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1.
Physiol Plant ; : e13821, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345266

RESUMO

Stylosanthes scabra, popularly known as stylo, is native to the Brazilian Caatinga semiarid region and stands out as a drought-tolerant shrub forage crop. This work provides information about the plant response during the first 48 hours of water deficit, followed by a rehydration treatment. Besides root transcriptomics data, thirteen physiological or biochemical parameters were scrutinized. Additionally, RNA-Seq annotated transcripts not associated with the 'Viridiplantae' clade were taxonomically categorized. It was found that S. scabra quickly perceives and recovers from the oscillations of the imposed water regime. Physiologically, mechanisms that minimize evapotranspiration or protect the photosynthetic apparatus stood out. Biochemically, it was found that the root tissue invests in synthesizing compounds that can act as osmolytes (proline and sugars), emphasizing the importance of osmoregulation to water deficit acclimation. Consistently, transcriptome and qPCR analyses showed that a set of enriched biological processes with up-regulated (UR) transcripts were involved in protective functions against ROS or encoding enzymes of important metabolic pathways, which might contribute to S. scabra response to water deficit. Additionally, several UR kinases and transcription factors were identified. Finally, in an innovative approach, some naturally occurring microbial groups (such as Schizosaccharomyces, Bradyrhizobium, etc.) were identified in the S. scabra roots. This study reveals insights into the physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying the S. scabra response to water deficit and provides candidate genes that may be useful in developing drought-tolerant crop varieties through biotechnological applications.

2.
Bioinform Adv ; 2(1): vbac030, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35669346

RESUMO

Summary: Properly and effectively managing reference datasets is an important task for many bioinformatics analyses. Refgenie is a reference asset management system that allows users to easily organize, retrieve and share such datasets. Here, we describe the integration of refgenie into the Galaxy platform. Server administrators are able to configure Galaxy to make use of reference datasets made available on a refgenie instance. In addition, a Galaxy Data Manager tool has been developed to provide a graphical interface to refgenie's remote reference retrieval functionality. A large collection of reference datasets has also been made available using the CVMFS (CernVM File System) repository from GalaxyProject.org, with mirrors across the USA, Canada, Europe and Australia, enabling easy use outside of Galaxy. Availability and implementation: The ability of Galaxy to use refgenie assets was added to the core Galaxy framework in version 22.01, which is available from https://github.com/galaxyproject/galaxy under the Academic Free License version 3.0. The refgenie Data Manager tool can be installed via the Galaxy ToolShed, with source code managed at https://github.com/BlankenbergLab/galaxy-tools-blankenberg/tree/main/data_managers/data_manager_refgenie_pull and released using an MIT license. Access to existing data is also available through CVMFS, with instructions at https://galaxyproject.org/admin/reference-data-repo/. No new data were generated or analyzed in support of this research.

3.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 667013, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194450

RESUMO

The present work represents a pioneering effort, being the first to analyze genomic and transcriptomic data from Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) kinases. We evaluated the cowpea kinome considering its genome-wide distribution and structural characteristics (at the gene and protein levels), sequence evolution, conservation among Viridiplantae species, and gene expression in three cowpea genotypes under different stress situations, including biotic (injury followed by virus inoculation-CABMV or CPSMV) and abiotic (root dehydration). The structural features of cowpea kinases (VuPKs) indicated that 1,293 bona fide VuPKs covered 20 groups and 118 different families. The RLK-Pelle was the largest group, with 908 members. Insights on the mechanisms of VuPK genomic expansion and conservation among Viridiplantae species indicated dispersed and tandem duplications as major forces for VuPKs' distribution pattern and high orthology indexes and synteny with other legume species, respectively. K a /K s ratios showed that almost all (91%) of the tandem duplication events were under purifying selection. Candidate cis-regulatory elements were associated with different transcription factors (TFs) in the promoter regions of the RLK-Pelle group. C2H2 TFs were closely associated with the promoter regions of almost all scrutinized families for the mentioned group. At the transcriptional level, it was suggested that VuPK up-regulation was stress, genotype, or tissue dependent (or a combination of them). The most prominent families in responding (up-regulation) to all the analyzed stresses were RLK-Pelle_DLSV and CAMK_CAMKL-CHK1. Concerning root dehydration, it was suggested that the up-regulated VuPKs are associated with ABA hormone signaling, auxin hormone transport, and potassium ion metabolism. Additionally, up-regulated VuPKs under root dehydration potentially assist in a critical physiological strategy of the studied cowpea genotype in this assay, with activation of defense mechanisms against biotic stress while responding to root dehydration. This study provides the foundation for further studies on the evolution and molecular function of VuPKs.

4.
Genet Mol Biol ; 44(2): e20200424, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061138

RESUMO

Cenostigma pyramidale is a native legume of the Brazilian semiarid region which performs symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), being an excellent model for studying genes associated with tolerance against abiotic and biotic stresses. In RT-qPCR approach, the use of reference genes is mandatory to avoid incorrect interpretation of the relative expression. This study evaluated the stability of ten candidate reference genes (CRGs) from C. pyramidale root tissues under salt stress (three collection times) and associated with AMF (three different times of salinity). The de novo transcriptome was obtained via RNA-Seq sequencing. Three algorithms were used to calculate the stability of CRGs under different conditions: (i) global (Salt, Salt+AMF, AMF and Control, and collection times), (ii) only non-inoculated plants, and (iii) AMF (only inoculated plants). HAG2, SAC1, aRP3 were the most stable CRGs for global and AMF assays, whereas HAG2, SAC1, RHS1 were the best for salt stress assay. This CRGs were used to validate the relative expression of two up-regulated transcripts in Salt2h (RAP2-3 and PIN8). Our study provides the first set of reference genes for C. pyramidale under salinity and AMF, supporting future researches on gene expression with this species.

5.
Physiol Plant ; 173(4): 1463-1480, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973275

RESUMO

Salinity stress has a significant impact on the gain of plant biomass. Our study provides the first root transcriptome of Cenostigma pyramidale, a tolerant woody legume from a tropical dry forest, under three different salt stress times (30 min, 2 h, and 11 days). The transcriptome was assembled using the RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) de novo pipeline from GenPipes. We observed 932, 804, and 3157 upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 164, 273, and 1332 downregulated DEGs for salt over 30 min, 2 h, and 11 days, respectively. For DEGs annotated with the Viridiplantae clade in the early stress periods, the response to salt stress was mainly achieved by stabilizing homeostasis of such ions like Na+ and K+ , signaling by Ca2+ , transcription factor modulation, water transport, and oxidative stress. For salt stress at 11 days, we observed a higher modulation of transcription factors including the WRKY, MYB, bHLH, NAC, HSF, and AP2-EREBP families, as well as DEGs involved in hormonal responses, water transport, sugar metabolism, proline, and reactive oxygen scavenging mechanisms. Five selected DEGs (K+ transporter, aquaporin, glutathione S-transferase, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, and superoxide dismutase) were validated by qPCR. Our results indicated that C. pyramidale had an early perception of salt stress modulating ionic channels and transporters, and as the stress progressed, the focus turned to the antioxidant system, aquaporins, and complex hormone responses. The results of this first root transcriptome provide clues on how this native species modulate gene expression to achieve salt stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino
6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(W1): W388-W396, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019663

RESUMO

Since its first release over a decade ago, the MetaboAnalyst web-based platform has become widely used for comprehensive metabolomics data analysis and interpretation. Here we introduce MetaboAnalyst version 5.0, aiming to narrow the gap from raw data to functional insights for global metabolomics based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Three modules have been developed to help achieve this goal, including: (i) a LC-MS Spectra Processing module which offers an easy-to-use pipeline that can perform automated parameter optimization and resumable analysis to significantly lower the barriers to LC-MS1 spectra processing; (ii) a Functional Analysis module which expands the previous MS Peaks to Pathways module to allow users to intuitively select any peak groups of interest and evaluate their enrichment of potential functions as defined by metabolic pathways and metabolite sets; (iii) a Functional Meta-Analysis module to combine multiple global metabolomics datasets obtained under complementary conditions or from similar studies to arrive at comprehensive functional insights. There are many other new functions including weighted joint-pathway analysis, data-driven network analysis, batch effect correction, merging technical replicates, improved compound name matching, etc. The web interface, graphics and underlying codebase have also been refactored to improve performance and user experience. At the end of an analysis session, users can now easily switch to other compatible modules for a more streamlined data analysis. MetaboAnalyst 5.0 is freely available at https://www.metaboanalyst.ca.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Software , Cromatografia Líquida , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Bases de Conhecimento
7.
Physiol Plant ; 172(2): 441-462, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247842

RESUMO

This work presents a robust analysis of the inositols (INSs) and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) pathways, using genomic and transcriptomic tools in cowpea under root dehydration. Nineteen (~70%) of the 26 scrutinized enzymes presented transcriptional up-regulation in at least one treatment time. The transcriptional orchestration allowed categorization of the analyzed enzymes as time-independent (those showing the same regulation throughout the assay) and time-dependent (those showing different transcriptional regulation over time). It is suggested that up-regulated time-independent enzymes (INSs: myo-inositol oxygenase, inositol-tetrakisphosphate 1-kinase 3, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase 4-like, 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase, phosphoinositide phospholipase C, and non-specific phospholipase C; RFOs: α-galactosidase, invertase, and raffinose synthase) actively participate in the reorganization of cowpea molecular physiology under the applied stress. In turn, time-dependent enzymes, especially those up-regulated in some of the treatment times (INSs: inositol-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, phosphatidylinositol synthase, multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase 1, methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; RFOs: galactinol synthase) seem to participate in fine-tuning of the molecular physiology, helping the cowpea plants to acclimatize under dehydration stress. Not all loci encoding the studied enzymes were expressed during the assay; most of the expressed ones exhibited a variable transcriptional profile in the different treatment times. Genes of the INSs and RFOs pathways showed high orthology with analyzed Phaseoleae members, suggesting a relevant role within this legume group. Regarding the promoter regions of INSs and RFOs genes, some bona fide cis-regulatory elements were identified in association with seven transcription factor families (AP2-EFR, Dof-type, MADS-box, bZIP, CPP, ZF-HD, and GATA-type). Members of INSs and RFOs pathways potentially participate in other processes regulated by these proteins in cowpea.


Assuntos
Inositol , Vigna , Desidratação , Rafinose , Fatores de Transcrição , Vigna/genética
8.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 132: 103257, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351193

RESUMO

Fungi are very successful microorganisms capable of colonizing virtually any ecological niche where they must constantly cope with competitors including fungi, bacteria and nematodes. We have shown previously that the ascomycete Podopora anserina exhibits Hyphal Interference (HI), an antagonistic response triggered by direct contact of competing fungal hyphae. When challenged with Penicillium chrysogenum, P. anserina produces hydrogen peroxide at the confrontation and kills the hyphae of P. chrysogenum. Here, we report the characterization of the PDC2218 mutant affected in HI. When challenged with P. chrysogenum, the PDC2218 mutant produces a massive oxidative burst at the confrontation. However, this increased production of hydrogen peroxide is not correlated to increased cell death in P. chrysogenum. Hence, the oxidative burst and cell death in the challenger are uncoupled in PDC2218. The gene affected in PDC2218 is PaTim54, encoding the homologue of the budding yeast mitochondrial inner membrane import machinery component Tim54p. We show that PaTim54 is essential in P. anserina and that the phenotypes displayed by the PDC2218 mutant, renamed PaTim542218, are the consequence of a drastic reduction in the expression of PaTim54. Among these pleiotropic phenotypes, PDC2218-PaTim542218- displays increased lifespan, a phenotype in line with the observed mitochondrial defects in the mutant.


Assuntos
Antibiose/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Membranas Mitocondriais/enzimologia , Podospora/enzimologia , Podospora/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hifas/metabolismo , Mutação , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenótipo , Podospora/fisiologia
9.
Gigascience ; 8(6)2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the decreasing cost of sequencing and the rapid developments in genomics technologies and protocols, the need for validated bioinformatics software that enables efficient large-scale data processing is growing. FINDINGS: Here we present GenPipes, a flexible Python-based framework that facilitates the development and deployment of multi-step workflows optimized for high-performance computing clusters and the cloud. GenPipes already implements 12 validated and scalable pipelines for various genomics applications, including RNA sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, DNA sequencing, methylation sequencing, Hi-C, capture Hi-C, metagenomics, and Pacific Biosciences long-read assembly. The software is available under a GPLv3 open source license and is continuously updated to follow recent advances in genomics and bioinformatics. The framework has already been configured on several servers, and a Docker image is also available to facilitate additional installations. CONCLUSIONS: GenPipes offers genomics researchers a simple method to analyze different types of data, customizable to their needs and resources, as well as the flexibility to create their own workflows.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Software , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Humanos , Metagenômica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
10.
Bioinformatics ; 35(4): 674-676, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052804

RESUMO

SUMMARY: In recent years, major initiatives such as the International Human Epigenome Consortium have generated thousands of high-quality genome-wide datasets for a large variety of assays and cell types. This data can be used as a reference to assess whether the signal from a user-provided dataset corresponds to its expected experiment, as well as to help reveal unexpected biological associations. We have developed the epiGenomic Efficient Correlator (epiGeEC) tool to enable genome-wide comparisons of very large numbers of datasets. A public Galaxy implementation of epiGeEC allows comparison of user datasets with thousands of public datasets in a few minutes. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The source code is available at https://bitbucket.org/labjacquespe/epigeec and the Galaxy implementation at http://epigeec.genap.ca. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Epigenômica , Software , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Genoma , Humanos , Camundongos
11.
Evol Appl ; 11(5): 768-780, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875818

RESUMO

The efficiency of plant resistance to fungal pathogen populations is expected to decrease over time, due to their evolution with an increase in the frequency of virulent or highly aggressive strains. This dynamics may differ depending on the scale investigated (annual or pluriannual), particularly for annual crop pathogens with both sexual and asexual reproduction cycles. We assessed this time-scale effect, by comparing aggressiveness changes in a local Zymoseptoria tritici population over an 8-month cropping season and a 6-year period of wheat monoculture. We collected two pairs of subpopulations to represent the annual and pluriannual scales: from leaf lesions at the beginning and end of a single annual epidemic and from crop debris at the beginning and end of a 6-year period. We assessed two aggressiveness traits-latent period and lesion size-on sympatric and allopatric host varieties. A trend toward decreased latent period concomitant with a significant loss of variability was established during the course of the annual epidemic, but not over the 6-year period. Furthermore, a significant cultivar effect (sympatric vs. allopatric) on the average aggressiveness of the isolates revealed host adaptation, arguing that the observed patterns could result from selection. We thus provide an experimental body of evidence of an epidemiological trade-off between the intra- and interannual scales in the evolution of aggressiveness in a local plant pathogen population. More aggressive isolates were collected from upper leaves, on which disease severity is usually lower than on the lower part of the plants left in the field as crop debris after harvest. We suggest that these isolates play little role in sexual reproduction, due to an Allee effect (difficulty finding mates at low pathogen densities), particularly as the upper parts of the plant are removed from the field, explaining the lack of transmission of increases in aggressiveness between epidemics.

12.
Cell Syst ; 3(5): 496-499.e2, 2016 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27863956

RESUMO

The International Human Epigenome Consortium (IHEC) coordinates the production of reference epigenome maps through the characterization of the regulome, methylome, and transcriptome from a wide range of tissues and cell types. To define conventions ensuring the compatibility of datasets and establish an infrastructure enabling data integration, analysis, and sharing, we developed the IHEC Data Portal (http://epigenomesportal.ca/ihec). The portal provides access to >7,000 reference epigenomic datasets, generated from >600 tissues, which have been contributed by seven international consortia: ENCODE, NIH Roadmap, CEEHRC, Blueprint, DEEP, AMED-CREST, and KNIH. The portal enhances the utility of these reference maps by facilitating the discovery, visualization, analysis, download, and sharing of epigenomics data. The IHEC Data Portal is the official source to navigate through IHEC datasets and represents a strategy for unifying the distributed data produced by international research consortia.


Assuntos
Epigenômica , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Internet , Software , Transcriptoma
13.
J Neuroinflammation ; 12: 162, 2015 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26337974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE) is a severe condition that may lead to hippocampal cell loss and epileptogenesis. Some of the mechanisms associated with SE-induced cell death are excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to test the hypothesis that DBS has anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects when applied during SE. METHODS: Rats undergoing pilocarpine-induced SE were treated with anterior thalamic nucleus (AN) deep brain stimulation (DBS). Inflammatory changes and caspase 3 activity were measured within 1 week of treatment. RESULTS: In pilocarpine-treated rats, DBS countered the significant increase in hippocampal caspase 3 activity and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels that follows SE but had no effect on tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). CONCLUSIONS: DBS has anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects when given to animals undergoing status.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Encefalite/etiologia , Encefalite/terapia , Estado Epiléptico/complicações , Análise de Variância , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletroencefalografia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Agonistas Muscarínicos , Pilocarpina/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estado Epiléptico/induzido quimicamente , Estado Epiléptico/patologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 3: 2015, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23778980

RESUMO

We report a daily-updated sequenced/species Tree Of Life (sTOL) as a reference for the increasing number of cellular organisms with their genomes sequenced. The sTOL builds on a likelihood-based weight calibration algorithm to consolidate NCBI taxonomy information in concert with unbiased sampling of molecular characters from whole genomes of all sequenced organisms. Via quantifying the extent of agreement between taxonomic and molecular data, we observe there are many potential improvements that can be made to the status quo classification, particularly in the Fungi kingdom; we also see that the current state of many animal genomes is rather poor. To augment the use of sTOL in providing evolutionary contexts, we integrate an ontology infrastructure and demonstrate its utility for evolutionary understanding on: nuclear receptors, stem cells and eukaryotic genomes. The sTOL (http://supfam.org/SUPERFAMILY/sTOL) provides a binary tree of (sequenced) life, and contributes to an analytical platform linking genome evolution, function and phenotype.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma , Genômica , Filogenia , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas/normas , Genômica/métodos , Genômica/normas , Internet
16.
Bioessays ; 33(8): 592-601, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21681984

RESUMO

Recent sequencing of the metazoan Oikopleura dioica genome has provided important insights, which challenges the current understanding of eukaryotic genome evolution. Many genomic features of O. dioica show deviation from the commonly observed trends in other eukaryotic genomes. For instance, O. dioica has a rapidly evolving, highly compact genome with a divergent intron-exon organization. Additionally, O. dioica lacks the minor spliceosome and key DNA repair pathway genes. Even with a compact genome, O. dioica contains tandem repeats, comparable to other eukaryotes, and shows lineage-specific expansion of certain protein domains. Here, we review its genomic features in the context of current knowledge, discuss implications for contemporary biology and identify areas for further research. Analysis of the O. dioica genome suggests that non-adaptive forces such as elevated mutation rates might influence the evolution of genome architecture. The knowledge of unique genomic features and splicing mechanisms in O. dioica may be exploited for synthetic biology applications, such as generation of orthogonal splicing systems.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Íntrons , Urocordados/genética , Animais , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Duplicação Gênica , Ordem dos Genes , Mutação , Filogenia , Splicing de RNA , RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Spliceossomos/genética , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem , Transcrição Genética , Urocordados/classificação , Urocordados/metabolismo
17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 39(Database issue): D427-34, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21062816

RESUMO

The SUPERFAMILY resource provides protein domain assignments at the structural classification of protein (SCOP) superfamily level for over 1400 completely sequenced genomes, over 120 metagenomes and other gene collections such as UniProt. All models and assignments are available to browse and download at http://supfam.org. A new hidden Markov model library based on SCOP 1.75 has been created and a previously ignored class of SCOP, coiled coils, is now included. Our scoring component now uses HMMER3, which is in orders of magnitude faster and produces superior results. A cloud-based pipeline was implemented and is publicly available at Amazon web services elastic computer cloud. The SUPERFAMILY reference tree of life has been improved allowing the user to highlight a chosen superfamily, family or domain architecture on the tree of life. The most significant advance in SUPERFAMILY is that now it contains a domain-based gene ontology (GO) at the superfamily and family levels. A new methodology was developed to ensure a high quality GO annotation. The new methodology is general purpose and has been used to produce domain-based phenotypic ontologies in addition to GO.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas/classificação , Genes , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/genética , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Software
18.
PLoS One ; 5(7): e11695, 2010 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20657786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternatively-spliced (AS) forms can vary protein function, intracellular localization and post-translational modifications. AS coupled with mRNA nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) can also control the transcript abundance. Here, we have investigated the genome-scale conservation of alternatively-spliced NMD candidates (AS-NMD candidates), in mammals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We mapped>12 million cDNA/EST library transcripts, comprising pooled data from both older and next-generation sequencing techniques, against genomic sequences to annotate AS-NMD candidates generated by in-frame premature termination codons (PTCs), in the human, mouse, rat and cow genomes. In these genomes, we found populations of genes that harbour AS-NMD candidates, varying in number from approximately 149 to 2,051 genes. We discovered that a highly-significant proportion (27%-35%) of AS-NMD candidate genes in mouse, rat and cow, also have human orthologs targeted for NMD. Intron retention was the most abundant type of AS-NMD, ranging from 43% to 67% of genes harbouring an AS-NMD candidate. Groupings of AS-NMD candidate genes either with or without intron retentions also have highly significant AS-NMD conservation, indicating that the trend is not due primarily to conservation of intron retentions. As a subset, the AS-NMD intron retentions are distinguished from non-retained introns by higher GC content, and codon usage similar to the usage in protein-coding sequences. This indicates that most of these alternatively spliced sequences have coded for proteins in the recent evolutionary past. In general, the AS-NMD candidate genes showed a similar pattern of Gene Ontology functional category enrichments in all four species. Genes linked to nucleic-acid interaction and apoptosis, and involved in pathways linked with cancer, were the most common. Finally, we mapped the AS-NMD candidates to mass spectrometry-derived proteomics data, and gathered evidence of truncated polypeptides for at least 10% of all human AS-NMD candidate transcripts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, our analysis provides strong statistical evidence for conservation of functional AS-NMD candidature across Mammalia for a large subset of genes. However, because codon usage of AS-NMD intron retentions is similar to the usage in exons, it is difficult to de-couple conservation of AS-NMD-based regulation from conservation for protein-coding ability, for intron retentions.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Códon sem Sentido/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Camundongos , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Ratos
19.
Mol Biol Cell ; 21(5): 811-20, 2010 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20053683

RESUMO

Studies have shown that nuclear translocation of actin occurs under certain conditions of cellular stress; however, the functional significance of actin import remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that during the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells toward macrophages, beta-actin translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and that this process is dramatically inhibited by pretreatment with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip assays, the genome-wide maps of beta-actin binding to gene promoters in response to PMA treatment is analyzed in HL-60 cells. A gene ontology-based analysis shows that the identified genes belong to a broad spectrum of functional categories such as cell growth and differentiation, signal transduction, response to external stimulus, ion channel activity, and immune response. We also demonstrate a correlation between beta-actin occupancy and the recruitment of RNA polymerase II at six selected target genes, and beta-actin knockdown decreases the mRNA expression levels of these target genes induced by PMA. We further show that nuclear beta-actin is required for PMA-induced transactivation of one target gene, solute carrier family 11 member 1, which is important for macrophage activation. Our data provide novel evidence that nuclear accumulation of beta-actin is involved in transcriptional regulation during macrophage-like differentiation of HL-60 cells.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Diferenciação Celular , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Hibridização In Situ , Monócitos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia , Ativação Transcricional
20.
BMC Genomics ; 10: 309, 2009 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19594905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional diversification of genes in mammalian genomes is engendered by a number of processes, e.g., gene duplication and alternative splicing. Gene duplication is classically discussed as leading to neofunctionalization (generation of new functions), subfunctionalization (generation of a varied function), or pseudogenization (loss of the gene and its function). RESULTS: Here, we focus on the process of pseudogenization, but specifically for individual exons from genes. It is at present unclear to what extent pseudogenization of individual exon duplications affects gene evolution, i.e., is it a random phenomenon, or is it associated with specific types of genes and encoded proteins, and positions in gene structures? We gathered genomic evidence for pseudogenic exons (PsiEs, i.e., exons disabled by frameshifts and premature stop codons), to examine for significant trends in their distribution across four mammalian genomes (specifically human, cow, mouse and rat). Across these four genomes, we observed a consistent population of PsiEs, associated with 0.4-1.0% of genes. These PsiE populations exhibit codon substitution patterns that are typical of an endemic population of decaying sequences. In human, PsiEs have significant over-representation for functional categories related to 'ion binding' and 'nucleic-acid binding', compared to duplicated exons in general. Also, PsiEs tend to be associated with some protein domains that are abundant generally, e.g., Zinc-finger and immunoglobulin protein domains, but not others, e.g., EGF-like domains. Positionally, PsiEs are also significantly associated with the 5' end of genes, but despite this, individual stop codons are positioned so that there is significant avoidance of potential targeting to nonsense-mediated decay. In human, PsiEs are often associated with alternative splicing (in 22 out of 284 genes with PsiEs in their milieu), and can have different parts of their sequence differentially spliced in alternative transcripts. Some unusual cases of PsiEs embedded within 5' and 3' non-coding exons are observed. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate the types of genes that harbour PsiEs, and demonstrate that PsiEs have non-random distribution within gene structures. These PsiEs may function in gene regulation through generation of transcribed pseudogenes, or regulatory alternate transcripts.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Éxons/genética , Genômica/métodos , Pseudogenes , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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