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1.
JAMA ; 322(3): 216-228, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310297

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours remain uncertain. Objective: To determine whether a flexible family visitation policy in the ICU reduces the incidence of delirium. Design, Setting and Participants: Cluster-crossover randomized clinical trial involving patients, family members, and clinicians from 36 adult ICUs with restricted visiting hours (<4.5 hours per day) in Brazil. Participants were recruited from April 2017 to June 2018, with follow-up until July 2018. Interventions: Flexible visitation (up to 12 hours per day) supported by family education (n = 837 patients, 652 family members, and 435 clinicians) or usual restricted visitation (median, 1.5 hours per day; n = 848 patients, 643 family members, and 391 clinicians). Nineteen ICUs started with flexible visitation, and 17 started with restricted visitation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was incidence of delirium during ICU stay, assessed using the CAM-ICU. Secondary outcomes included ICU-acquired infections for patients; symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using the HADS (range, 0 [best] to 21 [worst]) for family members; and burnout for ICU staff (Maslach Burnout Inventory). Results: Among 1685 patients, 1295 family members, and 826 clinicians enrolled, 1685 patients (100%) (mean age, 58.5 years; 47.2% women), 1060 family members (81.8%) (mean age, 45.2 years; 70.3% women), and 737 clinicians (89.2%) (mean age, 35.5 years; 72.9% women) completed the trial. The mean daily duration of visits was significantly higher with flexible visitation (4.8 vs 1.4 hours; adjusted difference, 3.4 hours [95% CI, 2.8 to 3.9]; P < .001). The incidence of delirium during ICU stay was not significantly different between flexible and restricted visitation (18.9% vs 20.1%; adjusted difference, -1.7% [95% CI, -6.1% to 2.7%]; P = .44). Among 9 prespecified secondary outcomes, 6 did not differ significantly between flexible and restricted visitation, including ICU-acquired infections (3.7% vs 4.5%; adjusted difference, -0.8% [95% CI, -2.1% to 1.0%]; P = .38) and staff burnout (22.0% vs 24.8%; adjusted difference, -3.8% [95% CI, -4.8% to 12.5%]; P = .36). For family members, median anxiety (6.0 vs 7.0; adjusted difference, -1.6 [95% CI, -2.3 to -0.9]; P < .001) and depression scores (4.0 vs 5.0; adjusted difference, -1.2 [95% CI, -2.0 to -0.4]; P = .003) were significantly better with flexible visitation. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients in the ICU, a flexible family visitation policy, vs standard restricted visiting hours, did not significantly reduce the incidence of delirium. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02932358.


Assuntos
Delírio/prevenção & controle , Família/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Visitas a Pacientes , Ansiedade , Brasil , Esgotamento Profissional , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Depressão , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
2.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e028570, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243035

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is an increasing demand for multi-organ donors for organ transplantation programmes. This study protocol describes the Donation Network to Optimise Organ Recovery Study, a planned cluster randomised controlled trial that aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of an evidence-based, goal-directed checklist for brain-dead potential organ donor management in intensive care units (ICUs) in reducing the loss of potential donors due to cardiac arrest. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study will include ICUs of at least 60 Brazilian sites with an average of ≥10 annual notifications of valid potential organ donors. Hospitals will be randomly assigned (with a 1:1 allocation ratio) to the intervention group, which will involve the implementation of an evidence-based, goal-directed checklist for potential organ donor maintenance, or the control group, which will maintain the usual care practices of the ICU. Team members from all participating ICUs will receive training on how to conduct family interviews for organ donation. The primary outcome will be loss of potential donors due to cardiac arrest. Secondary outcomes will include the number of actual organ donors and the number of organs recovered per actual donor. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The institutional review board (IRB) of the coordinating centre and of each participating site individually approved the study. We requested a waiver of informed consent for the IRB of each site. Study results will be disseminated to the general medical community through publications in peer-reviewed medical journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03179020; Pre-results.

3.
Trials ; 19(1): 636, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most adult intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide adopt restrictive family visitation models (RFVMs). However, evidence, mostly from non-randomized studies, suggests that flexible adult ICU visiting hours are safe policies that can result in benefits such as prevention of delirium and increase in satisfaction with care. Accordingly, the ICU Visits Study was designed to compare the effectiveness and safety of a flexible family visitation model (FFVM) vs. an RFVM on delirium prevention among ICU patients, and also to analyze its potential effects on family members and ICU professionals. METHODS/DESIGN: The ICU Visits Study is a cluster-randomized crossover trial which compares an FFVM (12 consecutive ICU visiting hours per day) with an RFVM (< 4.5 ICU visiting hours per day) in 40 Brazilian adult ICUs. Participant ICUs are randomly assigned to either an FFVM or RFVM in a 1:1 ratio. After enrollment and follow-up of 25 patients, each ICU is crossed over to the other visitation model, until 25 more patients per site are enrolled and followed. The primary outcome is the cumulative incidence of delirium measured by the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Secondary and tertiary outcomes include relevant measures of effectiveness and safety of ICU visiting policies among patients, family members, and ICU professionals. Herein, we describe all primary statistical procedures that will be used to evaluate the results and perform exploratory and sensitivity analyses of this study. This pre-specified statistical analysis plan was written and submitted without knowledge of the study data. DISCUSSION: This a priori statistical analysis plan aims to enhance the transparency of our study, facilitating unbiased analyses of ICU visit study data, and provide guidance for statistical analysis for groups conducting studies in the same field. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02932358 . Registered on 11 October 2016.

4.
BMJ Open ; 8(4): e021193, 2018 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Flexible intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours have been proposed as a means to improve patient-centred and family-centred care. However, randomised trials evaluating the effects of flexible family visitation models (FFVMs) are scarce. This study aims to compare the effectiveness and safety of an FFVM versus a restrictive family visitation model (RFVM) on delirium prevention among ICU patients, as well as to analyse its potential effects on family members and ICU professionals. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cluster-randomised crossover trial involving adult ICU patients, family members and ICU professionals will be conducted. Forty medical-surgical Brazilian ICUs with RFVMs (<4.5 hours/day) will be randomly assigned to either an RFVM (visits according to local policies) or an FFVM (visitation during 12 consecutive hours per day) group at a 1:1 ratio. After enrolment and follow-up of 25 patients, each ICU will be switched over to the other visitation model, until 25 more patients per site are enrolled and followed. The primary outcome will be the cumulative incidence of delirium among ICU patients, measured twice a day using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Secondary outcome measures will include daily hazard of delirium, ventilator-free days, any ICU-acquired infections, ICU length of stay and hospital mortality among the patients; symptoms of anxiety and depression and satisfaction among the family members; and prevalence of burnout symptoms among the ICU professionals. Tertiary outcomes will include need for antipsychotic agents and/or mechanical restraints, coma-free days, unplanned loss of invasive devices and ICU-acquired pneumonia, urinary tract infection or bloodstream infection among the patients; self-perception of involvement in patient care among the family members; and satisfaction among the ICU professionals. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has been approved by the research ethics committee of all participant institutions. We aim to disseminate the findings through conferences and peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02932358.

5.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 21(6): 665-669, 2017 Nov - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29035701

RESUMO

We compared the discriminatory capacity of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) versus the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score for predicting ICU mortality, need for and length of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, and hospitalization in patients with suspected infection admitted to a mixed Brazilian ICU. We performed a retrospective analysis of a longitudinal ICU database from a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. Patients were categorized according to whether they met the criteria for sepsis according to SOFA (variation ≥2 points over the baseline clinical condition) and SIRS (SIRS score ≥2 points). From January 2008 to December 2014, 1487 patients were admitted to the ICU due to suspected infection. SOFA ≥2 identified more septic patients than SIRS ≥2 (79.0% [n=1175] vs. 68.5% [n=1020], p<0.001). There was no difference between the two scores in predicting ICU mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC)=0.64 vs. 0.64, p=0.99). SOFA ≥2 was marginally better than SIRS ≥2 in predicting need for mechanical ventilation (AUROC=0.64 vs. 0.62, p=0.001), ICU stay>7 days (AUROC=0.65 vs. 0.63, p=0.004), and length of hospitalization >10 days (AUROC=0.61 vs. 0.59, p<0.001). There was no difference between the two scores in predicting mechanical ventilation >7 days.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Crit Care ; 42: 129-137, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need for a better understanding of the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a valid marker for the detection of bacterial infections in critically immunosuppressed patients. A high negative predictive value of CRP is also needed to rule out sepsis and bacterial infections in immunocompetent patients. However, few studies have evaluated the performance of CRP in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of CRP as a marker of infection in critically immunosuppressed patients. METHODS: The inclusion criterion was immunosuppression for which CRP was used as a bacterial infection marker. Searches were performed in the Cochrane Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web OF Science, LILACS and CINAHL databases. We applied the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool 2 (QUADAS 2) to evaluate the quality of the articles and evaluated the test accuracy parameters using hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curves and bivariate random effect models. RESULTS: Only 13 of 21 studies produced quantitative results. We analyzed all studies using the random effects method (restricted maximum likelihood) and obtained a joint diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 3.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-5.40) with heterogeneity (I2=91%, Q=181.48, p<0.001). Therefore, a bivariate model was applied. Analyzing the tuberculosis carrier, steroid user, or presence of opportunistic infection subgroups, as described in the proposal, was not possible due to the lack of information on these topics included in the articles. CONCLUSIONS: CRP appears to be a good screening tool for sepsis in critically immunosuppressed patients. Submitted PROSPERO 2015: CRD42015019329.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Calcitonina/metabolismo , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Sepse/diagnóstico
7.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 28(3): 315-322, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27626951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic de-escalation in patients diagnosed with severe sepsis or septic shock at a public academic tertiary hospital and to evaluate antibiotic adequacy and culture positivity. METHODS: The prevalence of antibiotic de-escalation, the adequacy of antibiotic treatment and the rates of culture positivity were analyzed in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock between April and December 2013 at an intensive care unit in a tertiary university hospital. RESULTS: Among the 224 patients included in the study, de-escalation was appropriate in 66 patients (29.4%) but was implemented in 44 patients (19.6%). Among the patients who underwent de-escalation, half experienced narrowing of the antimicrobial spectrum. The mortality rate was 56.3%, with no differences between the patients with or without de-escalation (56.8% versus 56.1%; p = 0.999) nor in the length of hospital stay. Empirical antibiotic therapy was appropriate in 89% of cases. Microorganisms were isolated from total cultures in 30% of cases and from blood cultures in 26.3% of cases. CONCLUSION: The adequacy rate of empirical antibiotic therapy was high, reflecting an active institutional policy of monitoring epidemiological profiles and institutional protocols on antimicrobial use. However, antibiotic de-escalation could have been implemented in a greater number of patients. De-escalation did not affect mortality rates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Choque Séptico/mortalidade
8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 28(3): 315-322, jul.-set. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-796148

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de descalonamento antibiótico em pacientes com diagnóstico de sepse grave ou choque séptico em hospital acadêmico, público e terciário, além da adequação antibiótica e da positividade de culturas. Métodos: Foram analisadas prevalência de descalonamento, adequação antibiótica e positividade de culturas entre portadores de sepse grave e choque séptico, entre abril e dezembro de 2013, em uma unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital universitário terciário. Resultados: Entre os 224 pacientes incluídos, o descalonamento era possível em 29,4% dos casos (66 pacientes), mas foi implementado em 19,6% deles (44 pacientes). Entre os pacientes que receberam descalonamento, metade foi por estreitamento de espectro antimicrobiano. A mortalidade foi de 56,3%, não havendo diferença entre pacientes com ou sem descalonamento (56,8% versus 56,1%; p = 0,999), assim como no tempo de internação. Terapia antimicrobiana empírica foi adequada em 89% dos casos. Houve isolamento de germe em 30% de todas as culturas e em 26,3% das hemoculturas. Conclusão: A taxa de adequação antibiótica empírica foi alta, refletindo ativa política institucional de monitorização do perfil epidemiológico e protocolos institucionais de uso de antimicrobianos. No entanto, o descalonamento antimicrobiano poderia ter sido maior do que o registrado. O descalonamento não impactou mortalidade.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic de-escalation in patients diagnosed with severe sepsis or septic shock at a public academic tertiary hospital and to evaluate antibiotic adequacy and culture positivity. Methods: The prevalence of antibiotic de-escalation, the adequacy of antibiotic treatment and the rates of culture positivity were analyzed in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock between April and December 2013 at an intensive care unit in a tertiary university hospital. Results: Among the 224 patients included in the study, de-escalation was appropriate in 66 patients (29.4%) but was implemented in 44 patients (19.6%). Among the patients who underwent de-escalation, half experienced narrowing of the antimicrobial spectrum. The mortality rate was 56.3%, with no differences between the patients with or without de-escalation (56.8% versus 56.1%; p = 0.999) nor in the length of hospital stay. Empirical antibiotic therapy was appropriate in 89% of cases. Microorganisms were isolated from total cultures in 30% of cases and from blood cultures in 26.3% of cases. Conclusion: The adequacy rate of empirical antibiotic therapy was high, reflecting an active institutional policy of monitoring epidemiological profiles and institutional protocols on antimicrobial use. However, antibiotic de-escalation could have been implemented in a greater number of patients. De-escalation did not affect mortality rates.

9.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 70(5): 326-32, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26039948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency and morbidity/mortality in critically ill patients. Several issues remain unexplained, including which vitamin D levels are related to morbidity and mortality and the relevance of vitamin D kinetics to clinical outcomes. We conducted this study to address the association of baseline vitamin D levels and vitamin D kinetics with morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. METHOD: In 135 intensive care unit (ICU) patients, vitamin D was prospectively measured on admission and weekly until discharge from the ICU. The following outcomes of interest were analyzed: 28-day mortality, mechanical ventilation, length of stay, infection rate, and culture positivity. RESULTS: Mortality rates were higher among patients with vitamin D levels <12 ng/mL (versus vitamin D levels >12 ng/mL) (32.2% vs. 13.2%), with an adjusted relative risk of 2.2 (95% CI 1.07-4.54; p< 0.05). There were no differences in the length of stay, ventilation requirements, infection rate, or culture positivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that low vitamin D levels on ICU admission are an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients. Low vitamin D levels at ICU admission may have a causal relationship with mortality and may serve as an indicator for vitamin D replacement among critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/mortalidade , Vitamina D/sangue , APACHE , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal , Diálise , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Admissão do Paciente , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Clinics ; 70(5): 326-332, 05/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-748274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency and morbidity/mortality in critically ill patients. Several issues remain unexplained, including which vitamin D levels are related to morbidity and mortality and the relevance of vitamin D kinetics to clinical outcomes. We conducted this study to address the association of baseline vitamin D levels and vitamin D kinetics with morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. METHOD: In 135 intensive care unit (ICU) patients, vitamin D was prospectively measured on admission and weekly until discharge from the ICU. The following outcomes of interest were analyzed: 28-day mortality, mechanical ventilation, length of stay, infection rate, and culture positivity. RESULTS: Mortality rates were higher among patients with vitamin D levels <12 ng/mL (versus vitamin D levels >12 ng/mL) (32.2% vs. 13.2%), with an adjusted relative risk of 2.2 (95% CI 1.07-4.54; p< 0.05). There were no differences in the length of stay, ventilation requirements, infection rate, or culture positivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that low vitamin D levels on ICU admission are an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients. Low vitamin D levels at ICU admission may have a causal relationship with mortality and may serve as an indicator for vitamin D replacement among critically ill patients. .


Assuntos
Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poeira , Bombeiros , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/sangue , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Razão de Chances , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espirometria
11.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 30(2): 261-5, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25829343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phase angle (PA) is interpreted as an indicator of cell membrane integrity and a prognostic indicator in some clinical situations. This study aims to evaluate PA as a prognostic marker in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and associate this marker with length of hospital stay, mortality, and clinical scores. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted with 95 patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the ICU, who were assessed in terms of prognostic indexes (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II [APACHE II] and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA]), clinical evolution (ICU discharge, death, and length of ICU stay), and PA. RESULTS: Patients were predominantly male (63.1%) and had a mean age of 63.7 ± 14.6 years; length of stay of 4 days (range, 3-9 days); mortality of 15.8%; mean APACHE II and SOFA scores of 17.3 ± 8.2 and 6.1 ± 3.1 points, respectively; and mean PA of 4.91 ± 1.36°. An association was observed between females and PA <5.1° (P = .035), which was the cutoff point determined from the receiver operating characteristic curve. PA was correlated with APACHE II score (r = -0.241; P = .02). This correlation became moderate only when patients without sepsis were considered (r = -0.506; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: PA seems to be a good prognostic marker for patients without sepsis. The weak correlation between PA and APACHE II score and the lack of association with other clinical outcomes are limitations for interpreting the prognostic value of PA in the entire study sample.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Composição Corporal , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Pletismografia de Impedância/estatística & dados numéricos , APACHE , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 60(5): 473-478, 10/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-728872

RESUMO

Objective: according to the epidemiologic and antimicrobial resistance profile, infections are usually classified as community-acquired or nosocomial. Reports on patients without the classic criteria for nosocomial infection with multidrug-resistant germs are increasing. There is a particular concern regarding which microbiological profile must be addressed in case of infections in healthcare workers. This study was carried out with the purpose of identifying the prevalence of infection by multidrug-resistant germs in healthcare workers exposed to occupational contact with such germs at work. Methods: observational and retrospective study. In a 7-year period, healthcare worker hospitalizations were identified and the cultures results were assessed in order to identify the prevalence of infection by multidrug-resistant pathogens. Results: 1,487 healthcare workers hospitalizations were identified. In 105 of these hospitalizations, cultures were collected on the first 5 days after admission, and in 22 patients, 24 germs were identified. Multidrug-resistant pathogens were not found. Conclusion: in our sample, composed of workers from a tertiary public hospital who were hospitalized, none of the individuals presented MDR colonization or infection. These results suggest that when healthcare workers present infections, they must receive antibiotic therapy directed to community-acquired pathogens. In light of the limitations of this study, further larger and multicenter studies must be developed to enlighten such issue. .


Objetivo: conforme perfil epidemiológico e resistência antimicrobiana, as infecções costumam ser divididas entre comunitárias e nosocomiais. É crescente o relato de pacientes sem critérios clássicos para infecções nosocomiais com infecções por germes multirresistentes (GMR). Há particular preocupação perante qual perfil microbiológico deve ser coberto na presença de infecções em profissionais de saúde. Realizamos este trabalho com intuito de identificar a prevalência de infecção por GMR em profissionais de saúde expostos a contato laboral com tais germes. Métodos: estudo observacional, retrospectivo. Em um período de 7 anos, foram identificadas internações hospitalares de profissionais de saúde e aferidos resultados de culturas visando a identificar prevalência de infecção por GMR. Resultados: identificamos 1.487 internações de profissionais de saúde. Em 105 internações, foram solicitadas culturas nos primeiros 5 dias de internação. Em 22 internações, foram identificados 24 germes. Não houve isolamento de GMR. Conclusão: na amostra, composta por funcionários de um hospital público de nível terciário que apresentaram internação hospitalar, nenhum funcionário apresentou colonização ou infecção por GMR. O resultado sugere que trabalhadores da área de saúde, ao apresentar infecções, devem receber antibioticoterapia voltada para patógenos comunitários. Tendo em vista as limitações deste estudo, são necessários estudos maiores e multicêntricos para elucidar essa questão. .

13.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 14: 50, 2014 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24941997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes mellitus are well-defined risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The impact of antecedent hyperglycemia and body size on mortality in critical ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may vary across their range of values. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed the relationship between in-hospital mortality and preexisting hyperglycemia and body size in critically ill ICU patients to understand how mortality varied among normal, overweight, and obese patients and those with low, intermediate, and high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. METHODS: Medical history, weight, height, physiologic variables, and HbA1c were obtained during the first 24 h for patients who were consecutively admitted to the high complexity ICU of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, from April to August 2011. The relationships between mortality and obesity and antecedent hyperglycemia were prospectively analyzed by cubic spline analysis and a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The study comprised 199 patients. The overall hospital mortality rate was 43.2% during a median 16 (8-28) days of follow-up. There was a progressive risk of in-hospital mortality with higher HbA1c levels, with the relationship becoming significant at HbA1c >9.3% compared with lower levels (hazard ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval with Bonferroni correction 1.49-2.80). In contrast, mean body mass index (BMI) was higher in survivors than in nonsurvivors (27.2 kg/m2 ± 7.3 vs. 24.7 kg/m2 ± 5.0 P = 0.031, respectively). Cubic spline analysis showed that these relationships differed nonlinearly through the spectrum of BMI values. In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and HbA1c, the risk of in-hospital mortality progressively decreased with increasing BMI (BMI <20 vs. 20-23.9 kg/m2, P = 0.032; BMI <20 vs. 24-34.9 kg/m2, P = 0.010; BMI <20 vs. ≥35 kg/m2, P = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that significant hyperglycemia prior to ICU admission is a risk factor for in-hospital mortality. Conversely, increasing BMI may confer an advantageous effect against mortality in critical illness independently of previous glycemic control.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 26(1): 71-6, 2014 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24770692

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia is a commonly encountered issue in critically ill patients in the intensive care setting. The presence of hyperglycemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, regardless of the reason for admission (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, status post-cardiovascular surgery, stroke, sepsis). However, the pathophysiology and, in particular, the treatment of hyperglycemia in the critically ill patient remain controversial. In clinical practice, several aspects must be taken into account in the management of these patients, including blood glucose targets, history of diabetes mellitus, the route of nutrition (enteral or parenteral), and available monitoring equipment, which substantially increases the workload of providers involved in the patients' care. This review describes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, management, and monitoring of hyperglycemia in the critically ill adult patient.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Hiperglicemia/terapia , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Carga de Trabalho
15.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 26(1): 71-76, Jan-Mar/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-707207

RESUMO

A hiperglicemia é um problema frequentemente encontrado em pacientes graves em ambiente de terapia intensiva. Sua presença se associa ao aumento da morbidade e da mortalidade, independentemente da causa da admissão (infarto agudo do miocárdio, condição após cirurgia cardiovascular, acidente vascular cerebral e sepse). Entretanto, permanecem muitas dúvidas com relação à fisiopatologia e, particularmente, em relação ao tratamento da hiperglicemia no paciente graves. Na prática clínica, devem ser levados em consideração diversos aspectos para o controle desses pacientes, inclusive os alvos de glicemia, o histórico de diabetes mellitus, a via de nutrição (enteral ou parenteral) e o equipamento de monitoramento disponível, o que aumenta substancialmente a carga de trabalho dos profissionais envolvidos nesse tratamento. Esta revisão descreveu a epidemiologia, a fisiopatologia, o tratamento e o monitoramento da hiperglicemia no paciente adulto grave.


Hyperglycemia is a commonly encountered issue in critically ill patients in the intensive care setting. The presence of hyperglycemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, regardless of the reason for admission (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, status post-cardiovascular surgery, stroke, sepsis). However, the pathophysiology and, in particular, the treatment of hyperglycemia in the critically ill patient remain controversial. In clinical practice, several aspects must be taken into account in the management of these patients, including blood glucose targets, history of diabetes mellitus, the route of nutrition (enteral or parenteral), and available monitoring equipment, which substantially increases the workload of providers involved in the patients' care. This review describes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, management, and monitoring of hyperglycemia in the critically ill adult patient.


Assuntos
Adulto , Humanos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Hiperglicemia/terapia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Carga de Trabalho
16.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol ; 57(8): 636-41, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24343633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess serum levels of the main factors that regulate the activation of the zona glomerulosa and aldosterone production in patients with septic shock, as well as their response to a high-dose (250 µg) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 27 patients with septic shock, baseline levels of aldosterone, cortisol, ACTH, renin, sodium, potassium, and lactate were measured, followed by a cortrosyn test. RESULTS: Renin correlated with baseline aldosterone and its variation after cortrosyn stimulation. Baseline cortisol and its variation did not correlate with ACTH. Only three patients had concomitant dysfunction of aldosterone and cortisol secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata are independent. Aldosterone secretion is dependent on the integrity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas cortisol secretion does not appear to depend predominantly on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. These results suggest that activation of the adrenal gland in critically ill patients occurs by multiple mechanisms.


Assuntos
Aldosterona/sangue , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Renina/sangue , Choque Séptico/metabolismo , Zona Glomerulosa/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Cosintropina/administração & dosagem , Cosintropina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Zona Fasciculada
17.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(8): 636-641, Nov. 2013. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-696904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess serum levels of the main factors that regulate the activation of the zona glomerulosa and aldosterone production in patients with septic shock, as well as their response to a high-dose (250 µg) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 27 patients with septic shock, baseline levels of aldosterone, cortisol, ACTH, renin, sodium, potassium, and lactate were measured, followed by a cortrosyn test. RESULTS: Renin correlated with baseline aldosterone and its variation after cortrosyn stimulation. Baseline cortisol and its variation did not correlate with ACTH. Only three patients had concomitant dysfunction of aldosterone and cortisol secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata are independent. Aldosterone secretion is dependent on the integrity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas cortisol secretion does not appear to depend predominantly on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. These results suggest that activation of the adrenal gland in critically ill patients occurs by multiple mechanisms.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar os níveis séricos dos principais fatores que regulam a ativação da zona glomerulosa e a produção de aldosterona em pacientes com choque séptico, assim como sua resposta ao teste de cortrosina em alta dose (250 µg). SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Em 27 portadores de choque séptico, foram aferidos níveis basais de aldosterona, cortisol, ACTH, renina, sódio, potássio e lactato, bem como realizado teste de cortrosina. RESULTADOS: Renina se correlacionou com níveis basais de aldosterona e sua variação após teste de cortrosina. Cortisol basal e sua variação não se correlacionaram com ACTH. Apenas três pacientes apresentaram disfunção concomitante da secreção de aldosterona e cortisol. CONCLUSÕES: Ativação das zonas fasciculada e glomerulosa são independentes. Secreção de aldosterona é dependente da integridade do sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona, enquanto secreção de cortisol não parece predominantemente dependente do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal. Esses resultados sugerem que a ativação da adrenal em pacientes críticos ocorre por múltiplos mecanismos.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aldosterona/sangue , Hidrocortisona , Renina/sangue , Choque Séptico/metabolismo , Zona Glomerulosa , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/administração & dosagem , Cosintropina/administração & dosagem , Cosintropina/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Zona Fasciculada
18.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 25(1): 17-24, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23887755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the compliance of septic patients' nutritional management with enteral nutrition guidelines for critically ill patients. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 92 septic patients, age ≥ 18 years, hospitalized in an intensive care unit, under enteral nutrition, evaluated according to enteral nutrition guidelines for critically ill patients, compliance with caloric and protein goals, and reasons for not starting enteral nutrition early or for discontinuing it. Prognostic scores, length of intensive care unit stay, clinical progression, and nutritional status were also analyzed. RESULTS: The patients had a mean age of 63.4 ± 15.1 years, were predominantly male, were diagnosed predominantly with septic shock (56.5%), had a mean intensive care unit stay of 11 (7.2 to 18.0) days, had 8.2 ± 4.2 SOFA and 24.1 ± 9.6 APACHE II scores, and had 39.1% mortality. Enteral nutrition was initiated early in 63% of patients. Approximately 50% met the caloric and protein goals on the third day of intensive care unit stay, a percentage that decreased to 30% at day 7. Reasons for the late start of enteral nutrition included gastrointestinal tract complications (35.3%) and hemodynamic instability (32.3%). Clinical procedures were the most frequent reason to discontinue enteral nutrition (44.1%). There was no association between compliance with the guidelines and nutritional status, length of intensive care unit stay, severity, or progression. CONCLUSION: Although the number of septic patients under early enteral nutrition was significant, caloric and protein goals at day 3 of intensive care unit stay were met by only half of them, a percentage that decreased at day 7.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sepse/terapia , Choque Séptico/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia
19.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 25(1): 25-31, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23887756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To calculate the values of the phase angle of septic patients using bioelectrical impedance analysis, correlate the values with clinical and biochemical variables, and compare them to reference values. METHODS: Cohort study conducted with 50 septic patients aged ≥ 18 years old, admitted to intensive care units, and assessed according to prognostic indexes (APACHE II and SOFA), clinical progression (mortality, severity of sepsis, length of stay in intensive care unit), biochemical parameters (albumin and C-reactive protein), and the phase angle. RESULTS: The average age of the sample was 65.6 ± 16.5 years. Most patients were male (58%) and suffering from septic shock (60%). The average APACHE II and SOFA scores were 22.98 ± 7.1 and 7.5 ± 3.4, respectively. The patients who survived stayed nine days on average (five to 13) in the intensive care unit, and the mortality rate was 30%. The average value of the phase angle was 5.4 ± 2.6° in the total sample and was smaller among the females compared with the males (p=0.01). The phase angle measures did not exhibit an association with the severity of the sepsis, mortality, gender, and age or correlate with the length of hospitalization or the biochemical parameters. The participants' phase angle values adjusted per gender and age were 1.1 to 1.9 times lower compared with the values for a normal population. CONCLUSION: The average value of the phase angle of septic patients was lower compared with the reference values for a healthy population. The phase angle measures did not exhibit association with the clinical and biochemical variables, which might be explained by the sample homogeneity.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , APACHE , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sepse/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Choque Séptico/mortalidade
20.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 25(1): 17-24, jan.-mar. 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-673362

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a adequação do manejo nutricional do paciente séptico a diretrizes de nutrição enteral para pacientes críticos. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectivo com 92 pacientes sépticos, idade ≥18 anos, internados em unidade de terapia intensiva, em uso de nutrição enteral, avaliados segundo diretrizes para pacientes críticos quanto à nutrição enteral precoce, adequação calórica e proteica, e motivos para não início da nutrição enteral precoce bem como de interrupção da mesma. Escores prognósticos, tempo de internação, evolução clínica e estado nutricional também foram analisados. RESULTADOS: Pacientes com idade média de 63,4±15,1 anos, predominantemente masculinos, diagnóstico de choque séptico (56,5%), tempo de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva de 11 (7,2 a 18,0) dias, escores SOFA de 8,2±4,2 e APACHE II de 24,1±9,6 e mortalidade de 39,1%. Em 63% dos pacientes, a nutrição enteral foi iniciada precocemente. Cerca de 50% atingiu as metas calóricas e proteicas no 3º dia de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva, percentual que foi reduzido para 30% no 7º dia. Motivos para início da nutrição enteral tardia foram complicações do trato gastrintestinal (35,3%) e instabilidade hemodinâmica (32,3%). Procedimentos foram o motivo mais frequente para interrupção da nutrição enteral (44,1%). Não houve associação entre a adequação às diretrizes com estado nutricional, tempo de internação, gravidade ou evolução. CONCLUSÃO: Embora expressivo o número de pacientes sépticos que iniciaram a nutrição enteral precocemente, metas calóricas e proteicas no 3º dia da internação foram atingidas apenas pela metade destes, percentual que diminui no 7º dia.


OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the compliance of septic patients' nutritional management with enteral nutrition guidelines for critically ill patients. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 92 septic patients, age ≥18 years, hospitalized in an intensive care unit, under enteral nutrition, evaluated according to enteral nutrition guidelines for critically ill patients, compliance with caloric and protein goals, and reasons for not starting enteral nutrition early or for discontinuing it. Prognostic scores, length of intensive care unit stay, clinical progression, and nutritional status were also analyzed. RESULTS: The patients had a mean age of 63.4±15.1 years, were predominantly male, were diagnosed predominantly with septic shock (56.5%), had a mean intensive care unit stay of 11 (7.2 to 18.0) days, had 8.2±4.2 SOFA and 24.1±9.6 APACHE II scores, and had 39.1% mortality. Enteral nutrition was initiated early in 63% of patients. Approximately 50% met the caloric and protein goals on the third day of intensive care unit stay, a percentage that decreased to 30% at day 7. Reasons for the late start of enteral nutrition included gastrointestinal tract complications (35.3%) and hemodynamic instability (32.3%). Clinical procedures were the most frequent reason to discontinue enteral nutrition (44.1%). There was no association between compliance with the guidelines and nutritional status, length of intensive care unit stay, severity, or progression. CONCLUSION: Although the number of septic patients under early enteral nutrition was significant, caloric and protein goals at day 3 of intensive care unit stay were met by only half of them, a percentage that decreased at day 7.


Assuntos
Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sepse/terapia , Choque Séptico/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Progressão da Doença , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Estado Nutricional , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia
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