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Nature ; 595(7865): 58-65, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194019


The natural world provides many examples of multiphase transport and reaction processes that have been optimized by evolution. These phenomena take place at multiple length and time scales and typically include gas-liquid-solid interfaces and capillary phenomena in porous media1,2. Many biological and living systems have evolved to optimize fluidic transport. However, living things are exceptionally complex and very difficult to replicate3-5, and human-made microfluidic devices (which are typically planar and enclosed) are highly limited for multiphase process engineering6-8. Here we introduce the concept of cellular fluidics: a platform of unit-cell-based, three-dimensional structures-enabled by emerging 3D printing methods9,10-for the deterministic control of multiphase flow, transport and reaction processes. We show that flow in these structures can be 'programmed' through architected design of cell type, size and relative density. We demonstrate gas-liquid transport processes such as transpiration and absorption, using evaporative cooling and CO2 capture as examples. We design and demonstrate preferential liquid and gas transport pathways in three-dimensional cellular fluidic devices with capillary-driven and actively pumped liquid flow, and present examples of selective metallization of pre-programmed patterns. Our results show that the design and fabrication of architected cellular materials, coupled with analytical and numerical predictions of steady-state and dynamic behaviour of multiphase interfaces, provide deterministic control of fluidic transport in three dimensions. Cellular fluidics may transform the design space for spatial and temporal control of multiphase transport and reaction processes.

Células/metabolismo , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Microfluídica/métodos , Absorção Fisico-Química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Gases/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transpiração Vegetal , Gravação de Videodisco , Água/metabolismo
Adv Mater ; 32(47): e2003376, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002275


Volumetric additive manufacturing (VAM) forms complete 3D objects in a single photocuring operation without layering defects, enabling 3D printed polymer parts with mechanical properties similar to their bulk material counterparts. This study presents the first report of VAM-printed thiol-ene resins. With well-ordered molecular networks, thiol-ene chemistry accesses polymer materials with a wide range of mechanical properties, moving VAM beyond the limitations of commonly used acrylate formulations. Since free-radical thiol-ene polymerization is not inhibited by oxygen, the nonlinear threshold response required in VAM is introduced by incorporating 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) as a radical scavenger. Tuning of the reaction kinetics is accomplished by balancing inhibitor and initiator content. Coupling this with quantitative measurements of the absorbed volumetric optical dose allows control of polymer conversion and gelation during printing. Importantly, this work thereby establishes the first comprehensive framework for spatial-temporal control over volumetric energy distribution, demonstrating structures 3D printed in thiol-ene resin by means of tomographic volumetric VAM. Mechanical characterization of this thiol-ene system, with varied ratios of isocyanurate and triethylene glycol monomers, reveals highly tunable mechanical response far more versatile than identical acrylate-based resins. This broadens the range of materials and properties available for VAM, taking another step toward high-performance printed polymers.

Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(74): 10463-10466, 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156229


Compared to tedious, multi-step treatments for electroless gold plating of traditional thermoplastics, this communication describes a simpler three-step procedure for 3D printed crosslinked polyacrylate substrates. This allows for the synthesis of ultralight gold foam microlattice materials with great potential for architecture-sensitive applications in future energy, catalysis, and sensing.

Opt Express ; 21(1): 196-203, 2013 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23388911


We demonstrate temporal imaging for the measurement and characterization of optical arbitrary waveforms and events. The system measures single-shot 200 ps frames at a rate of 104 MHz, where each frame is time magnified by a factor of -42.4x. Impulse response tests show that the system enables 783 fs resolution when placed at the front end of a 20 GHz oscilloscope. Modulated pulse trains characterize the system's impulse response, jitter, and frame-to-frame variation.