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1.
J Lipid Res ; 61(3): 413-421, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941672

RESUMO

Zinc metallopeptidase STE24 (ZMPSTE24) is essential for the conversion of farnesyl-prelamin A to mature lamin A, a key component of the nuclear lamina. In the absence of ZMPSTE24, farnesyl-prelamin A accumulates in the nucleus and exerts toxicity, causing a variety of disease phenotypes. By ∼4 months of age, both male and female Zmpste24 -/- mice manifest a near-complete loss of adipose tissue, but it has never been clear whether this phenotype is a direct consequence of farnesyl-prelamin A toxicity in adipocytes. To address this question, we generated a conditional knockout Zmpste24 allele and used it to create adipocyte-specific Zmpste24-knockout mice. To boost farnesyl-prelamin A levels, we bred in the "prelamin A-only" Lmna allele. Gene expression, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry experiments revealed that adipose tissue in these mice had decreased Zmpste24 expression along with strikingly increased accumulation of prelamin A. In male mice, Zmpste24 deficiency in adipocytes was accompanied by modest changes in adipose stores (an 11% decrease in body weight, a 23% decrease in body fat mass, and significantly smaller gonadal and inguinal white adipose depots). No changes in adipose stores were detected in female mice, likely because prelamin A expression in adipose tissue is lower in female mice. Zmpste24 deficiency in adipocytes did not alter the number of macrophages in adipose tissue, nor did it alter plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, or fatty acids. We conclude that ZMPSTE24 deficiency in adipocytes, and the accompanying accumulation of farnesyl-prelamin A, reduces adipose tissue stores, but only modestly and only in male mice.

2.
Elife ; 82019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169500

RESUMO

GPIHBP1, a GPI-anchored protein of capillary endothelial cells, binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) within the subendothelial spaces and shuttles it to the capillary lumen. GPIHBP1-bound LPL is essential for the margination of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) along capillaries, allowing the lipolytic processing of TRLs to proceed. In peripheral tissues, the intravascular processing of TRLs by the GPIHBP1-LPL complex is crucial for the generation of lipid nutrients for adjacent parenchymal cells. GPIHBP1 is absent from the capillaries of the brain, which uses glucose for fuel; however, GPIHBP1 is expressed in the capillaries of mouse and human gliomas. Importantly, the GPIHBP1 in glioma capillaries captures locally produced LPL. We use NanoSIMS imaging to show that TRLs marginate along glioma capillaries and that there is uptake of TRL-derived lipid nutrients by surrounding glioma cells. Thus, GPIHBP1 expression in gliomas facilitates TRL processing and provides a source of lipid nutrients for glioma cells.


Assuntos
Glioma/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/patologia , Capilares/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glioma/irrigação sanguínea , Glioma/patologia , Glioma/ultraestrutura , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
3.
J Lipid Res ; 60(4): 869-879, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598475

RESUMO

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), the protein that shuttles LPL to the capillary lumen, is essential for plasma triglyceride metabolism. When GPIHBP1 is absent, LPL remains stranded within the interstitial spaces and plasma triglyceride hydrolysis is impaired, resulting in severe hypertriglyceridemia. While the functions of GPIHBP1 in intravascular lipolysis are reasonably well understood, no one has yet identified DNA sequences regulating GPIHBP1 expression. In the current studies, we identified an enhancer element located ∼3.6 kb upstream from exon 1 of mouse Gpihbp1. To examine the importance of the enhancer, we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to create mice lacking the enhancer (Gpihbp1 Enh/Enh). Removing the enhancer reduced Gpihbp1 expression by >90% in the liver and by ∼50% in heart and brown adipose tissue. The reduced expression of GPIHBP1 was insufficient to prevent LPL from reaching the capillary lumen, and it did not lead to hypertriglyceridemia-even when mice were fed a high-fat diet. Compound heterozygotes (Gpihbp1 Enh/- mice) displayed further reductions in Gpihbp1 expression and exhibited partial mislocalization of LPL (increased amounts of LPL within the interstitial spaces of the heart), but the plasma triglyceride levels were not perturbed. The enhancer element that we identified represents the first insight into DNA sequences controlling Gpihbp1 expression.

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