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1.
Mar Environ Res ; 167: 105291, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691257

RESUMO

Ocean acidification (OA) can negatively affect early-life stages of marine organisms, with the key processes of larval settlement and metamorphosis potentially vulnerable to reduced seawater pH. Settlement success depends strongly on suitable substrates and environmental cues, with marine biofilms as key settlement inducers for a range of marine invertebrate larvae. This study experimentally investigated (1) how seawater pH determines growth and community composition of marine biofilms, and (2) whether marine biofilms developed under different pH conditions can alter settlement success in the New Zealand serpulid polychaete Galeolaria hystrix. Biofilms were developed under six pH(T) treatments (spanning from 7.0 to 8.1 [ambient]) in a flow-through system for up to 14 months. Biofilms of different ages (7, 10 and 14 months) were used to assay successful settlement of competent G. hystrix larvae reared under ambient conditions. Biofilm microbiomes were characterized through amplicon sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal rRNA gene (16S and 18S). Biofilm community composition was stable over time within each pH treatment and biofilm age did not affect larval settlement selectivity. Seawater pH treatment strongly influenced biofilm community composition, as well as subsequent settlement success when biofilms were presented to competent Galeolaria larvae. Exposure to biofilms incubated under OA-treatments caused a decrease in larval settlement of up to 40% compared to the ambient treatments. We observed a decrease in settlement on biofilms relative to ambient pH for slides incubated at pH 7.9 and 7.7. This trend was reversed at pH 7.4, resulting in high settlement, comparable to ambient biofilms. Settlement decreased on biofilms from pH 7.2, and no settlement was observed on biofilms from pH 7.0. For the first time, we show that long-term incubation of marine biofilms under a wide range of reduced seawater pH treatments can alter marine biofilms in such a way that settlement success in marine invertebrates can be compromised.

2.
ISME J ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230267

RESUMO

Bottom-up selection has an important role in microbial community assembly but is unable to account for all observed variance. Other processes like top-down selection (e.g., predation) may be partially responsible for the unexplained variance. However, top-down processes and their interaction with bottom-up selective pressures often remain unexplored. We utilised an in situ marine biofilm model system to test the effects of bottom-up (i.e., substrate properties) and top-down (i.e., large predator exclusion via 100 µm mesh) selective pressures on community assembly over time (56 days). Prokaryotic and eukaryotic community compositions were monitored using 16 S and 18 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Higher compositional variance was explained by growth substrate in early successional stages, but as biofilms mature, top-down predation becomes progressively more important. Wooden substrates promoted heterotrophic growth, whereas inert substrates' (i.e., plastic, glass, tile) lack of degradable material selected for autotrophs. Early wood communities contained more mixotrophs and heterotrophs (e.g., the total abundance of Proteobacteria and Euglenozoa was 34% and 41% greater within wood compared to inert substrates). Inert substrates instead showed twice the autotrophic abundance (e.g., cyanobacteria and ochrophyta made up 37% and 10% more of the total abundance within inert substrates than in wood). Late native (non-enclosed) communities were mostly dominated by autotrophs across all substrates, whereas high heterotrophic abundance characterised enclosed communities. Late communities were primarily under top-down control, where large predators successively pruned heterotrophs. Integrating a top-down control increased explainable variance by 7-52%, leading to increased understanding of the underlying ecological processes guiding multitrophic community assembly and successional dynamics.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3274, 2020 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094391

RESUMO

Increased atmospheric CO2 is driving ocean acidification (OA), and potential changes in marine ecosystems. Research shows that both planktonic and benthic communities are affected, but how these changes are linked remains unresolved. Here we show experimentally that decreasing seawater pH (from pH 8.1 to 7.8 and 7.4) leads to reduced biofilm formation and lower primary producer biomass within biofilms. These changes occurred concurrently with a re-arrangement of the biofilm microbial communities. Changes suggest a potential shift from autotrophic to heterotrophic dominated biofilms in response to reduced pH. In a complimentary experiment, biofilms reared under reduced pH resulted in altered larval settlement for a model species (Galeolaria hystrix). These findings show that there is a potential cascade of impacts arising from OA effects on biofilms that may drive important community shifts through altered settlement patterns of benthic species.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13371, 2019 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527802

RESUMO

Ruminant urine patches on grazed grassland are a significant source of agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Of the many biotic and abiotic N2O production mechanisms initiated following urine-urea deposition, codenitrification resulting in the formation of hybrid N2O, is one of the least understood. Codenitrification forms hybrid N2O via biotic N-nitrosation, co-metabolising organic and inorganic N compounds (N substrates) to produce N2O. The objective of this study was to assess the relative significance of different N substrates on codenitrification and to determine the contributions of fungi and bacteria to codenitrification. 15N-labelled ammonium, hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and two amino acids (phenylalanine or glycine) were applied, separately, to sieved soil mesocosms eight days after a simulated urine event, in the absence or presence of bacterial and fungal inhibitors. Soil chemical variables and N2O fluxes were monitored and the codenitrified N2O fluxes determined. Fungal inhibition decreased N2O fluxes by ca. 40% for both amino acid treatments, while bacterial inhibition only decreased the N2O flux of the glycine treatment, by 14%. Hydroxylamine (NH2OH) generated the highest N2O fluxes which declined with either fungal or bacterial inhibition alone, while combined inhibition resulted in a 60% decrease in the N2O flux. All the N substrates examined participated to some extent in codenitrification. Trends for codenitrification under the NH2OH substrate treatment followed those of total N2O fluxes (85.7% of total N2O flux). Codenitrification fluxes under non-NH2OH substrate treatments (0.7-1.2% of total N2O flux) were two orders of magnitude lower, and significant decreases in these treatments only occurred with fungal inhibition in the amino acid substrate treatments. These results demonstrate that in situ studies are required to better understand the dynamics of codenitrification substrates in grazed pasture soils and the associated role that fungi have with respect to codenitrification.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Agricultura , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Pradaria , Compostos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Óxido Nitroso/metabolismo , Solo/química
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 693: 133507, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377366

RESUMO

Systems with strong horizontal and vertical gradients, such as fjords, are useful models for studying environmental forcing. Here we examine microbial (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) community changes associated with the surface low salinity layer (LSL) and underlying seawater in multiple fjords in Fiordland National Park (New Zealand). High rainfall (1200-8000 mm annually) and linked runoff from native forested catchments results in surface LSLs with high tannin concentrations within each fjord. These gradients are expected to drive changes in microbial communities. We used amplicon sequencing (16S and 18S) to assess the impact of these gradients on microbial communities and identified depth linked changes in diversity and community structure. With increasing depth, we observed significant increases in Proteobacteria (15%) and SAR (37%), decreases in Opisthokonta (35%), and transiently increased Bacteroidetes (3% increase from 0 to 40 m, decreasing by 8% at 200 m). Community structure differences were observed along a transect from the head to the mouth, specifically 25% mean relative abundance decreases in Opisthokonta and Bacteroidetes, and increases in SAR (25%) and Proteobacteria (>5%) at the surface, indicating changes based on distance from the ocean. This provides the first in-depth view into the ecological drivers of microbial communities within New Zealand fjords.


Assuntos
Microbiota/fisiologia , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química , Archaea/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Estuários , Eucariotos , Nova Zelândia , Salinidade
6.
ISME J ; 13(10): 2617-2632, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243332

RESUMO

Farmed ruminants are the largest source of anthropogenic methane emissions globally. The methanogenic archaea responsible for these emissions use molecular hydrogen (H2), produced during bacterial and eukaryotic carbohydrate fermentation, as their primary energy source. In this work, we used comparative genomic, metatranscriptomic and co-culture-based approaches to gain a system-wide understanding of the organisms and pathways responsible for ruminal H2 metabolism. Two-thirds of sequenced rumen bacterial and archaeal genomes encode enzymes that catalyse H2 production or consumption, including 26 distinct hydrogenase subgroups. Metatranscriptomic analysis confirmed that these hydrogenases are differentially expressed in sheep rumen. Electron-bifurcating [FeFe]-hydrogenases from carbohydrate-fermenting Clostridia (e.g., Ruminococcus) accounted for half of all hydrogenase transcripts. Various H2 uptake pathways were also expressed, including methanogenesis (Methanobrevibacter), fumarate and nitrite reduction (Selenomonas), and acetogenesis (Blautia). Whereas methanogenesis-related transcripts predominated in high methane yield sheep, alternative uptake pathways were significantly upregulated in low methane yield sheep. Complementing these findings, we observed significant differential expression and activity of the hydrogenases of the hydrogenogenic cellulose fermenter Ruminococcus albus and the hydrogenotrophic fumarate reducer Wolinella succinogenes in co-culture compared with pure culture. We conclude that H2 metabolism is a more complex and widespread trait among rumen microorganisms than previously recognised. There is evidence that alternative hydrogenotrophs, including acetogenic and respiratory bacteria, can prosper in the rumen and effectively compete with methanogens for H2. These findings may help to inform ongoing strategies to mitigate methane emissions by increasing flux through alternative H2 uptake pathways, including through animal selection, dietary supplementation and methanogenesis inhibitors.


Assuntos
Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Animais , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Bases , Celulose/metabolismo , Euryarchaeota/genética , Fermentação , Hidrogenase/genética , Hidrogenase/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo
7.
PeerJ ; 7: e6160, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631651

RESUMO

Metagenomic and meta-barcode DNA sequencing has rapidly become a widely-used technique for investigating a range of questions, particularly related to health and environmental monitoring. There has also been a proliferation of bioinformatic tools for analysing metagenomic and amplicon datasets, which makes selecting adequate tools a significant challenge. A number of benchmark studies have been undertaken; however, these can present conflicting results. In order to address this issue we have applied a robust Z-score ranking procedure and a network meta-analysis method to identify software tools that are consistently accurate for mapping DNA sequences to taxonomic hierarchies. Based upon these results we have identified some tools and computational strategies that produce robust predictions.

8.
mBio ; 9(4)2018 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108167

RESUMO

Oxygen-stratified lakes are typical for the boreal zone and also a major source of greenhouse gas emissions in the region. Due to shallow light penetration, restricting the growth of phototrophic organisms, and large allochthonous organic carbon inputs from the catchment area, the lake metabolism is expected to be dominated by heterotrophic organisms. In this study, we test this assumption and show that the potential for autotrophic carbon fixation and internal carbon cycling is high throughout the water column. Further, we show that during the summer stratification carbon fixation can exceed respiration in a boreal lake even below the euphotic zone. Metagenome-assembled genomes and 16S profiling of a vertical transect of the lake revealed multiple organisms in an oxygen-depleted compartment belonging to novel or poorly characterized phyla. Many of these organisms were chemolithotrophic, potentially deriving their energy from reactions related to sulfur, iron, and nitrogen transformations. The community, as well as the functions, was stratified along the redox gradient. The autotrophic potential in the lake metagenome below the oxygenic zone was high, pointing toward a need for revising our concepts of internal carbon cycling in boreal lakes. Further, the importance of chemolithoautotrophy for the internal carbon cycling suggests that many predicted climate change-associated fluctuations in the physical properties of the lake, such as altered mixing patterns, likely have consequences for the whole-lake metabolism even beyond the impact to the phototrophic community.IMPORTANCE Autotrophic organisms at the base of the food web are the only life form capable of turning inorganic carbon into the organic form, facilitating the survival of all other organisms. In certain environments, the autotrophic production is limited by environmental conditions and the food web is supported by external carbon inputs. One such environment is stratified boreal lakes, which are one of the biggest natural sources of greenhouse gas emissions in the boreal region. Thus, carbon cycling in these habitats is of utmost importance for the future climate. Here, we demonstrate a high potential for internal carbon cycling via phototrophic and novel chemolithotrophic organisms in the anoxic, poorly illuminated layers of a boreal lake. Our results significantly increase our knowledge on the microbial communities and their metabolic potential in oxygen-depleted freshwaters and help to understand and predict how climate change-induced alterations could impact the lake carbon dynamics.


Assuntos
Processos Autotróficos , Biota , Carbono/metabolismo , Lagos/microbiologia , Anaerobiose , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Finlândia , Metagenômica , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 809, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29755437

RESUMO

The rare biosphere is predicted to aid in maintaining functional redundancy as well as contributing to community turnover across many environments. Recent developments have partially confirmed these hypotheses, while also giving new insights into dormancy and activity among rare communities. However, less attention has been paid to the rare biosphere in soils. This study provides insight into the rare biosphere's contribution to soil microbial diversity through the study of 781 soil samples representing 24 edaphically diverse sites. Results show that Bray-Curtis dissimilarity for time-sensitive conditionally rare taxa (CRT) does not correlate with whole community dissimilarity, while dissimilarity for space-sensitive CRT only weakly correlate with whole community dissimilarity. This adds to current understanding of spatiotemporal filtering of rare taxa, showing that CRT do not account for community variance across tested soils, but are under the same selective pressure as the whole community.

10.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2018 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802793

RESUMO

DNA-based techniques are increasingly used for measuring the biodiversity (species presence, identity, abundance and community composition) of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. While there are numerous reviews of molecular methods and bioinformatic steps, there has been little consideration of the methods used to collect samples upon which these later steps are based. This represents a critical knowledge gap, as methodologically sound field sampling is the foundation for subsequent analyses. We reviewed field sampling methods used for metabarcoding studies of both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystem biodiversity over a nearly three-year period (n = 75). We found that 95% (n = 71) of these studies used subjective sampling methods and inappropriate field methods and/or failed to provide critical methodological information. It would be possible for researchers to replicate only 5% of the metabarcoding studies in our sample, a poorer level of reproducibility than for ecological studies in general. Our findings suggest greater attention to field sampling methods, and reporting is necessary in eDNA-based studies of biodiversity to ensure robust outcomes and future reproducibility. Methods must be fully and accurately reported, and protocols developed that minimize subjectivity. Standardization of sampling protocols would be one way to help to improve reproducibility and have additional benefits in allowing compilation and comparison of data from across studies.

11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4363, 2018 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515219

RESUMO

A correction has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.

12.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 10(2): 184-189, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377623

RESUMO

Ecotones are regarded as diversity hotspots in terrestrial systems, but it is unknown if this 'ecotone effect' occurs in the marine environment. Oceanic fronts are widespread mesoscale features, present in the boundary between different water masses, and are arguably the best potential examples of ecotones in the ocean. Here we performed the first seasonal study along an oceanic front, combining 16S rRNA gene sequencing coupled with a high spatial resolution analysis of the physical properties of the water masses. Using the Subtropical Frontal Zone off New Zealand we demonstrate that fronts delimit shifts in bacterioplankton community composition between water masses, but that the strength of this effect is seasonally dependent. While creating a transition zone where physicochemical parameters and bacterioplankton communities get mixed, this ecotone does not result in increased diversity. Thus unlike terrestrial ecotones, oceanic fronts are boundaries but not hotspots of bacterioplankton diversity in the ocean.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Plâncton/isolamento & purificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Nova Zelândia , Oceanos e Mares , Filogenia , Plâncton/classificação , Plâncton/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estações do Ano
13.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 3190, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30619234

RESUMO

Marine microbes are an important control on the biogeochemical cycling of trace metals, but simultaneously, these metals can control the growth of microorganisms and the cycling of major nutrients like C and N. However, studies on the response/limitation of microorganisms to trace metals have traditionally focused on the response of autotrophic phytoplankton to Fe fertilization. Few reports are available on the response of heterotrophic prokaryotes to Fe, and even less to other biogeochemically relevant metals. We performed the first study coupling dark incubations with next generation sequencing to specifically target the functional and phylogenetic response of heterotrophic prokaryotes to Fe enrichment. Furthermore, we also studied their response to Co, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu (individually and mixed), using surface and deep samples from either coastal or open-ocean waters. Heterotrophic prokaryotic activity was stimulated by Fe in surface open-ocean, as well as in coastal, and deep open-ocean waters (where Zn also stimulated). The most susceptible populations to trace metals additions were uncultured bacteria (e.g., SAR324, SAR406, NS9, and DEV007). Interestingly, hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (e.g., Thalassolituus, Marinobacter, and Oleibacter) benefited the most from metal addition across all waters (regions/depths) revealing a predominant role in the cycling of metals and organic matter in the ocean.

14.
Mol Ecol ; 26(20): 5500-5514, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28752622

RESUMO

The nitrogen (N) cycle represents one of the most well-studied systems, yet the taxonomic diversity of the organisms that contribute to it is mostly unknown, or linked to poorly characterized microbial groups. While new information has allowed functional groups to be refined, they still rely on a priori knowledge of enzymes involved and the assumption of functional conservation, with little connection to the role the transformations, plays for specific organisms. Here, we use soil microcosms to test the impact of N deposition on prokaryotic communities. By combining chemical, genomic and transcriptomic analysis, we are able to identify and link changes in community structure to specific organisms catalysing given chemical reactions. Urea deposition led to a decrease in prokaryotic richness, and a shift in community composition. This was driven by replacement of stable native populations, which utilize energy from N-linked redox reactions for physiological maintenance, with fast responding populations that use this energy for growth. This model can be used to predict response to N disturbances and allows us to identify putative life strategies of different functional and taxonomic groups, thus providing insights into how they persist in ecosystems by niche differentiation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Nitrogênio/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Bactérias/classificação , Ecossistema , Fertilizantes , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Irlanda , Modelos Biológicos , Óperon , Oxirredução , RNA Ribossômico 16S/isolamento & purificação , Ureia/química
15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 2185, 2017 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28526821

RESUMO

Intensively managed agricultural pastures contribute to N2O and N2 fluxes resulting in detrimental environmental outcomes and poor N use efficiency, respectively. Besides nitrification, nitrifier-denitrification and heterotrophic denitrification, alternative pathways such as codenitrification also contribute to emissions under ruminant urine-affected soil. However, information on codenitrification is sparse. The objectives of this experiment were to assess the effects of soil moisture and soil inorganic-N dynamics on the relative contributions of codenitrification and denitrification (heterotrophic denitrification) to the N2O and N2 fluxes under a simulated ruminant urine event. Repacked soil cores were treated with 15N enriched urea and maintained at near saturation (-1 kPa) or field capacity (-10 kPa). Soil inorganic-N, pH, dissolved organic carbon, N2O and N2 fluxes were measured over 63 days. Fluxes of N2, attributable to codenitrification, were at a maximum when soil nitrite (NO2-) concentrations were elevated. Cumulative codenitrification was higher (P = 0.043) at -1 kPa. However, the ratio of codenitrification to denitrification did not differ significantly with soil moisture, 25.5 ± 15.8 and 12.9 ± 4.8% (stdev) at -1 and -10 kPa, respectively. Elevated soil NO2- concentrations are shown to contribute to codenitrification, particularly at -1 kPa.

16.
Sci Rep ; 7: 45369, 2017 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28349950

RESUMO

Agricultural land is typically managed based on visible plant life at the expense of the belowground majority. However, microorganisms mediate processes sustaining plant life and the soil environment. To understand the role of microbes we first must understand what controls soil microbial community assembly. We assessed the distribution and composition of prokaryotic communities from soils representing four geographic regions on the South Island of New Zealand. These soils are under three different uses (dairy, sheep and beef, and high country farming) and are representative of major soil classification groups (brown, pallic, gley and recent). We hypothesized that pH would account for major community patterns based on 16S profiles, but that land use and location would be secondary modifiers. Community diversity and structure was linked to pH, coinciding with land use. Soil classification correlated with microbial community structure and evenness, but not richness in high country and sheep and beef communities. The impact of land use and pH remained significant at the regional scale, but soil classification provided support for community variability not explained by either of those factors. These results suggest that several edaphic properties must be examined at multiple spatial scales to robustly examine soil prokaryotic communities.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/classificação , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo/química
17.
ISME J ; 11(1): 125-137, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27505347

RESUMO

F420 is a low-potential redox cofactor that mediates the transformations of a wide range of complex organic compounds. Considered one of the rarest cofactors in biology, F420 is best known for its role in methanogenesis and has only been chemically identified in two phyla to date, the Euryarchaeota and Actinobacteria. In this work, we show that this cofactor is more widely distributed than previously reported. We detected the genes encoding all five known F420 biosynthesis enzymes (cofC, cofD, cofE, cofG and cofH) in at least 653 bacterial and 173 archaeal species, including members of the dominant soil phyla Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi and Firmicutes. Metagenome datamining validated that these genes were disproportionately abundant in aerated soils compared with other ecosystems. We confirmed through high-performance liquid chromatography analysis that aerobically grown stationary-phase cultures of three bacterial species, Paracoccus denitrificans, Oligotropha carboxidovorans and Thermomicrobium roseum, synthesized F420, with oligoglutamate sidechains of different lengths. To understand the evolution of F420 biosynthesis, we also analyzed the distribution, phylogeny and genetic organization of the cof genes. Our data suggest that although the Fo precursor to F420 originated in methanogens, F420 itself was first synthesized in an ancestral actinobacterium. F420 biosynthesis genes were then disseminated horizontally to archaea and other bacteria. Together, our findings suggest that the cofactor is more significant in aerobic bacterial metabolism and soil ecosystem composition than previously thought. The cofactor may confer several competitive advantages for aerobic soil bacteria by mediating their central metabolic processes and broadening the range of organic compounds they can synthesize, detoxify and mineralize.


Assuntos
Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Coenzimas/biossíntese , Metano/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Aerobiose , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/enzimologia , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Arqueais/genética , Proteínas Arqueais/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Coenzimas/genética , Ecossistema , Metagenoma , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Solo/química
19.
Front Microbiol ; 7: 1691, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27826296

RESUMO

Nitrogenous run-off from farmed pastures contributes to the eutrophication of Lake Ellesmere, a large shallow lagoon/lake on the east coast of New Zealand. Tributaries periodically deliver high loads of nitrate to the lake which likely affect microbial communities therein. We hypothesized that a nutrient gradient would form from the potential sources (tributaries) creating a disturbance resulting in changes in microbial community structure. To test this we first determined the existence of such a gradient but found only a weak nitrogen (TN) and phosphorous gradient (DRP). Changes in microbial communities were determined by measuring functional potential (quantification of nitrogen cycling genes via nifH, nirS, nosZI, and nosZII using qPCR), potential activity (via denitrification enzyme activity), as well as using changes in total community (via 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing). Our results demonstrated that changes in microbial communities at a phylogenetic (relative abundance) and functional level (proportion of the microbial community carrying nifH and nosZI genes) were most strongly associated with physical gradients (e.g., lake depth, sediment grain size, sediment porosity) and not nutrient concentrations. Low nitrate influx at the time of sampling is proposed as a factor contributing to the observed patterns.

20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 35990, 2016 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27782174

RESUMO

Denitrification is mediated by microbial, and physicochemical, processes leading to nitrogen loss via N2O and N2 emissions. Soil pH regulates the reduction of N2O to N2, however, it can also affect microbial community composition and functional potential. Here we simultaneously test the link between pH, community composition, and the N2O emission ratio (N2O/(NO + N2O + N2)) in 13 temperate pasture soils. Physicochemical analysis, gas kinetics, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, metagenomic and quantitative PCR (of denitrifier genes: nirS, nirK, nosZI and nosZII) analysis were carried out to characterize each soil. We found strong evidence linking pH to both N2O emission ratio and community changes. Soil pH was negatively associated with N2O emission ratio, while being positively associated with both community diversity and total denitrification gene (nir &nos) abundance. Abundance of nosZII was positively linked to pH, and negatively linked to N2O emissions. Our results confirm that pH imposes a general selective pressure on the entire community and that this results in changes in emission potential. Our data also support the general model that with increased microbial diversity efficiency increases, demonstrated in this study with lowered N2O emission ratio through more efficient conversion of N2O to N2.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Agricultura , Biodiversidade , Desnitrificação/genética , Genes Microbianos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metagenoma , Consórcios Microbianos/genética , Nitrogênio/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
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