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Braz J Biol ; 82: e251140, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651457


Staphylococcus spp. represents the main mastitis agents in ruminants and contaminants of milk due to their expressive capacity to make biofilms. The aims in this study was evaluate evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Mauritia flexuosa L. extracts against Staphylococcus spp. adhered to a stainless steel surface. Two isolates from cows with clinical mastitis were evaluated; one was identified as Staphylococcus aureus, and the other Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Additionally the ATCC 25923 strain, S. aureus from human was evaluated. The chemical profile obtained from gas chromatography revealed the presence of carbohydrates, organic acids, and flavonoids. The minimum bactericidal concentrations of the ethanolic extract (EE) and aqueous extract (AE) were 4.4 and 5.82 mg/mL, respectively. After EE treatment at 4.4 mg/mL for 2.5 min, total removal of mature biofilms grown on stainless steel coupons was observed (reduction by 3.85-4.81 log units). This extract from M. flexuosa shows potential as an effective sanitizer and may represent a natural alternative against Staphylococcus spp.

Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Feminino , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Staphylococcus haemolyticus , Aço Inoxidável/farmacologia , Staphylococcus , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Biofilmes , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Exp Appl Acarol ; 79(3-4): 447-458, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792752


Rhipicephalus microplus is the ectoparasite responsible for large economic losses in cattle herds. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro action of leaf extracts of Protium spruceanum on resistant strains of this tick. Ethanolic extracts (EE) and ethyl acetate extracts (EAE) of P. spruceanum leaves were used against engorged females and larvae by biocarrapaticidogram and larval package (TPL) tests. Chromatographic analyses were performed using a gas chromatograph and showed the presence of the flavonoid catechin in both extracts and the terpenoid ß-amirine only in EAE. EE and EAE were not effective in altering the mortality of engorged females; however, 92% of females treated with the extracts reduced the postures and > 90% of larval hatching was inhibited at 100 mg/ml of extracts. Acaricidal efficacies were > 80% for 100 mg/ml EE and > 90% for EAE at 50 mg/ml. In TPL tests, EE and EAE promoted larval mortality > 88% at 100 mg/ml. In this study, EAE was more effective against adult females and larvae than EE, representing an alternative agent for the integrated control of R. microplus.

Acaricidas/química , Burseraceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rhipicephalus , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Folhas de Planta/química
Exp Appl Acarol ; 75(4): 419-427, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073431


Dermacentor nitens tick is commonly found in the equine auditory canal, where it causes economic losses due to its direct damage, causing blood spoliation, stress, transmission of pathogens, and predisposition to myasis and secondary bacterial infection in its hosts. In this study we evaluated the effect of ethanolic extracts of Cerrado plants on biological parameters of engorged females of D. nitens. Ethanolic extracts were prepared from the leaves of Schinopsis brasiliensis, Piptadenia viridiflora, Ximenia americana, and Serjania lethalis at 25-150 mg mL-1. Groups of 10 engorged adult females were treated with these extracts and compared with a control containing distilled water and another control with organophosphate, using five replicates for each group. Compared with the control with water, S. lethalis and X. americana extracts at 100 and 150 mg mL-1 significantly inhibited the posture ability. Differently, extracts of S. brasiliensis and P. viridiflora were the most effective in inhibiting larval hatching. Extracts of X. americana and P. viridiflora showed effective inhibition of reproductive parameters of the tick, presenting dose-dependent effect with IC90 78.86 and 78.94 mg mL-1, respectively. Theses effective extracts contained low condensed tannin levels and their HPLC chromatograms revealed the presence of flavonoids. The efficacies of P. viridiflora and X. americana extracts were higher than 90% indicating that these extracts are promising as alternative agents for D. nitens control.

Acaricidas/isolamento & purificação , Ixodidae , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Anacardiaceae/química , Animais , Fabaceae/química , Feminino , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Cavalos/parasitologia , Olacaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sapindaceae/química
Vet Parasitol ; 223: 43-9, 2016 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27198776


Anthelminthic resistant populations of Haemonchus contortus are a major problem in sheep rearing, but plant extracts may offer viable alternative treatments. In our preliminary studies, Piptadenia viridiflora was frequently selected by sheep grazing in the Cerrado. The present research evaluated its in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity. The HPLC chromatograms of P. viridiflora aqueous extract (AE) and ethanolic extract (EE) showed the presence of flavonoids. The total condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) was 0.2 and 1.01% in AE and EE, respectively. In an egg hatching inhibition (EHI) test, the LC90 of AE was 2.4mg/mL, and, of EE, was 2.1mg/mL. After tannin extraction, higher EHI and lower LC90 were observed. In a larval development inhibition test, the LC90 of AE was 13.66mg/g of fecal culture. The highest dose of AE administered to mice (203.0mg/kg bw) was well tolerated, suggesting low toxicity. In vivo, AE was orally administered to lambs at 283mg/kg bw, and, at weeks one, two, and three post-treatment, the mean fecal egg count (FEC) was significantly lower than in untreated lambs (P<0.05). Blood parameters were normal and similar in untreated and treated sheep. For all lamb groups, the mean total serum protein was significantly higher at week two post-treatment than at other evaluated periods (P<0.05). Piptadenia viridiflora extracts had low condensed tannin content and exhibited high anthelminthic efficacy in vitro and significantly reduced FEC. Tannins were not shown to be the principal components affecting EHI, hence it is necessary to isolate and characterize the principal active P. viridiflora compounds, and to assess their possible synergism.

Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Fabaceae/química , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Levamisol/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Toxicidade