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1.
Fam Cancer ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002723

RESUMO

Routine diagnostics for colorectal cancer patients suspected of having Lynch-Syndrome (LS) currently uses Next-Generation-Sequencing (NGS) of targeted regions within the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. This analysis can reliably detect nucleotide alterations and copy-number variations (CNVs); however, CNV-neutral rearrangements comprising gene inversions or large intronic insertions remain undetected because their breakpoints are usually not covered. As several founder mutations exist for LS, we established PCR-based screening methods for five known rearrangements in MLH1, MSH2, or PMS2, and investigated their prevalence in 98 German patients with suspicion of LS without a causative germline variant or CNV detectable in the four MMR genes. We found no recurrence of CNV-neutral structural rearrangements previously described: Neither for two inversions in MLH1 (exon 1 and exon 16-19) within 33 MLH1-deficient patients, nor for two inversions in MSH2 (exon 1-7 and exon 2-6) within 48 MSH2-deficient patients. The PMS2 insertion in intron 7 was detected in one of 17 PMS2-deficient patients. None of the four genomic inversions constitutes a founder event within the German population, but we advise to test the rare cases with unsolved PMS2-deficiency upon the known insertion. As a next diagnostic step, tumour tissue of the unsolved patients should be sequenced for somatic variants, and germline analysis of additional genes with an overlapping clinical phenotype should be considered. Alternatively, full-length cDNA analyses may detect concealed MMR-defects in cases with family history.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lynch syndrome is caused by variants in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In patients with Lynch syndrome, CRCs can develop via different pathways. We studied associations between Lynch syndrome-associated variants in MMR genes and risks of adenoma and CRC and somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1 in tumors in an international cohort of patients. METHODS: We combined clinical and molecular data from 3 studies. We obtained clinical data from 2747 patients with Lynch syndrome associated with variants in MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 from Germany, the Netherlands, and Finland who received at least 2 surveillance colonoscopies and were followed for a median time of 7.8 years for development of adenomas or CRC. We performed DNA sequence analyses of 48 colorectal tumors (from 16 patients with mutations in MLH1, 29 patients with mutations in MSH2, and 3 with mutations in MSH6) for somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1. RESULTS: Risk of advanced adenoma in 10 y was 17.8% in patients with pathogenic variants in MSH2 vs 7.7% in MLH1 (P<.001). Higher proportions of patients with pathogenic variants in MLH1 or MSH2 developed CRC in 10 y (11.3% and 11.4%) than patients with pathogenic variants in MSH6 (4.7%) (P=.001 and P=.003 for MLH1 and MSH2 vs MSH6, respectively). Somatic mutations in APC were found in 75% of tumors from patients with pathogenic variants in MSH2 vs 11% in MLH1 (P=.015). Somatic mutations in CTNNB1 were found in 50% of tumors from patients with pathogenic variants in MLH1 vs 7% in MSH2 (P=.002). None of the 3 tumors with pathogenic variants in MSH6 had a mutation in CTNNB1, but all had mutations in APC. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of clinical and DNA sequence data from patients with Lynch syndrome from 3 countries, we associated pathogenic variants in MMR genes with risk of adenoma and CRC, and somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1 in colorectal tumors. If these findings are confirmed, surveillance guidelines might be adjusted based on MMR gene variants.

3.
Genet Med ; 22(1): 15-25, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822864

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by germline defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway, resulting in microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and loss of immunohistochemical staining (IHC) of the respective protein in tumor tissue. However, not in all clinically suspected LS patients with MSI-H tumors and IHC-loss, causative germline alterations in the MMR genes can be detected. Here, we investigated 128 of these patients to possibly define new pathomechanisms. A search for large genomic rearrangements and deep-intronic regulatory variants was performed via targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of exonic, intronic, and chromosomal regions upstream and downstream of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, MLH3, MSH3, PMS1, and EPCAM. Within this cohort, two different large rearrangements causative for LS were detected in three cases, belonging to two families (2.3%). The sensitivity to detect large rearrangements or copy number variations (CNV) was evaluated to be 50%. In 9 of the 128 patients (7%), previously overlooked pathogenic single-nucleotide variants (SNV) and two variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were identified in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6. Pathogenic aberrations were not found in MLH3, MSH3, and PMS1. A potential effect on regulation was exerted for 19% of deep-intronic SNVs, predominantly located in chromosomal regions where the modification of histone proteins suggests an enhancer function. In conclusion, conventional variation analysis of coding regions is missing rare genomic rearrangements, nevertheless they should be analyzed. Assessment of deep-intronic SNVs is so far non-conclusive for medical questioning.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18555, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811167

RESUMO

We have surveyed 191 prospectively sampled familial cancer patients with no previously detected pathogenic variant in the BRCA1/2, PTEN, TP53 or DNA mismatch repair genes. In all, 138 breast cancer (BC) cases, 34 colorectal cancer (CRC) and 19 multiple early-onset cancers were included. A panel of 44 cancer-predisposing genes identified 5% (9/191) pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants and 87 variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were identified mostly in familial BC individuals (7/9) and were located in 5 genes: ATM (3), BRCA2 (1), CHEK2 (1), MSH6 (1) and MUTYH (1), followed by multiple early-onset (2/9) individuals, affecting the CHEK2 and ATM genes. Eleven of the 87 VUS were tested, and 4/11 were found to have an impact on splicing by using a minigene splicing assay. We here report for the first time the splicing anomalies using this assay for the variants ATM c.3806A > G and BUB1 c.677C > T, whereas CHEK1 c.61G > A did not result in any detectable splicing anomaly. Our study confirms the presence of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in genes that are not routinely tested in the context of the above-mentioned clinical phenotypes. Interestingly, more than half of the pathogenic germline variants were found in the moderately penetrant ATM and CHEK2 genes, where only truncating variants from these genes are recommended to be reported in clinical genetic testing practice.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(12): 1808-1820, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332305

RESUMO

In pathogenicity assessment, RNA-based analyses are important for the correct classification of variants, and require gene-specific cut-offs for allelic representation and alternative/aberrant splicing. Beside this, the diagnostic yield of RNA-based techniques capable to detect aberrant splicing or allelic loss due to intronic/regulatory variants has to be elaborated. We established a cDNA analysis for full-length transcripts (FLT) of the four DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes to investigate the splicing pattern and transcript integrity with active/inhibited nonsense-mediated mRNA-decay (NMD). Validation was based on results from normal controls, samples with premature termination codons (PTC), samples with splice-site defects (SSD), and samples with pathogenic putative missense variants. The method was applied to patients with variants of uncertain significance (VUS) or unexplained immunohistochemical MMR deficiency. We categorized the allelic representation into biallelic (50 ± 10%) or allelic loss (≤10%), and >10% and <40% as unclear. We defined isoforms up to 10% and exon-specific exceptions as alternative splicing, set the cut-off for SSD in cDNA + P to 30-50%, and regard >10% and <30% as unclear. FLT cDNA analyses designated 16% of all putative missense variants and 12% of VUS as SSD, detected MMR-defects in 19% of the unsolved patients, and re-classified >30% of VUS. Our method allows a standardized, systematic cDNA analysis of the MMR FLTs to assess the pathogenicity mechanism of VUS on RNA level, which will gain relevance for precision medicine and gene therapy. Diagnostic accuracy will be enhanced by detecting MMR defects in hitherto unsolved patients. The data generated will help to calibrate a high-throughput NGS-based mRNA-analysis and optimize prediction programs.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858900

RESUMO

Background: Recent epidemiological evidence shows that colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to occur in carriers of pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variants despite frequent colonoscopy surveillance in expert centres. This observation conflicts with the paradigm that removal of all visible polyps should prevent the vast majority of CRC in path_MMR carriers, provided the screening interval is sufficiently short and colonoscopic practice is optimal. Methods: To inform the debate, we examined, in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), whether the time since last colonoscopy was associated with the pathological stage at which CRC was diagnosed during prospective surveillance. Path_MMR carriers were recruited for prospective surveillance by colonoscopy. Only variants scored by the InSiGHT Variant Interpretation Committee as class 4 and 5 (clinically actionable) were included. CRCs detected at the first planned colonoscopy, or within one year of this, were excluded as prevalent cancers. Results: Stage at diagnosis and interval between last prospective surveillance colonoscopy and diagnosis were available for 209 patients with 218 CRCs, including 162 path_MLH1, 45 path_MSH2, 10 path_MSH6 and 1 path_PMS2 carriers. The numbers of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years since last colonoscopy were 36, 93, 56 and 33, respectively. Among these, 16.7, 19.4, 9.9 and 15.1% were stage III-IV, respectively (p = 0.34). The cancers detected more than 2.5 years after the last colonoscopy were not more advanced than those diagnosed earlier (p = 0.14). Conclusions: The CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated, which is in conflict with the accelerated adenoma-carcinoma paradigm. We have previously reported that more frequent colonoscopy is not associated with lower incidence of CRC in path_MMR carriers as was expected. In contrast, point estimates showed a higher incidence with shorter intervals between examinations, a situation that may parallel to over-diagnosis in breast cancer screening. Our findings raise the possibility that some CRCs in path_MMR carriers may spontaneously disappear: the host immune response may not only remove CRC precursor lesions in path_MMR carriers, but may remove infiltrating cancers as well. If confirmed, our suggested interpretation will have a bearing on surveillance policy for path_MMR carriers.

8.
Gastroenterology ; 155(5): 1400-1409.e2, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with Lynch syndrome are at high risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Regular colonoscopic surveillance is recommended, but there is no international consensus on the appropriate interval. We investigated whether shorter intervals are associated with lower CRC incidence and detection at earlier stages by comparing the surveillance policies in Germany, which evaluates patients by colonoscopy annually, in the Netherlands (patients evaluated at 1-2-year intervals), and Finland (patients evaluated at 2-3-year intervals). METHODS: We collected data from 16,327 colonoscopic examinations (conducted from 1984 through 2015) of 2747 patients with Lynch syndrome (pathogenic variants in the MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 genes) from the German HNPCC Consortium, the Dutch Lynch Syndrome Registry, and the Finnish Lynch Syndrome Registry. Our analysis included 23,309 person-years of cumulative observation time. Time from the index colonoscopy to incident CRC or adenoma was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method; groups were compared using the log-rank test. We performed multivariable Cox regression analyses to identify factors associated with CRC risk (diagnosis of CRC before the index colonoscopy, sex, mutation, age, and presence of adenoma at the index colonoscopy). RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative CRC incidence ranged from 4.1% to 18.4% in patients with low- and high-risk profiles, respectively, and varied with age, sex, mutation, and prior detection of CRC or adenoma. Observed colonoscopy intervals were largely in accordance with the country-specific recommendations. We found no significant differences in cumulative CRC incidence or CRC stage at detection among countries. There was no significant association between CRC stage and time since last colonoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find a significant reduction in CRC incidence or stage of detection in Germany (annual colonoscopic surveillance) than in countries with longer surveillance intervals (the Netherlands, with 1-2-year intervals, and Finland, with 2-3-year intervals). Overall, we did not find a significant association of the interval with CRC risk, although age, sex, mutation, and prior neoplasia were used to individually modify colonoscopy intervals. Studies are needed to develop and validate risk-adapted surveillance strategies and to identify patients who benefit from shorter surveillance intervals.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
9.
Int J Cancer ; 143(11): 2800-2813, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987844

RESUMO

In many families with suspected Lynch syndrome (LS), no germline mutation in the causative mismatch repair (MMR) genes is detected during routine diagnostics. To identify novel causative genes for LS, the present study investigated 77 unrelated, mutation-negative patients with clinically suspected LS and a loss of MSH2 in tumor tissue. An analysis for genomic copy number variants (CNV) was performed, with subsequent next generation sequencing (NGS) of selected candidate genes in a subgroup of the cohort. Genomic DNA was genotyped using Illumina's HumanOmniExpress Bead Array. After quality control and filtering, 25 deletions and 16 duplications encompassing 73 genes were identified in 28 patients. No recurrent CNV was detected, and none of the CNVs affected the regulatory regions of MSH2. A total of 49 candidate genes from genomic regions implicated by the present CNV analysis and 30 known or assumed risk genes for colorectal cancer (CRC) were then sequenced in a subset of 38 patients using a customized NGS gene panel and Sanger sequencing. Single nucleotide variants were identified in 14 candidate genes from the CNV analysis. The most promising of these candidate genes were: (i) PRKCA, PRKDC, and MCM4, as a functional relation to MSH2 is predicted by network analysis, and (ii) CSMD1, as this is commonly mutated in CRC. Furthermore, six patients harbored POLE variants outside the exonuclease domain, suggesting that these might be implicated in hereditary CRC. Analyses in larger cohorts of suspected LS patients recruited via international collaborations are warranted to verify the present findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
10.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 26, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic mechanisms for families who meet the clinical criteria for Lynch syndrome (LS) but do not carry pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes are still undetermined. We aimed to study the potential contribution of genes other than MMR genes to the biological and clinical characteristics of Norwegian families fulfilling Amsterdam (AMS) criteria or revised Bethesda guidelines. METHODS: The Hereditary Cancer Biobank of the Norwegian Radium Hospital was interrogated to identify individuals with a high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) for whom no pathogenic variants in MMR genes had been found in routine diagnostic DNA sequencing. Forty-four cancer susceptibility genes were selected and analyzed by using our in-house designed TruSeq amplicon-based assay for targeted sequencing. RNA splicing- and protein-dedicated in silico analyses were performed for all variants of unknown significance (VUS). Variants predicted as likely to affect splicing were experimentally analyzed by resorting to minigene assays. RESULTS: We identified a patient who met the revised Bethesda guidelines and carried a likely pathogenic variant in CHEK2 (c.470 T > C, p.I157T). In addition, 25 unique VUS were identified in 18 individuals, of which 2 exonic variants (MAP3K1 c.764A > G and NOTCH3 c.5854G >A) were analyzed in the minigene splicing assay and found not to have an effect on RNA splicing. CONCLUSIONS: Among high-risk CRC patients that fulfill the AMS criteria or revised Bethesda guidelines, targeted gene sequencing identified likely pathogenic variant and VUS in other genes than the MMR genes (CHEK2, NOTCH3 and MAP3K1). Our study suggests that the analysis of genes currently excluded from routine molecular diagnostic screens may confer cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Éxons , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/genética , Masculino , Noruega , Processamento de RNA , Receptor Notch3/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
J Med Genet ; 55(4): 240-248, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29472279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline defects in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 predisposing for Lynch syndrome (LS) are mainly based on sequence changes, whereas a constitutional epimutation of MLH1(CEM) is exceptionally rare. This abnormal MLH1 promoter methylation is not hereditary when arising de novo, whereas a stably heritable and variant-induced CEM was described for one single allele. We searched for MLH1 promoter variants causing a germline or somatic methylation induction or transcriptional repression. METHODS: We analysed the MLH1 promoter sequence in five different patient groups with colorectal cancer (CRC) (n=480) composed of patients with i) CEM (n=16), ii) unsolved loss of MLH1 expression in CRC (n=37), iii) CpG-island methylator-phenotype CRC (n=102), iv) patients with LS (n=83) and v) MLH1-proficient CRC (n=242) as controls. 1150 patients with non-LS tumours also served as controls to correctly judge the results. RESULTS: We detected 10 rare MLH1 promoter variants. One novel, complex MLH1 variant c.-63_-58delins18 is present in a patient with CRC with CEM and his sister, both showing a complete allele-specific promoter methylation and transcriptional silencing. The other nine promoter variants detected in 17 individuals were not associated with methylation. For four of these, a normal, biallelic MLH1 expression was found in the patients' cDNA. CONCLUSION: We report the second promoter variant stably inducing a hereditary CEM. Concerning the classification of promoter variants, we discuss contradictory results from the literature for two variants, describe classification discrepancies between existing rules for five variants, suggest the (re-)classification of five promoter variants to (likely) benign and regard four variants as functionally unclear.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29371908

RESUMO

Background: In kindreds carrying path_BRCA1/2 variants, some women in these families will develop cancer despite testing negative for the family's pathogenic variant. These families may have additional genetic variants, which not only may increase the susceptibility of the families' path_BRCA1/2, but also be capable of causing cancer in the absence of the path_BRCA1/2 variants. We aimed to identify novel genetic variants in prospectively detected breast cancer (BC) or gynecological cancer cases tested negative for their families' pathogenic BRCA1/2 variant (path_BRCA1 or path_BRCA2). Methods: Women with BC or gynecological cancer who had tested negative for path_BRCA1 or path_BRCA2 variants were included. Forty-four cancer susceptibility genes were screened for genetic variation through a targeted amplicon-based sequencing assay. Protein- and RNA splicing-dedicated in silico analyses were performed for all variants of unknown significance (VUS). Variants predicted as the ones most likely affecting pre-mRNA splicing were experimentally analyzed in a minigene assay. Results: We identified 48 women who were tested negative for their family's path_BRCA1 (n = 13) or path_BRCA2 (n = 35) variants. Pathogenic variants in the ATM, BRCA2, MSH6 and MUTYH genes were found in 10% (5/48) of the cases, of whom 15% (2/13) were from path_BRCA1 and 9% (3/35) from path_BRCA2 families. Out of the 26 unique VUS, 3 (12%) were predicted to affect RNA splicing (APC c.721G > A, MAP3K1 c.764A > G and MSH2 c.815C > T). However, by using a minigene, assay we here show that APC c.721G > A does not cause a splicing defect, similarly to what has been recently reported for the MAP3K1 c.764A > G. The MSH2 c.815C > T was previously described as causing partial exon skipping and it was identified in this work together with the path_BRCA2 c.9382C > T (p.R3128X). Conclusion: All women in breast or breast/ovarian cancer kindreds would benefit from being offered genetic testing irrespective of which causative genetic variants have been demonstrated in their relatives.

13.
Fam Cancer ; 17(1): 141-153, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28608266

RESUMO

To study the potential contribution of genes other than BRCA1/2, PTEN, and TP53 to the biological and clinical characteristics of multiple early-onset cancers in Norwegian families, including early-onset breast cancer, Cowden-like and Li-Fraumeni-like syndromes (BC, CSL and LFL, respectively). The Hereditary Cancer Biobank from the Norwegian Radium Hospital was used to identify early-onset BC, CSL or LFL for whom no pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2, PTEN, or TP53 had been found in routine diagnostic DNA sequencing. Forty-four cancer susceptibility genes were selected and analyzed by our in-house designed TruSeq amplicon-based assay for targeted sequencing. Protein- and RNA splicing-dedicated in silico analyses were performed for all variants of unknown significance (VUS). Variants predicted as the more likely to affect splicing were experimentally analyzed by minigene assay. We identified a CSL individual carrying a variant in CHEK2 (c.319+2T>A, IVS2), here considered as likely pathogenic. Out of the five VUS (BRCA2, CDH1, CHEK2, MAP3K1, NOTCH3) tested in the minigene splicing assay, only NOTCH3 c.14090C>T (p.Ser497Leu) showed a significant effect on RNA splicing, notably by inducing partial skipping of exon 9. Among 13 early-onset BC, CSL and LFL patients, gene panel sequencing identified a potentially pathogenic variant in CHEK2 that affects a canonical RNA splicing signal. Our study provides new information on genetic loci that may affect the risk of developing cancer in these patients and their families, demonstrating that genes presently not routinely tested in molecular diagnostic settings may be important for capturing cancer predisposition in these families.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Humanos , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Noruega , Processamento de RNA/genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
Gut ; 67(7): 1306-1316, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with path_MMR gene variants (Lynch syndrome (LS)) now survive both their first and subsequent cancers, resulting in a growing number of older patients with LS for whom limited information exists with respect to cancer risk and survival. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This observational, international, multicentre study aimed to determine prospectively observed incidences of cancers and survival in path_MMR carriers up to 75 years of age. RESULTS: 3119 patients were followed for a total of 24 475 years. Cumulative incidences at 75 years (risks) for colorectal cancer were 46%, 43% and 15% in path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 carriers; for endometrial cancer 43%, 57% and 46%; for ovarian cancer 10%, 17% and 13%; for upper gastrointestinal (gastric, duodenal, bile duct or pancreatic) cancers 21%, 10% and 7%; for urinary tract cancers 8%, 25% and 11%; for prostate cancer 17%, 32% and 18%; and for brain tumours 1%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Ovarian cancer occurred mainly premenopausally. By contrast, upper gastrointestinal, urinary tract and prostate cancers occurred predominantly at older ages. Overall 5-year survival for prostate cancer was 100%, urinary bladder 93%, ureter 85%, duodenum 67%, stomach 61%, bile duct 29%, brain 22% and pancreas 0%. Path_PMS2 carriers had lower risk for cancer. CONCLUSION: Carriers of different path_MMR variants exhibit distinct patterns of cancer risk and survival as they age. Risk estimates for counselling and planning of surveillance and treatment should be tailored to each patient's age, gender and path_MMR variant. We have updated our open-access website www.lscarisk.org to facilitate this.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy. METHODS: The cohort included Finnish carriers enrolled in 3-yearly colonoscopy (n = 505; 4625 observation years) and carriers from other countries enrolled in colonoscopy 2-yearly or more frequently (n = 439; 3299 observation years). We examined whether the longer interval between colonoscopies in Finland could explain the high incidence of CRC and whether disease expression correlated with differences in population CRC incidence. RESULTS: Cumulative CRC incidences in carriers of path_MLH1 at 70-years of age were 41% for males and 36% for females in the Finnish series and 58% and 55% in the non-Finnish series, respectively (p > 0.05). Mean time from last colonoscopy to CRC was 32.7 months in the Finnish compared to 31.0 months in the non-Finnish (p > 0.05) and was therefore unaffected by the recommended colonoscopy interval. Differences in population incidence of CRC could not explain the lower point estimates for CRC in the Finnish series. Ten-year overall survival after CRC was similar for the Finnish and non-Finnish series (88% and 91%, respectively; p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that the high incidence of CRC in path_MLH1 carriers was caused by a higher incidence in the Finnish series was not valid. We discuss whether the results were influenced by methodological shortcomings in our study or whether the assumption that a shorter interval between colonoscopies leads to a lower CRC incidence may be wrong. This second possibility is intriguing, because it suggests the dogma that CRC in path_MLH1 carriers develops from polyps that can be detected at colonoscopy and removed to prevent CRC may be erroneous. In view of the excellent 10-year overall survival in the Finnish and non-Finnish series we remain strong advocates of current surveillance practices for those with LS pending studies that will inform new recommendations on the best surveillance interval.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 141(7): 1365-1380, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577310

RESUMO

In a proportion of patients presenting mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient tumors, no germline MMR mutations are identified, the so-called Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). Recently, MMR-deficient tumors have been associated with germline mutations in POLE and MUTYH or double somatic MMR events. Our aim was to elucidate the molecular basis of MSH2-deficient LS-suspected cases using a comprehensive analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated genes at germline and somatic level. Fifty-eight probands harboring MSH2-deficient tumors were included. Germline mutational analysis of MSH2 (including EPCAM deletions) and MSH6 was performed. Pathogenicity of MSH2 variants was assessed by RNA analysis and multifactorial likelihood calculations. MSH2 cDNA and methylation of MSH2 and MSH6 promoters were studied. Matched blood and tumor DNA were analyzed using a customized next generation sequencing panel. Thirty-five individuals were carriers of pathogenic or probably pathogenic variants in MSH2 and EPCAM. Five patients harbored 4 different MSH2 variants of unknown significance (VUS) and one had 2 novel MSH6 promoter VUS. Pathogenicity assessment allowed the reclassification of the 4 MSH2 VUS and 6 probably pathogenic variants as pathogenic mutations, enabling a total of 40 LS diagnostics. Predicted pathogenic germline variants in BUB1, SETD2, FAN1 and MUTYH were identified in 5 cases. Three patients had double somatic hits in MSH2 or MSH6, and another 2 had somatic alterations in other MMR genes and/or proofreading polymerases. In conclusion, our comprehensive strategy combining germline and somatic mutational status of CRC-associated genes by means of a subexome panel allows the elucidation of up to 86% of MSH2-deficient suspected LS tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/deficiência , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Metilação de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
17.
Fam Cancer ; 16(4): 491-500, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28528517

RESUMO

Lynch Syndrome (LS) is the most common dominantly inherited colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition and is caused by a heterozygous germline defect in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2. High microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and loss of MMR protein expression in tumours reflecting a defective MMR are indicators for LS, as well as a positive family history of early onset CRC. MSH2 and MSH6 form a major functional heterodimer, and MSH3 is an alternative binding partner for MSH2. So far, the role of germline MSH3 variants remains unclear, as to our knowledge heterozygous truncating variants are not regarded causative for LS, but were detected in patients with CRC, and recently biallelic MSH3 defects have been identified in two patients with adenomatous polyposis. By gene screening we investigated the role of MSH3 in 11 LS patients with truncating MSH6 germline variants and an unexplained MSH2 protein loss in their corresponding MSI-H tumours. We report the first two LS patients harbouring heterozygous germline variants c.1035del and c.2732T>G in MSH3 coincidentally with truncating variants in MSH6. In the patient with truncating germline variants in MSH3 and MSH6, two additional somatic second hits in both genes abrogate all binding partners for the MSH2 protein which might subsequently be degraded. The clinical relevance of MSH3 germline variants is currently under re-evaluation, and heterozygous MSH3 defects alone do not seem to induce a LS phenotype, but might aggravate the MSH6 phenotype in affected family members.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteína 3 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/metabolismo , Proteína 3 Homóloga a MutS/metabolismo , Linhagem
18.
Gut ; 66(3): 464-472, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Estimates of cancer risk and the effects of surveillance in Lynch syndrome have been subject to bias, partly through reliance on retrospective studies. We sought to establish more robust estimates in patients undergoing prospective cancer surveillance. DESIGN: We undertook a multicentre study of patients carrying Lynch syndrome-associated mutations affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Standardised information on surveillance, cancers and outcomes were collated in an Oracle relational database and analysed by age, sex and mutated gene. RESULTS: 1942 mutation carriers without previous cancer had follow-up including colonoscopic surveillance for 13 782 observation years. 314 patients developed cancer, mostly colorectal (n=151), endometrial (n=72) and ovarian (n=19). Cancers were detected from 25 years onwards in MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers, and from about 40 years in MSH6 and PMS2 carriers. Among first cancer detected in each patient the colorectal cancer cumulative incidences at 70 years by gene were 46%, 35%, 20% and 10% for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 mutation carriers, respectively. The equivalent cumulative incidences for endometrial cancer were 34%, 51%, 49% and 24%; and for ovarian cancer 11%, 15%, 0% and 0%. Ten-year crude survival was 87% after any cancer, 91% if the first cancer was colorectal, 98% if endometrial and 89% if ovarian. CONCLUSIONS: The four Lynch syndrome-associated genes had different penetrance and expression. Colorectal cancer occurred frequently despite colonoscopic surveillance but resulted in few deaths. Using our data, a website has been established at http://LScarisk.org enabling calculation of cumulative cancer risks as an aid to genetic counselling in Lynch syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
19.
Gut ; 66(9): 1657-1664, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27261338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Today most patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) survive their first cancer. There is limited information on the incidences and outcome of subsequent cancers. The present study addresses three questions: (i) what is the cumulative incidence of a subsequent cancer; (ii) in which organs do subsequent cancers occur; and (iii) what is the survival following these cancers? DESIGN: Information was collated on prospectively organised surveillance and prospectively observed outcomes in patients with LS who had cancer prior to inclusion and analysed by age, gender and genetic variants. RESULTS: 1273 patients with LS from 10 countries were followed up for 7753 observation years. 318 patients (25.7%) developed 341 first subsequent cancers, including colorectal (n=147, 43%), upper GI, pancreas or bile duct (n=37, 11%) and urinary tract (n=32, 10%). The cumulative incidences for any subsequent cancer from age 40 to age 70 years were 73% for pathogenic MLH1 (path_MLH1), 76% for path_MSH2 carriers and 52% for path_MSH6 carriers, and for colorectal cancer (CRC) the cumulative incidences were 46%, 48% and 23%, respectively. Crude survival after any subsequent cancer was 82% (95% CI 76% to 87%) and 10-year crude survival after CRC was 91% (95% CI 83% to 95%). CONCLUSIONS: Relative incidence of subsequent cancer compared with incidence of first cancer was slightly but insignificantly higher than cancer incidence in patients with LS without previous cancer (range 0.94-1.49). The favourable survival after subsequent cancers validated continued follow-up to prevent death from cancer. The interactive website http://lscarisk.org was expanded to calculate the risks by gender, genetic variant and age for subsequent cancer for any patient with LS with previous cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Progressão da Doença , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Int J Cancer ; 137(2): 320-31, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25529843

RESUMO

In a number of families with colorectal adenomatous polyposis or suspected Lynch syndrome/HNPCC, no germline alteration in the APC, MUTYH, or mismatch repair (MMR) genes are found. Missense mutations in the polymerase genes POLE and POLD1 have recently been identified as rare cause of multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, a condition termed polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis (PPAP). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical relevance and phenotypic spectrum of polymerase germline mutations. Therefore, targeted sequencing of the polymerase genes POLD1, POLD2, POLD3, POLD4, POLE, POLE2, POLE3 and POLE4 was performed in 266 unrelated patients with polyposis or fulfilled Amsterdam criteria. The POLE mutation c.1270C>G;p.Leu424Val was detected in four unrelated patients. The mutation was present in 1.5% (4/266) of all patients, 4% (3/77) of all familial cases and 7% (2/30) of familial polyposis cases. The colorectal phenotype in 14 affected individuals ranged from typical adenomatous polyposis to a HNPCC phenotype, with high intrafamilial variability. Multiple colorectal carcinomas and duodenal adenomas were common, and one case of duodenal carcinoma was reported. Additionally, various extraintestinal lesions were evident. Nine further putative pathogenic variants were identified. The most promising was c.1306C>T;p.Pro436Ser in POLE. In conclusion, a PPAP was identified in a substantial number of polyposis and familial colorectal cancer patients. Screening for polymerase proofreading mutations should therefore be considered, particularly in unexplained familial cases. The present study broadens the phenotypic spectrum of PPAP to duodenal adenomas and carcinomas, and identified novel, potentially pathogenic variants in four polymerase genes.


Assuntos
Adenoma/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adenoma/enzimologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Neoplasias Colorretais/enzimologia , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Isoenzimas/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Fosfolipase D/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto Jovem
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