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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3097, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542413

RESUMO

We investigated the association between the loss-of-function mutation MC4R p.Ile269Asn and T2D risk in the Mexican population. We enrolled 6929 adults [3175 T2D cases and 3754 normal glucose tolerant (NGT) controls] and 994 NGT children in the study. Anthropometric data and T2D-related quantitative traits were studied in 994 NGT children and 3754 NGT adults. The MC4R p.Ile269Asn mutation was genotyped using TaqMan. The MC4R p.Ile269Asn mutation was associated with T2D [OR = 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-2.97, p = 0.00057] in Mexican adults. Additional adjustment for body-mass index (BMI) attenuated but did not remove the association (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.13-2.56, p = 0.011). The MC4R p.Ile269Asn mutation was associated with T2D (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.14-3.08, p = 0.013) in a subset of 1269 T2D cases and 1269 NGT controls matched for sex, age, and BMI. A mediation analysis estimated that BMI accounts for 22.7% of the association between MC4R p.Ile269Asn mutation and T2D risk (p = 4.55 × 10-6). An association was observed between the MC4R p.Ile269Asn mutation and BMI in NGT children and adults (children: beta = 3.731 ± 0.958, p = 0.0001; adults: beta = 2.269 ± 0.536, p = 2.3 × 10-5). In contrast, the mutation was not associated with T2D-related quantitative traits. We demonstrate that the MC4R p.Ile269Asn mutation predisposes to T2D via obesity-dependent and independent effects in the Mexican population.

2.
J Diabetes Complications ; 35(3): 107826, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423909

RESUMO

AIMS: Since angiotensinogen has a pivotal role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the analysis of polymorphisms of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene could help explain its potential involvement in hypertension and diabetic nephropathy (DN) pathogenesis. For that reason, we investigated 1) the association of AGT rs4762 with blood pressure (BP) and kidney function-related traits and 2) the interaction effect of AGT rs4762 with DN on BP and kidney function-related traits in 546 Mexican adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: We enrolled 546 unrelated Mexican patients with T2D (350 cases with DN and 196 controls without DN). AGT rs4762 was genotyped in all participants using TaqMan technology (effect allele: A). BP and kidney function-related traits, including serum urea and creatinine, urinary albumin, urine albumin to urine creatinine ratio (ACR), and glomerular filtration rate, were studied. DN was defined as having a previous diagnosis of T2D and an ACR ≥ 30 mg/g. The association between these parameters was investigated using logistic regression with adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: AGT rs4762 A allele was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure (N = 546, ß = 1.243 ± 0.918, p = 0.029). A significant interaction between DN and AGT rs4762 was also observed in relation to diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (N = 546, ß = 0.930 ± 0.433, p=0.032). A follow-up analysis of simple effects particularly revealed a positive association between AGT rs4762 A allele and DBP only in patients with diabetic nephropathy (N = 350, ß = 2.837 ±â€¯1.267, p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: Our results evidence that, although AGT rs4762 is not associated with DN, the AGT rs4762 A allele is positively associated with DBP in the Mexican population with DN.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroxyzine is indicated for the management of anxiety, skin and sleep disorders. In 2015, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) concluded that hydroxyzine was pro-arrhythmogenic and changes to the product information were implemented in Europe. This study aimed to evaluate their impact in Denmark, Scotland, England and the Netherlands. METHOD: Quarterly time series analyses measuring hydroxyzine initiation, discontinuation, and switching to other antihistamines, benzodiazepines and antidepressants in Denmark, England, Scotland and the Netherlands from 2009 to 2018. Data were analysed using interrupted time series regression. RESULTS: Hydroxyzine initiation in quarter one 2010 in Denmark, Scotland, England and the Netherlands per 100 000 was: 23.5, 91.5, 35.9 and 34.4 respectively. Regulatory action was associated with a significant: immediate fall in hydroxyzine initiation per 100 000 in England (-12.05, 95%CI -18.47 to -5.63) and Scotland (-19.01, 95%CI -26.99 to -11.02); change to a negative trend in hydroxyzine initiation per 100 000/quarter in England (-1.72, 95%CI -2.69 to -0.75) and Scotland (-2.38, 95%CI -3.32 to -1.44). Regulatory action was associated with a significant: immediate rise in hydroxyzine discontinuation per 100 000 in England (3850, 95%CI 440-7240). No consistent changes were observed in the Netherlands or Denmark. Regulatory action was associated with no switching to other antihistamines, benzodiazepines or antidepressants following hydroxyzine discontinuation in any country. CONCLUSION: The 2015 EMA regulatory action was associated with heterogeneous impact with reductions in hydroxyzine initiation varying by country. There was limited impact on discontinuation with no strong evidence suggesting unintended consequences of major switching to other antihistamines, benzodiazepines or antidepressants.

4.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(2): e98-e114, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been postulated to affect susceptibility to COVID-19. Observational studies so far have lacked rigorous ascertainment adjustment and international generalisability. We aimed to determine whether use of ACEIs or ARBs is associated with an increased susceptibility to COVID-19 in patients with hypertension. METHODS: In this international, open science, cohort analysis, we used electronic health records from Spain (Information Systems for Research in Primary Care [SIDIAP]) and the USA (Columbia University Irving Medical Center data warehouse [CUIMC] and Department of Veterans Affairs Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership [VA-OMOP]) to identify patients aged 18 years or older with at least one prescription for ACEIs and ARBs (target cohort) or calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics (THZs; comparator cohort) between Nov 1, 2019, and Jan 31, 2020. Users were defined separately as receiving either monotherapy with these four drug classes, or monotherapy or combination therapy (combination use) with other antihypertensive medications. We assessed four outcomes: COVID-19 diagnosis; hospital admission with COVID-19; hospital admission with pneumonia; and hospital admission with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, or sepsis. We built large-scale propensity score methods derived through a data-driven approach and negative control experiments across ten pairwise comparisons, with results meta-analysed to generate 1280 study effects. For each study effect, we did negative control outcome experiments using a possible 123 controls identified through a data-rich algorithm. This process used a set of predefined baseline patient characteristics to provide the most accurate prediction of treatment and balance among patient cohorts across characteristics. The study is registered with the EU Post-Authorisation Studies register, EUPAS35296. FINDINGS: Among 1 355 349 antihypertensive users (363 785 ACEI or ARB monotherapy users, 248 915 CCB or THZ monotherapy users, 711 799 ACEI or ARB combination users, and 473 076 CCB or THZ combination users) included in analyses, no association was observed between COVID-19 diagnosis and exposure to ACEI or ARB monotherapy versus CCB or THZ monotherapy (calibrated hazard ratio [HR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·84-1·14) or combination use exposure (1·01, 0·90-1·15). ACEIs alone similarly showed no relative risk difference when compared with CCB or THZ monotherapy (HR 0·91, 95% CI 0·68-1·21; with heterogeneity of >40%) or combination use (0·95, 0·83-1·07). Directly comparing ACEIs with ARBs demonstrated a moderately lower risk with ACEIs, which was significant with combination use (HR 0·88, 95% CI 0·79-0·99) and non-significant for monotherapy (0·85, 0·69-1·05). We observed no significant difference between drug classes for risk of hospital admission with COVID-19, hospital admission with pneumonia, or hospital admission with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, or sepsis across all comparisons. INTERPRETATION: No clinically significant increased risk of COVID-19 diagnosis or hospital admission-related outcomes associated with ACEI or ARB use was observed, suggesting users should not discontinue or change their treatment to decrease their risk of COVID-19. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Janssen Research & Development, IQVIA, South Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare Republic, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, and European Health Data and Evidence Network.

5.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269355

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with autoimmune diseases were advised to shield to avoid COVID-19, but information on their prognosis is lacking. We characterised 30-day outcomes and mortality after hospitalisation with COVID-19 among patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, and compared outcomes after hospital admissions among similar patients with seasonal influenza. Design: Multinational network cohort study. Setting: Electronic health records data from Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) (NYC, United States [US]), Optum [US], Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) (US), Information System for Research in Primary Care-Hospitalisation Linked Data (SIDIAP-H) (Spain), and claims data from IQVIA Open Claims (US) and Health Insurance and Review Assessment (HIRA) (South Korea). Participants: All patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, diagnosed and/or hospitalised between January and June 2020 with COVID-19, and similar patients hospitalised with influenza in 2017-2018 were included. Main outcome measures: 30-day complications during hospitalisation and death. Results: We studied 133,589 patients diagnosed and 48,418 hospitalised with COVID-19 with prevalent autoimmune diseases. The majority of participants were female (60.5% to 65.9%) and aged ≥50 years. The most prevalent autoimmune conditions were psoriasis (3.5 to 32.5%), rheumatoid arthritis (3.9 to 18.9%), and vasculitis (3.3 to 17.6%). Amongst hospitalised patients, Type 1 diabetes was the most common autoimmune condition (4.8% to 7.5%) in US databases, rheumatoid arthritis in HIRA (18.9%), and psoriasis in SIDIAP-H (26.4%).Compared to 70,660 hospitalised with influenza, those admitted with COVID-19 had more respiratory complications including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and higher 30-day mortality (2.2% to 4.3% versus 6.3% to 24.6%). Conclusions: Patients with autoimmune diseases had high rates of respiratory complications and 30-day mortality following a hospitalization with COVID-19. Compared to influenza, COVID-19 is a more severe disease, leading to more complications and higher mortality. Future studies should investigate predictors of poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients with autoimmune diseases. What is already known about this topic: Patients with autoimmune conditions may be at increased risk of COVID-19 infection andcomplications.There is a paucity of evidence characterising the outcomes of hospitalised COVID-19 patients with prevalent autoimmune conditions. What this study adds: Most people with autoimmune diseases who required hospitalisation for COVID-19 were women, aged 50 years or older, and had substantial previous comorbidities.Patients who were hospitalised with COVID-19 and had prevalent autoimmune diseases had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart disease, and Type 2 diabetes as compared to those with prevalent autoimmune diseases who were diagnosed with COVID-19.A variable proportion of 6% to 25% across data sources died within one month of hospitalisation with COVID-19 and prevalent autoimmune diseases.For people with autoimmune diseases, COVID-19 hospitalisation was associated with worse outcomes and 30-day mortality compared to admission with influenza in the 2017-2018 season.

6.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269356

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the proportion of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who undergo dialysis, tracheostomy, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Design: A network cohort study. Setting: Six databases from the United States containing routinely-collected patient data: HealthVerity, Premier, IQVIA Open Claims, Optum EHR, Optum SES, and VA-OMOP. Patients: Patients hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis or a positive test result for COVID-19. Interventions: Dialysis, tracheostomy, and ECMO. Measurements and Main Results: 240,392 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were included (22,887 from HealthVerity, 139,971 from IQVIA Open Claims, 29,061 from Optum EHR, 4,336 from OPTUM SES, 36,019 from Premier, and 8,118 from VA-OMOP). Across the six databases, 9,703 (4.04% [95% CI: 3.96% to 4.11%]) patients received dialysis, 1,681 (0.70% [0.67% to 0.73%]) had a tracheostomy, and 398 (0.17% [95% CI: 0.15% to 0.18%]) patients underwent ECMO over the 30 days following hospitalization. Use of ECMO was generally concentrated among patients who were younger, male, and with fewer comorbidities except for obesity. Tracheostomy was used for a similar proportion of patients regardless of age, sex, or comorbidity. While dialysis was used for a similar proportion among younger and older patients, it was more frequent among male patients and among those with chronic kidney disease. Conclusion: Use of dialysis among those hospitalized with COVID-19 is high at around 4%. Although less than one percent of patients undergo tracheostomy and ECMO, the absolute numbers of patients who have undergone these interventions is substantial and can be expected to continue grow given the continuing spread of the COVID-19.

7.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr ; 49(4): 305-310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328026

RESUMO

The article aims to describe the Mental Health Recovery Model, the Tidal Model in Mental Health Recovery and their relevance to implementation within the practice of Colombian nursing. Some concepts about mental health recovery and the theoretical model proposed by Phil Barker are presented in the text, analysing these with the challenges of the nursing professional to improve mental health care, taking into account the current context of care practice. The principles proposed with the Recovery model help to focus care on the person and not on the symptomatology of the illness, understanding that the person has different dimensions which make it possible for him/her to explore his/her own path to recovery. We can conclude that, through the theory, we can develop interventions and nursing activities that contribute to improving the quality of life of people who have been diagnosed with a mental illness, modifying the traditional healthcare models.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Concern has been raised in the rheumatology community regarding recent regulatory warnings that HCQ used in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic could cause acute psychiatric events. We aimed to study whether there is risk of incident depression, suicidal ideation or psychosis associated with HCQ as used for RA. METHODS: We performed a new-user cohort study using claims and electronic medical records from 10 sources and 3 countries (Germany, UK and USA). RA patients ≥18 years of age and initiating HCQ were compared with those initiating SSZ (active comparator) and followed up in the short (30 days) and long term (on treatment). Study outcomes included depression, suicide/suicidal ideation and hospitalization for psychosis. Propensity score stratification and calibration using negative control outcomes were used to address confounding. Cox models were fitted to estimate database-specific calibrated hazard ratios (HRs), with estimates pooled where I2 <40%. RESULTS: A total of 918 144 and 290 383 users of HCQ and SSZ, respectively, were included. No consistent risk of psychiatric events was observed with short-term HCQ (compared with SSZ) use, with meta-analytic HRs of 0.96 (95% CI 0.79, 1.16) for depression, 0.94 (95% CI 0.49, 1.77) for suicide/suicidal ideation and 1.03 (95% CI 0.66, 1.60) for psychosis. No consistent long-term risk was seen, with meta-analytic HRs of 0.94 (95% CI 0.71, 1.26) for depression, 0.77 (95% CI 0.56, 1.07) for suicide/suicidal ideation and 0.99 (95% CI 0.72, 1.35) for psychosis. CONCLUSION: HCQ as used to treat RA does not appear to increase the risk of depression, suicide/suicidal ideation or psychosis compared with SSZ. No effects were seen in the short or long term. Use at a higher dose or for different indications needs further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with EU PAS (reference no. EUPAS34497; http://www.encepp.eu/encepp/viewResource.htm? id=34498). The full study protocol and analysis source code can be found at https://github.com/ohdsi-studies/Covid19EstimationHydroxychloroquine2.

9.
Pediatr Obes ; : e12748, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of gut microbiota with obesity and its cardio-metabolic complications in paediatric populations is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of obesity and cardio-metabolic traits with gut microbiota on 167 and 163 children with normal weight and obesity from Mexico City and Oaxaca, Mexico. METHODS: Anthropometric and biochemical traits were measured. The microbial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene v3-v4 region. RESULTS: The gut microbial community structure was associated with obesity and fasting plasma insulin (FPI) in Mexico City (PObesity = 0.012, PFPI = 0.0003) and Oaxaca (PObesity = 0.034, PFPI = 0.016), and with triglycerides (TG) in Oaxaca (P = .0002). The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was positively associated with TG in Oaxaca (P = .003). Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla were positively and negatively associated with obesity (Mexico City: PFirmicutes = 0.013, PBacteroidetes = 0.009) and TG (Oaxaca: PFirmicutes = 0.002, PBacteroidetes = 0.004). In Oaxaca, Verrucomicrobia was negatively associated with obesity (P = .004). In Mexico City, the bacterial genus Fusicatenibacter, Romboutsia, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminiclostridium, Blautia, Clostridium, Anaerostipes and Intestinibacter were associated with obesity and FPI, while in Oaxaca, Bacteroides, Alistipes and Clostridium were associated with TG. CONCLUSION: The gut microbial community structure in children is associated with obesity and FPI in Mexico City, and with obesity, FPI and TG in Oaxaca.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197106

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of including a medicine in the list of medicinal products subject to additional monitoring (AM) on the reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the european economic area (EEA). METHODS: Interrupted time series using the monthly number of EEA ADR reports in EudraVigilance during 12 months before and after the addition to AM list. The main outcome was the change (%) in reporting of ADRs with step change as the a priori impact model. Further time series analysis was performed using Joinpoint Regression. RESULTS: The analysis included 11 active substances. No significant immediate (step change) increase of reporting was identified for any product at time of addition to AM list. We identified a significant gradual increase of ADR reporting after addition to AM list (slope change) for two out of five new products-boceprevir (10% per month, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3%-18%) and denosumab-Xgeva (13% per month, 95% CI 4%-22%). No change was identified for Prolia, another denosumab-containing product not subject to AM. No significant increase was identified for any product included in the AM list due to the requirement to conduct a PASS. Conversely, a gradual decrease in reporting was identified for natalizumab (-5% per month; 95% CI -10% to -1%), rivaroxaban (-5%; -8 to -3%), and varenicline (-16%; -21 to -10%). The results were corroborated by the Joinpoint analyses, which yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: We identified limited evidence that reporting of ADRs increased modestly and gradually for some new products and not for products with PASS requirement.

11.
medRxiv ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140068

RESUMO

Early identification of symptoms and comorbidities most predictive of COVID-19 is critical to identify infection, guide policies to effectively contain the pandemic, and improve health systems' response. Here, we characterised socio-demographics and comorbidity in 3,316,107persons tested and 219,072 persons tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 since January 2020, and their key health outcomes in the month following the first positive test. Routine care data from primary care electronic health records (EHR) from Spain, hospital EHR from the United States (US), and claims data from South Korea and the US were used. The majority of study participants were women aged 18-65 years old. Positive/tested ratio varied greatly geographically (2.2:100 to 31.2:100) and over time (from 50:100 in February-April to 6.8:100 in May-June). Fever, cough and dyspnoea were the most common symptoms at presentation. Between 4%-38% required admission and 1-10.5% died within a month from their first positive test. Observed disparity in testing practices led to variable baseline characteristics and outcomes, both nationally (US) and internationally. Our findings highlight the importance of large scale characterization of COVID-19 international cohorts to inform planning and resource allocation including testing as countries face a second wave.

12.
medRxiv ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140074

RESUMO

Objectives To characterize the demographics, comorbidities, symptoms, in-hospital treatments, and health outcomes among children/adolescents diagnosed or hospitalized with COVID-19. Secondly, to describe health outcomes amongst children/adolescents diagnosed with previous seasonal influenza. Design International network cohort. Setting Real-world data from European primary care records (France/Germany/Spain), South Korean claims and US claims and hospital databases. Participants Diagnosed and/or hospitalized children/adolescents with COVID-19 at age <18 between January and June 2020; diagnosed with influenza in 2017-2018. Main outcome measures Baseline demographics and comorbidities, symptoms, 30-day in-hospital treatments and outcomes including hospitalization, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multi-system inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), and death. Results A total of 55,270 children/adolescents diagnosed and 3,693 hospitalized with COVID-19 and 1,952,693 diagnosed with influenza were studied. Comorbidities including neurodevelopmental disorders, heart disease, and cancer were all more common among those hospitalized vs diagnosed with COVID-19. The most common COVID-19 symptom was fever. Dyspnea, bronchiolitis, anosmia and gastrointestinal symptoms were more common in COVID-19 than influenza. In-hospital treatments for COVID-19 included repurposed medications (<10%), and adjunctive therapies: systemic corticosteroids (6.8% to 37.6%), famotidine (9.0% to 28.1%), and antithrombotics such as aspirin (2.0% to 21.4%), heparin (2.2% to 18.1%), and enoxaparin (2.8% to 14.8%). Hospitalization was observed in 0.3% to 1.3% of the COVID-19 diagnosed cohort, with undetectable (N<5 per database) 30-day fatality. Thirty-day outcomes including pneumonia, ARDS, and MIS-C were more frequent in COVID-19 than influenza. Conclusions Despite negligible fatality, complications including pneumonia, ARDS and MIS-C were more frequent in children/adolescents with COVID-19 than with influenza. Dyspnea, anosmia and gastrointestinal symptoms could help differential diagnosis. A wide range of medications were used for the inpatient management of pediatric COVID-19.

13.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252143

RESUMO

When testing new products, potential new products, or their impurities for genotoxicity in the Ames test, the quantity available for testing can be a limiting factor. This is the case for a dye repository of around 98,000 substances the Max Weaver Dye Library (MWDL). Mutagenicity data on dyes in the literature, although vast, in several cases is not reliable, compromising the performance of the in silico models. In this report, we propose a strategy for the generation of high-quality mutagenicity data for dyes using a minimum amount of sample. We evaluated 15 dyes from different chemical classes selected from 150 representative dyes of the MWDL. The purity and molecular confirmation of each dye were determined, and the microplate agar protocol (MPA) was used. Dyes were tested at the limit of solubility in single and concentration-response experiments using seven strains without and with metabolic activation except for anthraquinone dyes which were tested with eight strains. Six dyes were mutagenic. The most sensitive was YG1041, followed by TA97a > TA98 > TA100 = TA1538 > TA102. YG7108 as well as TA1537 did not detect any mutagenic response. We concluded that the MPA was successful in identifying the mutagenicity of dyes using less than 12.5 mg of sample. We propose that dyes should be tested in a tiered approach using YG1041 followed by TA97a, TA98, and TA100 in concentration-response experiments. This work provides additional information on the dye mutagenicity database available in the literature.

14.
Drug Saf ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125664

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the impact of regulatory actions for medicines and enablers/barriers for positive health outcomes is fundamental to effective risk minimisation measures (RMM). Therefore, the Impact Strategy of the European Union (EU) Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) includes engagement with patient communities and healthcare professional (HCP) bodies regarding RMM. However, there is uncertainty on how best to obtain stakeholder input. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to (1) analyse stakeholder input at a public hearing and dedicated meeting for the 2017-18 EU procedure on valproate teratogenicity and (2) draw proposals for enhancing PRAC engagement. METHODS: For the content analysis, the novel 'Analysing Stakeholder Safety Engagement Tool' (ASSET) was developed with 21 themes in six domains (appropriateness, access, audience, compatibility, integrability, time), based on implementation theories. RESULTS: Stakeholders provided a wide range of RMM proposals, some beyond the regulatory remit. Patients and most HCPs converged remarkably, but there was some divergence among HCPs on the informed choice objective, the therapeutic place of valproate, the RMM appropriateness, and RMM delivery to HCPs and patients. Ethical aspects emerged as relevant for regulatory decision making, and crucial input gaps were identified from an RMM implementation perspective. Nine pilotable proposals for PRAC were made regarding: (A) Agreeing on appropriate RMM with stakeholders and catalysing healthcare leadership for implementation; (B) Building-up stakeholder input on all elements critical to RMM implementation guided by the ASSET; and (C) Collaborating with all stakeholders for monitoring implementation and evaluating RMM. CONCLUSIONS: New implementation theory-based approaches are promising for enhancing the valuable dialogue between regulators, patients and HCPs and achieving patient safety. EU PAS REGISTER NUMBER: EUPAS35947.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5009, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024121

RESUMO

Comorbid conditions appear to be common among individuals hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but estimates of prevalence vary and little is known about the prior medication use of patients. Here, we describe the characteristics of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 and compare them with influenza patients. We include 34,128 (US: 8362, South Korea: 7341, Spain: 18,425) COVID-19 patients, summarising between 4811 and 11,643 unique aggregate characteristics. COVID-19 patients have been majority male in the US and Spain, but predominantly female in South Korea. Age profiles vary across data sources. Compared to 84,585 individuals hospitalised with influenza in 2014-19, COVID-19 patients have more typically been male, younger, and with fewer comorbidities and lower medication use. While protecting groups vulnerable to influenza is likely a useful starting point in the response to COVID-19, strategies will likely need to be broadened to reflect the particular characteristics of individuals being hospitalised with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045043

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Studies in mice and humans suggest that melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) deficiency impacts body weight in a sex/gender-dependent manner. However, similar evidence for type 2 diabetes (T2D) is scarce. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: We investigated whether sex/gender modifies the association between the loss-of-function MC4R p.Ile269Asn mutation and T2D in 6,929 Mexican adults (3,175 T2D cases and 3,754 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) controls). The 2003 American Diabetes Association criteria were used to define NGT and T2D. The MC4R p.Ile269Asn mutation was genotyped in all participants using the TaqMan technology. RESULTS: The MC4R p.Ile269Asn mutation was associated with T2D in 6,929 Mexican adults (Ncontrols=3,754, Ncases=3,175, odds ratio (OR)=2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.35-2.97], p=5.7x10 -4). The MC4R p.Ile269Asn mutation had a frequency of 0.86 and 1.05% in women with NGT and T2D, and 0.78 and 1.32% in men with NGT and T2D, respectively. We identified a significant interaction between the MC4R p.Ile269Asn mutation and sex/gender on T2D risk (p=0.049). While a strong association between the mutation and T2D was observed in men (Ncontrols=2,418, Ncases=1,807, OR=2.63, 95%CI [1.62-4.28], p=9.3x10 -5), results were not significant in women (Ncontrols=1,336, Ncases=1,368, OR=1.16, 95%CI [0.60-2.26], p=0.65). Further adjustment for body mass index in the logistic regression model did not alter the sex/gender-specific pattern of association (men: OR=2.22, 95%CI [1.34-3.67], p=0.0019; women: OR = 1.02, 95%CI [0.51-2.02], p=0.95). CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a male-specific association between the MC4R p.Ile269Asn loss-of-function mutation and T2D in the Mexican population.

17.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2(11): e698-e711, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864627

RESUMO

Background: Hydroxychloroquine, a drug commonly used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has received much negative publicity for adverse events associated with its authorisation for emergency use to treat patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. We studied the safety of hydroxychloroquine, alone and in combination with azithromycin, to determine the risk associated with its use in routine care in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: In this multinational, retrospective study, new user cohort studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis aged 18 years or older and initiating hydroxychloroquine were compared with those initiating sulfasalazine and followed up over 30 days, with 16 severe adverse events studied. Self-controlled case series were done to further establish safety in wider populations, and included all users of hydroxychloroquine regardless of rheumatoid arthritis status or indication. Separately, severe adverse events associated with hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (compared with hydroxychloroquine plus amoxicillin) were studied. Data comprised 14 sources of claims data or electronic medical records from Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, the UK, and the USA. Propensity score stratification and calibration using negative control outcomes were used to address confounding. Cox models were fitted to estimate calibrated hazard ratios (HRs) according to drug use. Estimates were pooled where the I 2 value was less than 0·4. Findings: The study included 956 374 users of hydroxychloroquine, 310 350 users of sulfasalazine, 323 122 users of hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, and 351 956 users of hydroxychloroquine plus amoxicillin. No excess risk of severe adverse events was identified when 30-day hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine use were compared. Self-controlled case series confirmed these findings. However, long-term use of hydroxychloroquine appeared to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality (calibrated HR 1·65 [95% CI 1·12-2·44]). Addition of azithromycin appeared to be associated with an increased risk of 30-day cardiovascular mortality (calibrated HR 2·19 [95% CI 1·22-3·95]), chest pain or angina (1·15 [1·05-1·26]), and heart failure (1·22 [1·02-1·45]). Interpretation: Hydroxychloroquine treatment appears to have no increased risk in the short term among patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but in the long term it appears to be associated with excess cardiovascular mortality. The addition of azithromycin increases the risk of heart failure and cardiovascular mortality even in the short term. We call for careful consideration of the benefit-risk trade-off when counselling those on hydroxychloroquine treatment. Funding: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, NIHR Senior Research Fellowship programme, US National Institutes of Health, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Janssen Research and Development, IQVIA, Korea Health Industry Development Institute through the Ministry of Health and Welfare Republic of Korea, Versus Arthritis, UK Medical Research Council Doctoral Training Partnership, Foundation Alfonso Martin Escudero, Innovation Fund Denmark, Novo Nordisk Foundation, Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council Open Fund Large Collaborative Grant, VINCI, Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking, EU's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, and European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations.

18.
Brain Commun ; 2(2): fcaa105, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954345

RESUMO

Administration of recombinant glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor into the putamen has been tested in preclinical and clinical studies to evaluate its neuroprotective effects on the progressive dopaminergic neuronal degeneration that characterizes Parkinson's disease. However, intracerebral glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor infusion is a challenging therapeutic strategy, with numerous potential technical and medical limitations. Most of these limitations could be avoided if the production of endogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor could be increased. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor is naturally produced in the striatum from where it exerts a trophic action on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Most of striatal glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor is synthesized by a subset of GABAergic interneurons characterized by the expression of parvalbumin. We sought to identify molecular targets specific to those neurons and which are putatively associated with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor synthesis. To this end, the transcriptomic differences between glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-positive parvalbumin neurons in the striatum and parvalbumin neurons located in the nearby cortex, which do not express glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, were analysed. Using mouse reporter models, we have defined the genomic signature of striatal parvalbumin interneurons obtained by fluorescence-activated cell sorting followed by microarray comparison. Short-listed genes were validated by additional histological and molecular analyses. These genes code for membrane receptors (Kit, Gpr83, Tacr1, Tacr3, Mc3r), cytosolic proteins (Pde3a, Crabp1, Rarres2, Moxd1) and a transcription factor (Lhx8). We also found the proto-oncogene cKit to be highly specific of parvalbumin interneurons in the non-human primate striatum, thus highlighting a conserved expression between species and suggesting that specific genes identified in mouse parvalbumin neurons could be putative targets in the human brain. Pharmacological stimulation of four G-protein-coupled receptors enriched in the striatal parvalbumin interneurons inhibited Gdnf expression presumably by decreasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation. Additional experiments with pharmacological modulators of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A indicated that this pathway is a relevant intracellular route to induce Gdnf gene activation. This preclinical study is an important step in the ongoing development of a specific pro-endo-glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor pharmacological strategy to treat Parkinson's disease.

19.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 129(2): 366-376, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673161

RESUMO

During a T-tube trial following disconnection of mechanical ventilation, patients failing the trial do not develop contractile diaphragmatic fatigue despite increases in inspiratory pressure output. Studies in volunteers, patients, and animals raise the possibility of spinal and supraspinal reflex mechanisms that inhibit central-neural output under loaded conditions. We hypothesized that diaphragmatic recruitment is submaximal at the end of a failed weaning trial despite concurrent respiratory distress. Tidal transdiaphragmatic pressure (ΔPdi) and electrical activity (ΔEAdi) were recorded with esophago-gastric catheters during a T-tube trial in 20 critically ill patients. During the T-tube trial, ∆EAdi was greater in weaning failure patients than in weaning success patients (P = 0.049). Despite increases in ΔPdi, from 18.1 ± 2.5 to 25.9 ± 3.7 cm H2O (P < 0.001), rate of transdiaphragmatic pressure development (from 22.6 ± 3.1 to 37.8 ± 6.7 cm H2O/s; P < 0.0004), and concurrent respiratory distress, ∆EAdi at the end of a failed T-tube trial was half of maximum, signifying inhibition of central neural output to the diaphragm. The increase in ΔPdi in the weaning failure group, while ∆EAdi remained constant, indicates unexpected improvement in diaphragmatic neuromuscular coupling (from 46.7 ± 6.5 to 57.8 ± 8.4 cm H2O/%; P = 0.006). Redistribution of neural output to the respiratory muscles characterized by a progressive increase in rib cage and accessory muscle contribution to tidal breathing and expiratory muscle recruitment contributed to enhanced coupling. In conclusion, diaphragmatic recruitment is submaximal at the end of a failed weaning trial despite concurrent respiratory distress. This finding signifies that reflex inhibition of central neural output to the diaphragm contributes to weaning failure.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Research into pathophysiology of failure to wean from mechanical ventilation has excluded several factors, including contractile fatigue, but the precise mechanism remains unknown. We recorded transdiaphragmatic pressure and diaphragmatic electrical activity in patients undergoing a T-tube trial. Diaphragmatic recruitment was submaximal at the end of a failed trial despite concurrent respiratory distress, signifying that inhibition of central neural output to the diaphragm is an important mechanism of weaning failure.

20.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Due to cardiovascular safety concerns, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended new contraindications and changes to product information for diclofenac across Europe in 2013. This study aims to measure their impact among targeted populations. METHOD: Quarterly interrupted time series regression (ITS) analyses of diclofenac initiation among cohorts with contraindications (congestive cardiac failure [CHF], ischaemic heart disease [IHD], peripheral arterial disease [PAD], cerebrovascular disease [CVD]) and cautions (hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes) from Denmark, the Netherlands, England and Scotland. RESULTS: The regulatory action was associated with significant immediate absolute reductions in diclofenac initiation in all countries for IHD (Denmark -0.08%, 95%CI -0.13, -0.03; England -0.09%, 95%CI -0.13 to -0.06%; the Netherlands -1.84%, 95%CI -2.51 to -1.17%; Scotland -0.34%, 95%CI -0.38 to -0.30%), PAD and hyperlipidaemia, the Netherlands, England and Scotland for hypertension and diabetes, and England and Scotland for CHF and CVD. Post-intervention there was a significant negative trend in diclofenac initiation in the Netherlands for IHD (-0.12%, 95%CI -0.19 to -0.04), PAD (-0.13%, 95%CI -0.22 to -0.05), hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes, and in Scotland for CHF (-0.01%, 95%CI -0.02 to -0.007%), IHD (-0.017, 95%CI -0.02, -0.01%), PAD and hypertension. In England, diclofenac initiation rates fell less steeply. In Denmark changes were more strongly associated with the earlier EMA 2012 regulatory action. CONCLUSION: Although significant reductions in diclofenac initiation occurred, patients with contraindications continued to be prescribed diclofenac, the extent of which varied by country and target condition. Understanding reasons for such variation may help to guide the design or dissemination of future safety warnings.

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