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1.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925809

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the effects of statins on postprandial lipaemia (PPL) and to study if exercise could enhance statin actions. METHODS: Ten hypercholesteraemic (blood cholesterol 204 ± 36 mg dL-1 ; low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol 129 ± 32 36 mg dL-1 ) overweight (body mass index 30 ± 4 kg m-2 ), metabolic syndrome individuals chronically medicated with statins (>6 months) underwent 5-hour PPL tests in 4 occasions in a randomized order: (i) substituting their habitual statin medication by placebo for 96 hours (PLAC trial); (ii) taking their habitual statin medicine (STA trial); (iii) placebo combined with a bout of intense aerobic exercise (EXER+PLAC trial); and (iv) combining exercise and statin medicine (EXER+STA trial). RESULTS: Before the fat meal, statin withdrawal (i.e. PLAC and EXER+PLAC) increased blood triglycerides (TG; 24%), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (31%) and total cholesterol (19%; all P < .05) evidencing treatment compliance. After the meal, statin withdrawal increased 5-hour postprandial TG (PPTG) compared to its matched trials (94% higher PLAC vs STA and 45% higher EXER+PLAC vs EXER+STA; P < .05). EXER+PLAC trial did not lower PPTG below PLAC (i.e. incremental AUC of 609 ± 152 vs 826 ± 190 mg dL-1 5 h; P = .09). Adding exercise to statin did not result in larger reductions in PPTG (i.e. EXER+STA vs STA incremental area under the curve of 421 ± 87 vs 421 ± 84 mg dL-1 5 h; P = .99). CONCLUSION: In hypercholesteraemic metabolic syndrome individuals, chronic statin therapy blunts the elevations in TG after a fat meal (i.e. incremental area under the curve of PPTG) reducing the cardiovascular risk associated to their atherogenic dyslipidaemia. However, a single bout of intense aerobic exercise before the high fat meal, does not reduce PPTG but also does not interfere with the effects of statin treatment.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935109

RESUMO

Three to five cycling tests to exhaustion allow prediction of time to exhaustion (TTE) at any power-output based on calculation of critical power (CP). We aimed to determine the accuracy of CP predictions of TTE at power-outputs habitually endured by cyclists. Fourteen endurance-trained male cyclists underwent 4 randomized cycle-ergometer TTE tests at power-outputs eliciting, i) mean Wingate anaerobic test (WAnTmean), ii) VO2max, iii) respiratory compensation threshold (VT2) and iv) maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Tests were conducted in duplicate with coefficient of variation of 5-9%. Power-outputs were 710±63 W for WAnTmean, 366±26 W for VO2max, 302±31 W for VT2 and 247±20 W for MLSS. Corresponding TTE were 00:29 ± 00:06, 03:23±00:45, 11:29±05:07 and 76:05±13:53 mm:ss, respectively. Power-output associated with CP was only 2% lower than MLSS (242±19 vs. 247±20 W; P<0.001). The CP predictions overestimated TTE at WAnTmean (00:24 ± 00:10 mm:ss) and MLSS (04:41 ± 11:47 mm:ss), underestimated TTE at VT2 (-04:18 ± 03:20 mm:ss; P<0.05) and correctly predicted TTE at VO2max. In summary, CP accurately predicts MLSS power-output and TTE at VO2max. However, it should not be used to estimate time to exhaustion in trained cyclists at higher or lower power-outputs (e.g., sprints and 40 km time trials). Novelty bullets: • Critical power (CP) calculation enables to predict time to exhaustion (TTE) at any cycling power-output • We tested those predictions against measured TTE in a wide range of cycling power-outputs. • CP appropriately predicted TTE at VO2max intensity but err at higher and lower cycling power-outputs.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225893, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821339

RESUMO

High-intensity interval training (HIIT), is effective to improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in adults. However, it is unclear if CRF and MetS components respond similarly in men and women after HIIT. For 16 weeks, 63 women (53±7 years) and 56 men (55±8 years) with MetS underwent a three day/week HIIT program. Bodyweight and composition, VO2MAX, surrogate parameters of CRF (Ventilatory threshold (VT), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) and VE/VCO2 slope), maximal rate of fat oxidation (MFO), and MetS components were assessed before and after training. All reported variables were analyzed by split-plot ANOVA looking for time by sex interactions. Before training men had higher absolute values of VO2MAX (58.6%), and MFO (24.6%), while lower body fat mass (10.5%) than women (all P<0.05). After normalization by fat-free mass (FFM), VO2MAX remained 16.6% higher in men (P<0.05), whereas differences in MFO disappeared (P = 0.292). After intervention VO2MAX (P<0.001), VO2 at VT (P<0.001), OUES (P<0.001), and VE/VCO2 slope (P<0.001) increased without differences by sex (P>0.05). After training MetS Z-score (P<0.001) improved without differences between men and women (P>0.05). From the MetS components, only blood pressure (P<0.001) and waist circumference (P<0.001) improved across time, without differences by sex. In both, women and men, changes in OUES (r = 0.685 and r = 0.445, respectively), and VO2 at VT (r = 0.378, and r = 0.445, respectively), correlated with VO2MAX. While only bodyweight changes correlated with MetS Z-score changes (r = 0.372, and = 0.300, respectively). Despite baseline differences, 16-weeks of HIIT similarly improved MetS, cardiorespiratory and metabolic fitness in women and men with MetS. This suggests that there are no restrictions due to sex on the benefits derived from an intense exercise program in the health of MetS participants. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03019796.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins reduce atherogenic dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in metabolic syndrome individuals (MetS). Exercise-training could also contribute to reduce CVD by improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fat oxidation. However, statin use could interfere with training adaptations. METHODS: One hundred and six MetS were divided into statin users (STATIN group, n=46) and statin-naïve (CONTROL group, n=60). Groups were matched by age, weight, and MetS components. Subjects completed 16 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT). Before and after HIIT, muscle biopsies were collected to assess mitochondrial content (citrate synthase (CS) activity) and the activity of the rate limiting ß-oxidation enzyme (3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HAD)). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, TG, HDL-c and LDL-c concentrations were measured. Exercise maximal fat oxidation (FOMAX) and oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK) were determined. RESULTS: Training improved MetS similarly in both groups (MetS Z-score -0.26±0.38 vs -0.22±0.31; P<0.001 for time and P=0.60 for time x group). Before training, STATIN had reduced muscle HAD activity and whole body FOMAX compared to CONTROL. However, 16-weeks of HIIT increased HAD and FOMAX in both groups (P<0.03, time-effect). STATIN did not prevent the increases in CS with HIIT observed in CONTROL (38% vs 64%, respectively; P<0.001, time-effect). Conversely, with training VO2PEAK improved less in STATIN than in CONTROL (12% vs 19%, respectively; P=0.013, time x group effect). CONCLUSION: Chronic statin use in MetS does not interfere with exercise training improvements in MetS components, FOMAX or mitochondrial muscle enzymes (i.e., CS and HAD). However, STATIN attenuated the improvements in VO2PEAK with training.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the trustworthiness of graded exercise test to exhaustion (GXT) to assess maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ) in metabolic syndrome individuals with obesity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: V ˙ O 2 max was assessed in 100 metabolic syndrome adults (57 ± 8 years; 34% women), with obesity (BMI 32 ± 5 kg·m-2 ) using GXT followed by supramaximal constant-load verification test (VerT) at 110% of maximal GXT work rate. V ˙ O 2 data from GXT and VerT were compared using paired t test and plotted for Bland-Altman analysis. GXT sensitivity and specificity to detect V ˙ O 2 max were also calculated. RESULTS: Seventy individuals did not achieve V ˙ O 2 plateau during GXT. GXT underestimated V ˙ O 2 max in 40 subjects. In these subjects, the magnitude of V ˙ O 2 max underestimation with GXT was 9% (167 mLO2 ·min-1 ; P < .001). In the whole sample (n = 100), bias error differences between GXT and VerT was 63 mLO2 ·min-1 (3% underestimation). This error was constant regardless of differences in fitness levels among individuals (R = -0.07; homoscedasticity). GXT results were unreliable in 62% of the sample with 16% of false-positive and 46% of false-negative results. Sensitivity and specificity of GTX to assess V ˙ O 2 max were low (ie, 23% and 60%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the magnitude (3%-9%) and prevalence (40% of subjects) of V ˙ O 2 max underestimation with the use of a GXT alone is high in a large sample of unfit metabolic syndrome individuals with obesity. Our data advocate for the need of using VerT after GXT to avoid significant cardiorespiratory fitness underestimation in metabolic syndrome individuals with obesity and low fitness level.

6.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 756-761, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476782

RESUMO

We studied the effects of supramaximal interval exercise (SIE) with or without antihypertensive medication (AHM) on 21-hr blood pressure (BP) response. Twelve hypertensive patients chronically medicated with AHM, underwent three trials in a randomized order: a) control trial without exercise and substituting their AHM with a placebo (PLAC); b) placebo medicine and a morning bout of SIE (PLAC+SIE), and c) combining AHM and exercise (AHM+SIE). Acute and ambulatory blood pressure responses were measured for 21-hr after treatment. 20 min after treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP) readings were reduced, similar to readings after PLAC+SIE (-9.7±6.0 mmHg, P<0.001) and AHM+SIE (-10.4±7.9 mmHg, P=0.001). 21 h after treatment, SBP remained reduced after PLAC+SIE (125±12 mmHg, P=0.022) and AHM+SIE (122±12 mmHg, P=0.013) compared to PLAC (132±16 mmHg). The BP reduction in PLAC+SIE faded out at 4 a.m., while in AHM+SIE it continued overnight. At night, BP reduction was larger in AHM+SIE than PLAC+SIE (-5.6±4.0 mmHg, P=0.006). Our data shows that a bout of supramaximal aerobic interval exercise in combination with ARB medication in the morning elicits a sustained blood pressure reduction lasting at least 21-h. Thus, the combination of exercise and angiotensin receptor blocker medication seems superior to exercise alone for acutely decreasing blood pressure.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/fisiopatologia , Actigrafia/métodos , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
7.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(9): 1876-1883, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Continuous and interval are the two types of aerobic exercise training commonly used for health promotion. We sought to determine which aerobic exercise training program results in larger health improvements in metabolic syndrome (MetS) individuals. METHODS: One hundred twenty-one MetS patients (age, 57 ± 8 yr; weight, 92 ± 15 kg; and MetS factors, 3.8 ± 0.8 components) with low initial cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) (V˙O2peak, 24.0 ± 5.5 mL·kg·min) were randomized to undergo one of the following 16-wk exercise program: (a) 4 × 4-min high-intensity interval training at 90% of HRMAX (4HIIT group; n = 32), (b) 50-min moderate-intensity continuous training at 70% of HRMAX (MICT group; n = 35), (c) 10 × 1-min HIIT at 100% of HRMAX (1HIIT group; n = 32), or (d) no exercise control group (CONT; n = 22). We measured the evolution of all five MetS components (i.e., MetS Z Score) and CRF (assessed by V˙O2peak) before and after intervention. RESULTS: MetS Z score decreased 41% after 4HIIT (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.06; P < 0.01) and 52% in MICT (95% CI, 0.24-0.06; P < 0.01), whereas it did not change in 1HIIT (decreased 24%; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.03; P = 0.21) and CONT (increased 20%; 95% CI, -0.19 to 0.04; P = 0.22). However, the three exercise groups improved similarly their V˙O2peak (4HIIT, 11%; 95% CI, 0.14-0.33; MICT, 12%; 95% CI, 0.18-0.36; and 1HIIT, 14%; 95% CI, 0.21-0.40 L·min; all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that in sedentary individuals with MetS and low initial CRF level any aerobic training program of 16 wk with a frequency of three times per week is sufficient stimulus to raise CRF. However, the more intense but shorter 1HIIT training program is not effective on improving MetS Z score, and thus we caution its recommendation for health promotion purposes in this population.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Idoso , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário
8.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987139

RESUMO

Adequate hydration is essential for maintaining health and functionality of the human body. Studies assessing both daily water intake and hydration status are lacking. This study explored data from the European Hydration Research Study (EHRS) and focused on total water intake (TWI), 24 h hydration status, and day-to-day variations in a sample of 573 healthy adults. TWI was assessed by food records and hydration status (urine osmolality and urine volume) was measured from 24 urine samples collected over seven consecutive days. On all weekdays, mean TWI was higher (p < 0.001 for all days) for the German subjects compared to the Greek and Spanish participants. In 37% of the male and 22% of the female subjects, the individual mean TWI was below the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendation, with 16% men (4% women) being below the EFSA recommendation on every testing day. Twenty-four hour urine osmolality was lower in women compared to men (595 ± 261 vs. 681 ± 237 mOsmol/kg; p < 0.001). More men (40%) showed a urine osmolality ≥800 mOsmol/kg at least on four days of the study period compared to women (26%) and more participants from Spain (46%) compared to Greece (29%) and Germany (11%). A large number of individuals showed an inadequate hydration status on several days per week, which may have a negative health and cognitive impact on daily life.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Micção , Urina/química , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 19(4): 549-556, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381027

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to study if training intensity relative to ventilatory thresholds (VTs) determines the improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in middle-aged sedentary individuals with obesity. Before and after 16-weeks of HIIT (43-min alternating bouts at 70/90% of HRMAX), oxygen consumption ( V˙ O2) and heart rate (HR) at ventilatory threshold 1 ( V˙ O2VT1, HRVT1), ventilatory threshold 2 ( V˙ O2VT2, HRVT2) and at maximal effort ( V˙ O2MAX, HRMAX) were assessed during a graded cycle-ergometer exercise test. Retrospectively, participants were divided into two groups based on whether training intensities were under (UNDER; n = 39) or over (OVER; n = 37) VT1 and VT2. At baseline, age, body composition, V˙ O2VT1, V˙ O2VT2, and HRMAX were similar in both groups. However, V˙ O2MAX was higher in OVER (P = 0.033), whereas HRVT1 and HRVT2 were higher in UNDER (P < 0.05). V˙ O2MAX (9.0%) and HRMAX (2.2%) improved similarly in both groups. V˙ O2VT1 and V˙ O2VT2 improved with training in both groups (P < 0.001) but the improvement was larger in OVER versus UNDER in V˙ O2VT1 (P = 0.013) and tended to be higher in V˙ O2VT2 (P = 0.068). HRVT1 increased only in OVER (P < 0.001), whereas HRVT2 did not change in any group (P = 0.248). A 16-week programme of HIIT improves V˙ O2MAX similarly in individuals training at intensities over or under their VTs. However, individuals training over their VTs showed a larger improvements in V˙ O2VT1 expanding exercise workloads fuelled by oxidative metabolism.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Composição Corporal , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sedentário
10.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(6): 1496-1504, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29944141

RESUMO

Morán-Navarro, R, Martínez-Cava, A, Sánchez-Medina, L, Mora-Rodríguez, R, González-Badillo, JJ, and Pallarés, JG. Movement velocity as a measure of level of effort during resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 33(6): 1496-1504, 2019-This study analyzed whether the loss of repetition velocity during a resistance exercise set was a reliable indicator of the number of repetitions left in reserve. After the assessment of one-repetition (1RM) strength and full load-velocity relationship, 30 men were divided into 3 groups according to their 1RM strength per body mass: novice, well trained, and highly trained. On 2 separate occasions and in random order, subjects performed tests of maximal number of repetitions to failure against loads of 65, 75, and 85% 1RM in 4 exercises: bench press, full squat, prone bench pull, and shoulder press. For each exercise, and regardless of the load being used, the absolute velocities associated with stopping a set before failure, leaving a certain number of repetitions (2, 4, 6, or 8) in reserve, were very similar and showed a high reliability (coefficient of variation [CV] 4.4-8.0%). No significant differences in these stopping velocities were observed for any resistance training exercise analyzed between the novice, well trained and highly trained groups. These results indicate that by monitoring repetition velocity one can estimate with high accuracy the proximity of muscle failure and, therefore, to more objectively quantify the level of effort and fatigue being incurred during resistance training. This method emerges as a substantial improvement over the use of perceived exertion to gauge the number of repetitions left in reserve.


Assuntos
Movimento/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Tolerância ao Exercício , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
11.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 47(1): 317-331, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136150

RESUMO

This experiment investigates the validity of six thermometers with different measuring sensors, operation and site of application, to estimate core temperature (Tc) in comparison to an ingestible thermometric sensor based on quartz crystal technology. Measurements were obtained before, during and after exercise in the heat, controlling the presence of air-cooling and skin sweating. Twelve well-trained men swallowed the ingestible thermometer 6 h before the trial. After pre-exercise resting measurements at 20 °C, subjects entered a heat chamber held at 40 °C. Exercise in the heat consisted of 60 min of pedalling on cycle ergometer at 90% of the individually determined first ventilatory threshold. Results reveal that wind and skin sweat invalidate the use of skin infrared thermometry to estimate Tc during exercise in the heat. However, better Tc estimations were obtained in wind-restricted situations. We detected important differences between same-technology devices but different models and brands. In conclusion, there are important limitations to assess Tc accurately using non-invasive thermometers during and after exercise in the heat. Because some devices showed better validity than others did, we recommended using tympanic Braun®, and non-contact skin infrared Medisana® or Visiofocus® in wind-restricted and no sweat conditions to estimate Tc during exercise in the heat.


Assuntos
Orelha Média , Temperatura Alta , Boca , Temperatura Cutânea , Suor , Termometria , Vento , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198372, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949578

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diets high in saturated fat acids (SFA) have been linked with cardio-metabolic disease risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether only 1-2 weeks of a high SFA diet could impact disease risk factors in overweight adults who normally eat a relatively low proportion of SFA (i.e., <40% of dietary fat). METHODS: Twelve overweight (BMI: 27±1 kg/m2) young adults were studied before and after a 2-week diet that increased the proportion of SFA (<40% to 60% of dietary fat), while maintaining their daily intake of total fat, carbohydrate, protein, and calories. Insulin resistance, blood pressure, plasma markers of liver damage, total plasma cholesterol concentrations, and fatty acid profile within plasma and skeletal muscle lipid pools were assessed before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Total plasma cholesterol concentration increased (148±5 vs. 164±8 mg/dl; P<0.05) after only one week, due exclusively to an increase in LDL-cholesterol (78±4 vs. 95±7 mg/dl; P<0.05). After two weeks, plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST) concentration increased (P<0.05) but we found no change in insulin resistance, or resting blood pressure. The diet increase the proportion of SFA in plasma (35±1% vs. 39±2%; P<0.05) and the intramyocellular triglyceride pool (32±1% vs. 37±1%; P<0.05) suggesting the fatty acids in these pools may readily exchange. CONCLUSIONS: Although blood lipids remain within normal clinical range, increasing saturated fat in diet for only 2 weeks raises plasma markers of cardiovascular risk (LDL-cholesterol) and liver damage (AST). In overweight, but healthy-young adults SFA accumulate in plasma and muscle after only 1-2 weeks of dietary increase.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adulto , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Adulto Jovem
13.
Blood Press Monit ; 23(5): 230-236, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a growing tendency for physicians to prescribe exercise in accordance with the 'exercise is medicine' global health initiative. However, the exercise-pharmacologic interactions for controlling blood pressure are not well described. Our purpose was to study whether angiotensin II receptor type 1 blocker (ARB) antihypertensive medicine enhances the blood pressure-lowering effects of intense exercise. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Fifteen hypertensive individuals with metabolic syndrome chronically medicated with ARB underwent two exercise trials in a blind randomized order. One trial was conducted after taking their habitual dose of ARB (ARB MED trial) and another after 48 h of placebo medicine (i.e. dextrose; PLAC trial). RESULTS: After placebo medication, brachial systolic blood pressure increased by 5.5 mmHg [P=0.009; effect size (ES)=0.476] and diastolic by 2.5 mmHg (P=0.030; ES=0.373). Exercise reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures to the same extent in ARB MED and PLAC trials (7 and 8 mmHg, respectively, for systolic and 5 and 4 mmHg, respectively, for diastolic, all P<0.05). Pulsatile measures of arterial stiffness did not reveal an interaction effect between exercise and medication. However, postocclusion reactive hyperemia increased after exercise only in the ARB MED trial (361±169 to 449±240% from baseline; P=0.033; ES=0.429). CONCLUSION: ARBs and a bout of intense exercise each have an independent effect on lowering blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, and these effects are additive.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Pressão Sanguínea , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Diástole , Exercício/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Sístole
14.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(10): 1983-1991, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781921

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine if yearly repeated exercise training reduces metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the use of medicines to control MetS components. METHODS: Fifty-five MetS individuals were randomized into a TRAIN group that underwent two yearly programs of 16-wk high-intensity interval training or a nonexercising CONT group. We measured the evolution of all five MetS components, cardiorespiratory fitness (assessed by V˙O2PEAK) and medicine use, at baseline (0 months), mid (12 months), and end-point (24 months). Testing took place 8 months after the last training session to assess the chronic effects of training. RESULTS: Daily physical activity (wristband activity monitors) and calorie intake (3-d nutritional diary) remained similar to baseline at 1 and 2 yr in each group and were not different between groups. Blood triglycerides and glucose concentrations did not significantly vary in any group. However, waist circumference increased only in CONT after 2 yr (107 ± 2 cm to 111 ± 3 cm; P = 0.004). Mean arterial pressure decreased in TRAIN (101 ± 2 mm Hg to 94 ± 2 mm Hg; P = 0.002), whereas it remained unchanged in CONT (98 ± 2 mm Hg to 99 ± 2 mm Hg; P = 1.000) after 2 yr. Starting from similar levels at baseline, after 2 yr V˙O2PEAK was higher (2.32 ± 0.14 L·min vs 1.98 ± 0.11 L·min; P = 0.049) and medicine use lower (1.27 ± 0.22 vs 2.23 ± 0.43; P = 0.043) in TRAIN than CONT. The reduction in MAP in TRAIN commanded a parallel reduction in MetS Z-score from baseline to 2 yr (0.30 ± 0.1 to 0.07 ± 0.1; P = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Two yearly 16-wk high-intensity interval training programs are enough exercise to chronically lower MetS while preventing the reductions in cardiorespiratory fitness associated to aging. Of clinical relevance, yearly exercise training halts the increase in medicine use that occurs in non-exercising MetS individuals.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Método Simples-Cego
15.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195242, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624621

RESUMO

We sought to measure the response of cortisol concentrations around a professional tennis match and its association with hydration status and neuromuscular performance. Nine professional male tennis players were tested in a rest day, and 2-week after, during the first match of a professional tournament played in a clay-court. Salivary concentrations of cortisol (SalCC) were measured in a resting day (9:00 am and 8:00 pm), at the match day (9:00 am and 8:00 pm) and immediately before and after the match. Hydration status was assessed before the match (urine specific gravity; USG) while fluid turnover was tracked during the match. Finally, counter movement jump (CMJ) and handgrip isometric strength (HS) were measured before and after the match. SalCC, either in the morning (P = 0.161) and afternoon (P = 0.683) was similar in rest and match days. However, SalCC increased after the match (P = 0.033). Participants started the match hypohydrated (USG = 1.026±0.002) and during the match lost 1.0±0.3% of body weight despite 1.035±0.124 L/h of fluid ingested. CMJ and HS did not change post-match (P = 0.210 and P = 0.881, respectively). Correlations between the elevations in SalCC and dehydration (% BW loss) during the match were significant (r = -0.632; P = 0.034). Professional male tennis players did not show an anticipatory increase in SalCC the day of the match and neither signs of neuromuscular fatigue after it. During the match, the mild dehydration (i.e., <1.5%) was associated with the increases in cortisol levels which suggests that dehydration may be an added stress to be considered.


Assuntos
Tênis/fisiologia , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Saliva/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 20(1): 11-18, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106772

RESUMO

The authors determined the effect of high-intensity aerobic interval training on arterial stiffness and microvascular dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome with hypertension. Applanation tonometry was used to measure arterial stiffness and laser Doppler flowmetry to assess microvascular dysfunction before and after 6 months of stationary cycling (training group; n = 23) in comparison to a group that remained sedentary (control group; n = 23). While no variable improved in controls, hypertension fell from 79% (59%-91%) to 41% (24%-61%) in the training group, resulting in lower systolic and diastolic pressures than controls (-12 ± 3 and -6 ± 2 mm Hg, P < .008). Arterial stiffness declined (-17% augmentation index, P = .048) and reactive hyperemia increased (20%, P = .028) posttreatment in the training group vs controls. Blood constituents associated with arterial stiffness and a prothrombotic state (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, platelets, and erythrocytes) remained unchanged in the training and control groups. In summary, 6 months of an intense aerobic exercise program reduced both arterial stiffness and microvascular dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome despite unchanged blood-borne cardiovascular risk factors. Training lowers blood flow resistance in central and peripheral vascular beds in a coordinated fashion, resulting in clinically relevant reductions in hypertension.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Hipertensão , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Análise de Onda de Pulso/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
17.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 43(4): 397-402, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169011

RESUMO

While hot yoga has gained enormous popularity in recent years, owing in part to increased environmental challenge associated with exercise in the heat, it is not clear whether hot yoga is more vigorous than thermo-neutral yoga. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine objective and subjective measures of exercise intensity during constant intensity yoga in a hot and thermo-neutral environment. Using a randomized, crossover design, 14 participants completed 2 identical ∼20-min yoga sessions in a hot (35.3 ± 0.8 °C; humidity: 20.5% ± 1.4%) and thermo-neutral (22.1 ± 0.2 °C; humidity: 27.8% ± 1.6%) environment. Oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR) were recorded as objective measures (percentage of maximal oxygen consumption and percentage of maximal HR (%HRmax)) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded as a subjective measure of exercise intensity. There was no difference in exercise intensity based on percentage of maximal oxygen consumption during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga (30.9% ± 2.3% vs. 30.5% ± 1.8%, p = 0.68). However, exercise intensity was significantly higher during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga based on %HRmax (67.0% ± 2.3% vs. 60.8% ± 1.9%, p = 0.01) and RPE (12 ± 1 vs. 11 ± 1, p = 0.04). According to established exercise intensities, hot yoga was classified as light-intensity exercise based on percentage of maximal oxygen consumption but moderate-intensity exercise based on %HRmax and RPE while thermo-neutral yoga was classified as light-intensity exercise based on percentage of maximal oxygen uptake, %HRmax, and RPE. Despite the added hemodynamic stress and perception that yoga is more strenuous in a hot environment, we observed similar oxygen consumption during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga, classifying both exercise modalities as light-intensity exercise.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Equilíbrio Postural , Ioga , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan , Consumo de Oxigênio , Percepção , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutr Hosp ; 34(5): 1463-1468, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280665

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nutritional supplements and ergogenic aids (NS&EA) are used between training/matches with the goal of enhancing tennis performance. Scientific literature about prevalence and use of NS&EA in professional tennis players is scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the NS&EA used by professional tennis players during a season. METHODS: Using a validated self-administered questionnaire, 62 professional male and 9 professional female tennis players (11% in their gender specific top 100 tennis world ranking (i.e.,ATP/WTA)) registered all the used NS&EA. RESULTS: Eighty-one percent of the participants declared taking at least one NS&EA. Strength and conditioning trainers (S&C) and tennis coaches were the professionals who recommended most of the NS&EA in the players outside the TOP-100 (OT100; 50.7% and 39.1%, respectively). However, sports nutritionist were the principal advisors in the top-100 tennis players (T100; 62.5%). Sports drinks were the NS&EA most commonly used by all participants (81.7%). T100 participants used caffeine (p = 0.042), creatine (p = 0.001), iron (p = 0.013) and CHO-protein mix (p = 0.033) significantly more frequently that OT100 players. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of NS&EA use among professional tennis players independently of their tennis ranking position. However, T100 tennis player have an increased use of certain substances such us caffeine, creatine, iron and CHO-Protein mix. For the rest of the studied NS&EA the use was similar between T100 and OT100 players. It is possible that the differences in NS&EA use between groups could be related to the different professionals on charge of nutritional advice in T100 vs OT100.


Assuntos
Atletas , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Tênis/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutr. hosp ; 34(6): 1463-1468, nov.-dic. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168989

RESUMO

Introduction: Nutritional supplements and ergogenic aids (NS&EA) are used between training/matches with the goal of enhancing tennis performance. Scientific literature about prevalence and use of NS&EA in professional tennis players is scarce. Objective: The aim of the study was to describe the NS&EA used by professional tennis players during a season. Methods: Using a validated self-administered questionnaire, 62 professional male and 9 professional female tennis players (11% in their gender specific top 100 tennis world ranking (i.e., ATP/WTA)) registered all the used NS&EA. Results: Eighty-one percent of the participants declared taking at least one NS&EA. Strength and conditioning trainers (S&C) and tennis coaches were the professionals who recommended most of the NS&EA in the players outside the TOP-100 (OT100; 50.7% and 39.1%, respectively). However, sports nutritionist were the principal advisors in the top-100 tennis players (T100; 62.5%). Sports drinks were the NS&EA most commonly used by all participants (81.7%). T100 participants used caffeine (p = 0.042), creatine (p = 0.001), iron (p = 0.013) and CHO-protein mix (p = 0.033) significantly more frequently that OT100 players. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of NS&EA use among professional tennis players independently of their tennis ranking position. However, T100 tennis player have an increased use of certain substances such us caffeine, creatine, iron and CHO-Protein mix. For the rest of the studied NS&EA the use was similar between T100 and OT100 players. It is possible that the differences in NS&EA use between groups could be related to the different professionals on charge of nutritional advice in T100 vs OT100 (AU)


Introducción: los suplementos nutricionales/ayudas ergogénicas (NS&EA) son utilizados en los entrenamientos/partidos de tenis con el objetivo de mejorar el rendimiento. Sin embargo, la literatura científica se encuentras escasos documentos científicos sobre el uso de estas sustancias en tenistas profesionales. Objetivo: describir el uso de NS&EA utilizados por tenistas profesionales durante una temporada. Métodos: se utilizó un cuestionario validado y se evaluó a 62 tenistas profesionales hombres y 9 mujeres (11% entre los 100 mejores del mundo). Resultados: el 81% de los participantes toman al menos un NS&EA. Los preparadores físicos (S&C) y entrenadores de tenis fueron los profesionales preferidos para recomendar NS&EA entre los jugadores fuera del TOP-100 (OT100, 50,7% y 39,1%, respectivamente). Sin embargo, los nutricionistas deportivos fueron los principales asesores de los jugadores entre los 100 mejores del mundo (T100, 62,5%). Las bebidas deportivas fueron los NS&EA más utilizados entre todos los participantes (81,7%). Los tenistas T100 utilizaron cafeína (p = 0,042), creatina (p = 0,001), hierro (p = 0.013) y mezcla de CHO-proteína (p = 0,033) significativamente más frecuentemente que los jugadores OT100. Conclusiones: existe una gran prevalencia de uso de NS&EA entre los tenistas profesionales. Además, los T100 presentan un mayor uso de ciertas sustancias tales como cafeína, creatina, hierro y CHO-proteína. Para el resto de los NS&EA estudiados, el uso fue similar entre los jugadores T100 y OT100. Finalmente, las diferencias en el uso de NS&EA entre grupos pudieran estar relacionadas con los diferentes profesionales escogidos para el asesoramiento nutricional en T100 vs. OT100 (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Tênis/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/uso terapêutico , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Estatística , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia
20.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 117(12): 2387-2399, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965198

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the acute and delayed time course of recovery following resistance training (RT) protocols differing in the number of repetitions (R) performed in each set (S) out of the maximum possible number (P). METHODS: Ten resistance-trained men undertook three RT protocols [S × R(P)]: (1) 3 × 5(10), (2) 6 × 5(10), and (3) 3 × 10(10) in the bench press (BP) and full squat (SQ) exercises. Selected mechanical and biochemical variables were assessed at seven time points (from - 12 h to + 72 h post-exercise). Countermovement jump height (CMJ) and movement velocity against the load that elicited a 1 m s-1 mean propulsive velocity (V1) and 75% 1RM in the BP and SQ were used as mechanical indicators of neuromuscular performance. RESULTS: Training to muscle failure in each set [3 × 10(10)], even when compared to completing the same total exercise volume [6 × 5(10)], resulted in a significantly higher acute decline of CMJ and velocity against the V1 and 75% 1RM loads in both BP and SQ. In contrast, recovery from the 3 × 5(10) and 6 × 5(10) protocols was significantly faster between 24 and 48 h post-exercise compared to 3 × 10(10). Markers of acute (ammonia, growth hormone) and delayed (creatine kinase) fatigue showed a markedly different course of recovery between protocols, suggesting that training to failure slows down recovery up to 24-48 h post-exercise. CONCLUSIONS: RT leading to failure considerably increases the time needed for the recovery of neuromuscular function and metabolic and hormonal homeostasis. Avoiding failure would allow athletes to be in a better neuromuscular condition to undertake a new training session or competition in a shorter period of time.


Assuntos
Fadiga Muscular , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Treinamento de Resistência/efeitos adversos
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