of fT4 in the reference range with kidney function were inconsistent in both the WGHS and CKDGen. However, by MR in CKDGen, TPOAb were robustly associated with decreased eGFRcrea [beta (SE): -0.041 (0.009), p = 6.2 × 10-6] and decreased eGFRcys [beta (SE): -0.294 (0.065), p = 6.2 × 10-6]. TPOAb were less robustly associated with CKD but not associated with UACR. In reverse MR in the WGHS, kidney function was not consistently associated with thyroid function. Conclusions: Bidirectional MR supports a directional association from hypothyroidism, increased TSH, and TPOAb, but not fT4, to decreased eGFRcrea and increased CKD.

3.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923341

RESUMO

Although supplemental vitamin D is used to promote bone health in the general population, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been inconsistent. We determined whether daily, vitamin D3 supplementation improves bone mineral density (BMD) and/or structure. VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT of supplemental vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d) and/or omega-3 fatty acids (1 g/d) in 25,871 adults nationwide. This ancillary study included a subcohort of 771 participants (men ≥50 and women ≥55 years; not taking bone active medications) evaluated at baseline and at 2-year follow-up (89% retention). Total 25(OH)D levels were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (Quest Diagnostics, San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA). Free 25(OH)D (FVD) levels were measured using the ELISA assay by Future Diagnostics Solutions BV (Wijchen, Netherlands). Primary endpoints were 2-year changes in areal (a) BMD at the spine, hip, and whole body determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Secondary endpoints were 2-year changes in volumetric (v) BMD and cortical thickness at the radius and tibia assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Supplemental vitamin D3 versus placebo had no effect on 2-year changes in aBMD at the spine (0.33% versus 0.17%; p = 0.55), femoral neck (-0.27% versus -0.68%; p = 0.16), total hip (-0.76% versus -0.95%; p = 0.23), or whole body (-0.22% versus -0.15%; p = 0.60), or on measures of bone structure. Effects did not vary by sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, or 25(OH)D levels. Among participants with baseline FVD levels below the median (<14.2 pmol/L), there was a slight increase in spine aBMD (0.75% versus 0%; p = 0.043) and attenuation in loss of total hip aBMD (-0.42% versus -0.98%; p = 0.044) with vitamin D3 . Whether baseline FVD levels help to identify those more likely to benefit from supplementation warrants further study. Supplemental vitamin D3 versus placebo for 2 years in general healthy adults not selected for vitamin D insufficiency did not improve BMD or structure. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

4.
5.
Circ Res ; 126(1): 112-128, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895658

RESUMO

Whether marine omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) or vitamin D supplementation can prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general populations at usual risk for this outcome is unknown. A major goal of VITAL (Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial) was to fill this knowledge gap. In this article, we review the results of VITAL, discuss relevant mechanistic studies regarding n-3 FAs, vitamin D, and vascular disease, and summarize recent meta-analyses of the randomized trial evidence on these agents. VITAL was a nationwide, randomized, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial trial of marine n-3 FAs (1 g/d) and vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d) in the primary prevention of CVD and cancer among 25 871 US men aged ≥50 and women aged ≥55 years, including 5106 blacks. Median treatment duration was 5.3 years. Supplemental n-3 FAs did not significantly reduce the primary cardiovascular end point of major CVD events (composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and CVD mortality; hazard ratio [HR], 0.92 [95% CI, 0.80-1.06]) but were associated with significant reductions in total myocardial infarction (HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.59-0.90]), percutaneous coronary intervention (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.63-0.95]), and fatal myocardial infarction (HR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.26-0.97]) but not stroke or other cardiovascular end points. For major CVD events, a treatment benefit was seen in those with dietary fish intake below the cohort median of 1.5 servings/wk (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.98]) but not in those above (P interaction=0.045). For myocardial infarction, the greatest risk reductions were in blacks (HR, 0.23 [95% CI, 0.11-0.47]; P interaction by race, 0.001). Vitamin D supplementation did not reduce major CVD events (HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.85-1.12]) or other cardiovascular end points. Updated meta-analyses that include VITAL and other recent trials document coronary risk reduction from supplemental marine n-3 FAs but no clear CVD risk reduction from supplemental vitamin D. Additional research is needed to determine which individuals may be most likely to derive net benefit from supplementation. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01169259.

6.
Angiology ; 71(1): 17-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129986

RESUMO

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has a high burden of morbidity and mortality due to premature (≤55 years in men; ≤65 years in women) myocardial infarction (MI) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Despite this, the prevalence of risk factors in patients presenting with premature MI or ACS is incompletely described. We compared lifestyle, clinical risk factors, and biomarkers associated with premature MI/ACS in the MENA region with selected non-MENA high-income countries. We identified English-language, peer-reviewed publications through PubMed (up to March 2018). We used the World Bank classification system to categorize countries. Patients with premature MI/ACS in the MENA region had a higher prevalence of smoking than older patients with MI/ACS but a lower prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Men with premature MI/ACS had a higher prevalence of smoking than women but a lower prevalence of diabetes and hypertension. The MENA region had sparse data on lifestyle, diet, psychological stress, and physical activity. To address these knowledge gaps, we initiated the ongoing Gulf Population Risks and Epidemiology of Vascular Events and Treatment (Gulf PREVENT) case-control study to improve primary and secondary prevention of premature MI in the United Arab Emirates, a high-income country in the MENA region.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/prevenção & controle , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Prematura , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(24): e013713, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818211

RESUMO

Background Chronic kidney disease is associated with structural and compositional abnormalities in high-density lipoprotein particles (HDLp). We examined associations of HDLp size, particle subfractions, and apolipoprotein C-III content with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events across categories of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Methods and Results Analyses included 6699 participants in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) with measurements of HDLp and 5723 participants with measurements of HDL apolipoprotein C-III. Cox-regression methods were used to evaluate associations between HDLp and apolipoproteins with CVD events. Larger HDLp size was associated with lower CVD risk in participants with lower eGFR: hazard ratio (95% CI) per SD higher mean HDL size was 1.00 (0.90-1.11) in eGFR ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m2, 0.65 (0.48-0.86) in eGFR 45 to 59 mL/min per 1.73 m2, and 0.48 (0.25-0.93) in eGFR <45 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (P for interaction=0.05). Associations of HDLp subfractions with CVD varied significantly by eGFR (P for interaction=0.04), with significant inverse associations between higher concentrations of large HDLp and CVD events across categories of kidney function, but nonsignificant results for small HDLp. Only HDLp without apolipoprotein C-III was associated with lower risk of CVD events, with seemingly (albeit not statistically significant) stronger associations among participants with lower eGFR (P for interaction=0.19). Conclusions HDL particles of larger size and higher concentrations of large HDL and of HDL without apolipoprotein C-III were associated with lower CVD risk, with risk estimates seemingly stronger among participants with lower eGFR. Future larger studies are needed to corroborate these findings.

8.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855562

RESUMO

The joint consensus panel of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) and the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) recently addressed present and future challenges in the laboratory diagnostics of atherogenic lipoproteins. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), LDL cholesterol (LDLC), and calculated non-HDLC (=total - HDLC) constitute the primary lipid panel for estimating risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and can be measured in the nonfasting state. LDLC is the primary target of lipid-lowering therapies. For on-treatment follow-up, LDLC shall be measured or calculated by the same method to attenuate errors in treatment decisions due to marked between-method variations. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]-cholesterol is part of measured or calculated LDLC and should be estimated at least once in all patients at risk of ASCVD, especially in those whose LDLC declines poorly upon statin treatment. Residual risk of ASCVD even under optimal LDL-lowering treatment should be also assessed by non-HDLC or apolipoprotein B (apoB), especially in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia (2-10 mmol/L). Non-HDLC includes the assessment of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol and shall be reported in all standard lipid panels. Additional apoB measurement can detect elevated LDL particle (LDLP) numbers often unidentified on the basis of LDLC alone. Reference intervals of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins are reported for European men and women aged 20-100 years. However, laboratories shall flag abnormal lipid values with reference to therapeutic decision thresholds.

10.
Clin Chem ; 65(12): 1508-1521, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest vitamin D and marine ω-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplements are associated with lower systemic inflammation. However, past trials have been inconsistent. METHODS: The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) tested vitamin D (2000 IU/day) and/or n-3 FA (1 g/day) supplementation in a 2 × 2 factorial design among women ≥55 and men ≥50 years of age. We assessed changes in interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations from baseline to 1 year among participants randomized to vitamin D + n-3 FA (392), vitamin D (392), n-3 FA (392), or placebo only (385). Geometric means and percent changes were compared, adjusting for baseline factors. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were well balanced. In the active arms, 25-OH vitamin D rose 39% and n-3 FA rose 55% vs minimal change in placebo arms. Neither supplement reduced biomarkers at 1 year. Vitamin D resulted in 8.2% higher IL-6 (95% CI, 1.5%-15.3%; adjusted P = 0.02), but TNFR2 and hsCRP did not. Among 784 receiving vitamin D, hsCRP increased 35.7% (7.8%-70.9%) in those with low (<20 ng/mL) but not with higher baseline serum 25(OH) vitamin D [0.45% (-8.9% to 10.8%); P interaction = 0.02]. Among 777 randomized to n-3 FA, hsCRP declined [-10.5% (-20.4% to 0.8%)] in those with baseline low (<1.5 servings/week), but not with higher fish intake [6.4% (95% CI, -7.11% to 21.8%); P interaction = 0.06]. CONCLUSIONS: In this large sample from a population-based randomized controlled trial, neither vitamin D nor n-3 FA supplementation over 1 year decreased these biomarkers of inflammation. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01169259; NCT01351805.

11.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 87: 105854, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a completed randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 (2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 (1 g/day) supplements in the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Here we examine baseline and change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and related biomarkers with randomized treatment and by clinical factors. METHODS: Baseline 25(OH)D was measured in 15,804 participants (mean age 68 years.; 50.8% women; 15.7% African Americans) and in 1660 1-year follow-up samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and chemiluminescence. Calcium and parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured by chemiluminescence and spectrophotometry respectively. RESULTS: Mean baseline total 25(OH)D (ng/mL ±â€¯SD) was 30.8 ±â€¯10.0 ng/mL, and correlated inversely with iPTH (r = -0.28), p < .001. After adjusting for clinical factors, 25(OH)D (ng/mL ±â€¯SE) was lower in men vs women (29.7 ±â€¯0.30 vs 31.4 ±â€¯0.30, p < .0001) and in African Americans vs whites (27.9 ±â€¯0.29 vs 32.5 ±â€¯0.22, p < .0001). It was also lower with increasing BMI, smoking, and latitude, and varied by season. Mean 1-year 25(OH)D increased by 11.9 ng/mL in the active group and decreased by 0.7 ng/mL in placebo. The largest increases were noted among individuals with low baseline and African Americans. Results were similar for chemiluminescent immunoassay. Mean calcium was unchanged, and iPTH decreased with treatment. CONCLUSION: In VITAL, baseline 25(OH)D varied by clinical subgroups, was lower in men and African Americans. Concentrations increased with vitamin D supplementation, with the greatest increases in those with lower baseline 25(OH)D. The seasonal trends in 25(OH)D, iPTH, and calcium may be relevant when interpreting 25(OH)D levels for clinical treatment decisions. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: VITAL ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01169259.

12.
Circulation ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709816

RESUMO

Among older adults, heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of hospitalization in the US and is associated with high costs and mortality1. Vitamin D and marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids have each been associated with reduced risks of HF in observational studies, but randomized trial evidence is limited. The current ancillary study sought to investigate the effects of vitamin D and n-3 supplements on the incidence of HF hospitalization in a large multi-ethnic cohort. VITAL-HF is an ancillary study of the parent VITAL trial, which is a completed randomized trial with a two-by-two factorial design to examine the efficacy of vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d) and n-3 fatty acids (1 gram per day, including eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA, 460 mg] + docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, 380 mg]) for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer in 25, 871 adults from 2011 to 2017. Detailed description of the VITAL design and main results has been published2. We excluded 36 participants with prevalent HF for current analyses. Each participant signed informed consent and the study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Brigham and Women's Hospital.

13.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(12): 2457-2467, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597448

RESUMO

The HDL (high-density lipoprotein) Workshop was established in 2009 as a forum for candid discussions among academic basic scientists, clinical investigators, and industry researchers about the role of HDL in cardiovascular disease. This ninth HDL Workshop was held on May 16 to 17, 2019 in Boston, MA, and included outstanding oral presentations from established and emerging investigators. The Workshop featured 5 sessions with topics that tackled the role of HDL in the vasculature, its structural complexity, its role in health and disease states, and its interaction with the intestinal microbiome. The highlight of the program was awarding the Jack Oram Award to the distinguished professor emeritus G.S. Getz from the University of Chicago. The tenth HDL Workshop will be held on May 2020 in Chicago and will continue the focus on intellectually stimulating presentations by established and emerging investigators on novel roles of HDL in cardiovascular and noncardiovascular health and disease states.

14.
Circulation ; 140(7): 553-555, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403842
16.
Metabolites ; 9(7)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336989

RESUMO

High-throughput metabolomics investigations, when conducted in large human cohorts, represent a potentially powerful tool for elucidating the biochemical diversity underlying human health and disease. Large-scale metabolomics data sources, generated using either targeted or nontargeted platforms, are becoming more common. Appropriate statistical analysis of these complex high-dimensional data will be critical for extracting meaningful results from such large-scale human metabolomics studies. Therefore, we consider the statistical analytical approaches that have been employed in prior human metabolomics studies. Based on the lessons learned and collective experience to date in the field, we offer a step-by-step framework for pursuing statistical analyses of cohort-based human metabolomics data, with a focus on feature selection. We discuss the range of options and approaches that may be employed at each stage of data management, analysis, and interpretation and offer guidance on the analytical decisions that need to be considered over the course of implementing a data analysis workflow. Certain pervasive analytical challenges facing the field warrant ongoing focused research. Addressing these challenges, particularly those related to analyzing human metabolomics data, will allow for more standardization of as well as advances in how research in the field is practiced. In turn, such major analytical advances will lead to substantial improvements in the overall contributions of human metabolomics investigations.

18.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 17(5): 515-537, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309820

RESUMO

Postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia, defined as an increase in plasma triglyceride-containing lipoproteins following a fat meal, is a potential risk predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Several non-modifiable factors (genetics, age, sex and menopausal status) and lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity, smoking status, obesity, alcohol and medication use) may influence postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia. This narrative review considers the studies published over the last decade that evaluated postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia. Additionally, the genetic determinants of postprandial plasma triglyceride levels, the types of meals for studying postprandial triglyceride response, and underlying conditions (e.g. familial dyslipidaemias, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver and chronic kidney disease) that are associated with postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia are reviewed; therapeutic aspects are also considered.

19.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 17(5): 498-514, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060488

RESUMO

Residual vascular risk exists despite the aggressive lowering of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C). A contributor to this residual risk may be elevated fasting, or non-fasting, levels of Triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Therefore, there is a need to establish whethe a standardised Oral Fat Tolerance Test (OFTT) can improve atherosclerotic Cardiovascular (CV) Disease (ASCVD) risk prediction in addition to a fasting or non-fasting lipid profile. An expert panel considered the role of postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia (as represented by an OFTT) in predicting ASCVD. The panel updated its 2011 statement by considering new studies and various patient categories. The recommendations are based on expert opinion since no strict endpoint trials have been performed. Individuals with fasting TG concentration <1 mmol/L (89 mg/dL) commonly do not have an abnormal response to an OFTT. In contrast, those with fasting TG concentration ≥2 mmol/L (175 mg/dL) or nonfasting ≥2.3 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) will usually have an abnormal response. We recommend considering postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia testing when fasting TG concentrations and non-fasting TG concentrations are 1-2 mmol/L (89-175 mg/dL) and 1.3-2.3 mmol/L (115-200 mg/dL), respectively as an additional investigation for metabolic risk prediction along with other risk factors (obesity, current tobacco abuse, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus). The panel proposes that an abnormal TG response to an OFTT (consisting of 75 g fat, 25 g carbohydrate and 10 g proteins) is >2.5 mmol/L (220 mg/dL). Postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia is an emerging factor that may contribute to residual CV risk. This possibility requires further research. A standardised OFTT will allow comparisons between investigational studies. We acknowledge that the OFTT will be mainly used for research to further clarify the role of TG in relation to CV risk. For routine practice, there is a considerable support for the use of a single non-fasting sample.

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