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1.
Ann Plast Surg ; 86(3): 317-322, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a dreaded complication of pulmonary resection. For high-risk patients, bronchial stump coverage with vascularized tissue has been recommended. The goal of this study was to report our experience with intrathoracic muscle transposition for bronchial stump coverage. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent intrathoracic muscle flap transposition as a prophylactic measure at our institution between 1990 and 2010 was conducted. Demographics, surgical characteristics, and complication rates were abstracted and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 160 patients were identified. The most common lung resections performed were pneumonectomy (n = 69, 43%) and lobectomy (n = 60, 38%). A total of 168 flaps were used where serratus anterior was the most common flap (n = 136, 81%), followed by intercostal (n = 14, 8%), and latissimus dorsi (n = 12, 7%). Ten patients (6%) developed BPF, and empyema occurred in 13 patients (8%). Median survival was 20 months, and operative mortality occurred in 7 patients (4%). CONCLUSIONS: Reinforcement of the bronchial closure with vascularized muscle is a viable option for potentially decreasing the incidence of BPF in high-risk patients. Further randomized studies are needed to determine the efficacy of this technique for BPF prevention.

2.
Microsurgery ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580717

RESUMO

Targeted muscle reinnervation enables native muscles to send electromyographic signals to myoelectric receptors, which drive movements in a prosthesis. This system requires voluntary contracture of muscles for sequential control of powered prosthetic joints. This report describes a surgical solution for cases where the chest wall is depleted of muscle targets. A 13-year-old boy with left forequarter amputation and pectoralis major resection as a result of extended necrotizing facilities 8 years prior received a neurotized free Vertical Rectus Abdominus Mycocutaneous (VRAM) flap (28 × 10 cm) designed to produce myoelectric signals, reduce pain, and provide stability for prosthetic fitting. Five intercostal nerves from the VRAM were coapted to portions of the brachial plexus to create a myoelectric interface for targeted muscle reinnervation. The postoperative course was uneventful. At 39 months of follow-up, the patient gained control of the transferred VRAM and was able to operate a custom-fitted myoelectric prosthesis together with contraction of the ipsilateral infraspinatus muscle. The neurotized VRAM transfer created a neural interface in an area with depleted neuromuscular targets while decreasing pain and adding tissue bulk for proper prosthesis fitting. Such a surgical strategy may have applications in other areas of the body.

3.
J Biomech ; 116: 110228, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460864

RESUMO

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a disorder that affects the median nerve at the wrist sufficient to cause impairment of nerve function. Elevated carpal tunnel pressure (CTP) leads to median nerve pathology, sensory, and motor changes in CTS patient. The techniques to quantify CTP used in clinic are invasive. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of a noninvasive ultrasound vibro-elastography (UVE) to predict CTP in CTS patients and healthy individuals. The magnitudes of shear wave speed ratio (rSWS) of the 10 CTS patients (10 hands) and 6 healthy individuals (12 hands), and 10 cadaveric hands were compared using UVE. The ratios of intra to extra-carpal tunnel SWS in CTS patients was significantly higher than those in the healthy individuals (p = 0.0008) and cadaveric hands (p = 0.0015) with 500-g tendon tension. We estimated the CTP in the carpal tunnel using the mean rSWS of each group obtained from the present study and the linear approximation obtain from cadaveric hands data with 500-g tendon tension (y = 0.0036x + 1.1413). These results indicated that the elevated pressure applied to the 3rd flexor digitorum superficialis tendon in the carpal tunnel of CTS patients resulted in faster shear wave propagation. These results show that UVE was useful to indirectly estimate the CTP by measuring the rSWS; thus, they are potentially useful for the early diagnosis and assessment of CTS.

5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(12): 6941-6945, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Reconstruction for soft-tissue sarcomas is complex and often uses soft-tissue flaps. To preserve critical structures, intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) can be used to boost the total dose to these critical structures and close margins; however, there are limited data on the outcome of soft-tissue reconstruction in patients treated with IORT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients received IORT with soft-tissue flap coverage. There were 14 tumors of the lower extremities and six of the upper, including seven free-flaps and 13 pedicle flaps. Mean preoperative and IORT doses were 49.4 Gy and 10.4 Gy, respectively, with a mean total dose of 59.8 Gy. RESULTS: Seven (35%) patients had a complication, most commonly an infection (n=4, 27%). Total flap loss occurred in one treated with pedicle flap. Four (20%) patients suffered a radiation-associated fracture. At the final follow-up, the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score was 75±11%. CONCLUSION: Complications and postoperative fractures were common with IORT, however, there were no cases requiring amputation.

6.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; : 1753193420973322, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202162

RESUMO

Four corner arthrodesis and proximal row carpectomy are the most common techniques for the management of advanced radiocarpal arthritis due to longstanding scapholunate instability and scaphoid nonunion. The advantages and short comings of each technique have been well defined in the literature. Advancements in joint replacement and arthroscopic surgery have resulted in new operations to manage radiocarpal and midcarpal arthritis. Most of these new procedures are modifications of the two classical operations, but some use modern implants and newer materials. New individualized options, like osteochondral grafting in combination with proximal row carpectomy or (arthroscopic) distal resection of the scaphoid, allowed us to improve our treatment and offer patients less invasive but equally effective procedures. We consider that four corner arthrodesis and proximal row carpectomy should not always be standard management for advanced radiocarpal arthritis.

7.
Microsurgery ; 40(8): 835-845, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The non-weight-bearing (NWB) Achilles tendon and weight-bearing (WB) heel pad regions are technically challenging to reconstruct with distinct functional and aesthetic considerations that have not been previously considered in the literature. This study is the first to characterize the long-term clinical and patient-reported outcomes of these components to better inform patients about the postreconstruction period. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records and phone-based survey of adult patients who underwent free flap reconstruction of the heel/ankle with 6-month minimum clinical follow-up was performed. RESULTS: Forty-three patients, with 31 (72.1%) NWB and 12 (27.9%) WB defects, treated from January 1, 2000 to February 28, 2017 were included. Muscle flaps were more common than fasciocutaneous flaps (N = 36 [83.7%] vs. 7 [16.3%]). Flap survival rate was 95.3% and limb salvage rate was 93.0% at median follow-up of 12.0 months (interquartile range [IQR] 6.2, 25.5). Flap ulceration occurred more frequently in the WB region (41.7 vs. 6.5%, p = .0123). The survey response rate was 63.6%. The majority of patients complete daily tasks with no/little impairment (76.2%), walk half a mile or more (85.7%), returned to work (86.6%), and fit shoes "fair" or "well" (71.4%). Most patients were "very satisfied" with heel/ankle function (71.4%) and would "very likely" undergo the same procedure if needed (76.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Free flap reconstruction in both the NWB Achilles tendon and WB heel pad has excellent limb salvage and flap survival rates. Patients were satisfied with heel/ankle function, but additional counseling is recommended for variance in appearance and higher ulceration rates in WB defects.

8.
Hand Clin ; 36(4): 429-441, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040955

RESUMO

This article reviews the anatomy and mechanics of pronation and supination (axial rotation) of the forearm through the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ), and the proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ). Injuries to the bones and/or ligaments of the forearm, wrist, or elbow can result in instability, pain, and limited rotation. Acute dislocations of the DRUJ commonly occur along with a fracture to the distal radius, radial metadiaphysis, or radial head. These injuries are all caused by high-energy trauma. Outcomes are predicated on anatomic reduction and restoration of stability to the DRUJ and PRUJ with or without ligamentous repair or reconstruction.

9.
J Wrist Surg ; 9(5): 431-439, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042647

RESUMO

Background Isolated scaphoid dislocation is an exceedingly rare event with only 55 cases described. Closed reduction followed by operative intervention with Kirschner's wires (K-wire) fixation and ligamentous reconstruction are the mainstays of treatment. Case Description We describe a patient with a solitary scaphoid dislocation treated with initial closed reduction and urgent open reduction with K-wire stabilization and ligamentous repair. The patient was immobilized for 6 weeks and on 24-month follow-up, the patient was doing well with no limitations in his daily living, no pain, and acceptable range of motion. Literature Review A literature review was performed on the 55 cases described in the English language. The majority of the patients were males, aged between 18 and 79 years, and presented with motor vehicle accidents as the most common mechanism. Historically, isolated scaphoid dislocations were treated with closed reduction. However, K-wire fixation and, now, K-wire fixation coupled with ligamentous injury repair remain the current treatments of choice. Avascular necrosis of the scaphoid remains a rare event with only one documented case. Overall, patients do well with only minor pain and limited wrist movements. Notably, only eight cases were associated with type-II lunates. Type-II lunates appear to be protective for carpal injury. Clinical Relevance Although isolated scaphoid dislocations remain a rare event, understanding the anatomy and the current ability to restore carpal anatomy is important. Type-II lunates appear to confer protection from carpal injuries.

10.
Int J Dermatol ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905614

RESUMO

Keloid scar formation arises from a disorganized fibroproliferative collagen response that extends beyond the original wound margins because of excessive production of extracellular matrix (ECM). Despite treatment options for keloid scars including medical and surgical therapies, such as intralesional steroid injection and surgical excision, the recurrence rate remains high. Herein we consolidate recently published narrative reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses to provide an overview of updated treatment recommendations for keloidal scar formation. PubMed search engine was used to access the MEDLINE database to investigate updates regarding keloid incidence and treatment. More than 100 articles were reviewed. Keloid management remains a multimodal approach. There continues to be no gold standard of treatment that provides a consistently low recurrence rate; however, the increasing number of available treatments and synergistic combinations of these treatments (i.e., laser-based devices in combination with intralesional steroids, or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in combination with steroid therapy) is showing favorable results. Future studies could target the efficacy of novel treatment modalities (i.e., autologous fat grafting or stem cell-based therapies) for keloid management. This review article provides updated treatment guidelines for keloids and discusses insight into management to assist patient-focused, evidence-based clinical decision making.

11.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 8(9): 2325967120939001, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953920

RESUMO

Background: The retear rate after rotator cuff repair remains unacceptably high. Various biological engineered scaffolds have been proposed to reduce the retear rate. We have developed a double rip-stop repair with medial row knot (DRSK) technique to enhance suture-tendon strength and a novel engineered tendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite (TFBC) for rotator cuff repair. Hypothesis: DRSK rotator cuff repair augmented with TFBC will have better biomechanical properties than that of DRSK repair with an acellular dermal graft (DG). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Fresh-frozen canine shoulders (n = 30) and knees (n = 10) were used. TFBCs were harvested from the patellar tendon-tibia complex and prepared for rotator cuff repair. The infraspinatus tendon was sharply detached from its bony attachment and randomly assigned to the (1) control group: DRSK repair alone, (2) TFBC group: DRSK repair with TFBC, and (3) DG group: DRSK repair with DG. All specimens were tested to failure, and videos were recorded. The footprint area, tendon thickness, load to create 3-mm gap formation, failure load, failure modes, and stiffness were recorded and compared. Data were recorded as mean ± SD. Results: The mean load to create a 3-mm gap in both the control group (206.8 ± 55.7 N) and TFBC group (208.9 ± 39.1 N) was significantly higher than that in the DG group (157.7 ± 52.3 N) (P < .05 for all). The failure load of the control group (275.7 ± 75.0 N) and TFBC group (275.2 ± 52.5 N) was significantly higher compared with the DG group (201.5 ± 49.7 N) (P < .05 for both comparisons). The stiffness of the control group (26.4 ± 4.7 N/mm) was significantly higher than of the TFBC group (20.4 ± 4.4 N/mm) and the DG group (21.1 ± 4.8 N/mm) (P < .05 for both comparisons). Conclusion: TFBC augmentation showed superior biomechanical performance to DG augmentation in rotator cuff tears repaired using the DRSK technique, while there was no difference between the TFBC and control groups. Clinical Relevance: TFBC may help to reduce retear or gap formation after rotator cuff repair using the DRSK technique.

13.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 102(22): 1956-1965, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sacral tumor resections require a multidisciplinary approach to achieve a cure and a functional outcome. Currently, there is no accepted classification system that provides a means to communicate among the multidisciplinary teams in terms of approach, osseous resection, reconstruction, and acceptable functional outcome. The purpose of this study was to report the outcome of sacral tumor resection based on our classification system. METHODS: In this study, 196 patients (71 female and 125 male) undergoing an oncologic en bloc sacrectomy were reviewed. The mean age (and standard deviation) was 49 ± 16 years, and the mean body mass index was 27.2 ± 6.4 kg/m. The resections included 130 sarcomas (66%). The mean follow-up was 7 ± 5 years. RESULTS: Resections included total sacrectomy (Type 1A: 20 patients [10%]) requiring reconstruction, subtotal sacrectomy (Type 1B: 5 patients [3%]) requiring reconstruction, subtotal sacrectomy (Type 1C: 104 patients [53%]) not requiring reconstruction, hemisacrectomy (Type 2: 29 patients [15%]), external hemipelvectomy and hemisacrectomy (Type 3: 32 patients [16%]), total sacrectomy and external hemipelvectomy (Type 4: 5 patients [3%]), and hemicorporectomy (Type 5: 1 patient [1%]). The disease-specific survival was 66% at 5 years and 52% at 10 years. Based on the classification, the 5-year disease-specific survival was 34% for Type 1A, 100% for Type 1B, 71% for Type 1C, 65% for Type 2, 57% for Type 3, 100% for Type 4, and 100% for Type 5 (p < 0.001). Tumor recurrence occurred in 67 patients, including isolated local recurrence (14 patients), isolated metastatic disease (31 patients), and combined local and metastatic disease (22 patients). At 5 years, the local recurrence-free survival was 77% and the metastasis-free survival was 68%. Complications occurred in 153 patients (78%), most commonly wound complications (95 patients [48%]). Following the procedure, 154 patients (79%) were ambulatory, and the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS93) score was 60% ± 23%. CONCLUSIONS: Although resections of sacral malignancies are associated with complications, they can be curative in a majority of patients, with a majority of patients ambulatory with an acceptable functional outcome considering the extent of the resection. At our institution, this classification allows for communication between surgical teams and implies a surgical approach, staging, reconstruction, and potential functional outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

14.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(8): e2739, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983749

RESUMO

Foam-mediated external suction (FMES) has previously shown to improve tissue microcirculation. We hypothesized that preconditioning fasciocutaneous perforator flaps with FMES would augment perfusion and demonstrate greater capillary recruitment. Methods: Gluteal perforator flaps were designed on sixteen 400 g rats. Continuous FMES at -125 mm Hg was applied on one side (intervention) to precondition tissue for 5 days, with the contralateral side as a paired control. In group A, we assessed changes following pretreatment, after surgery, and 7 days postprocedure, and in group B, we evaluated changes during preconditioning alone. In group A (N = 8), control and intervention flaps were assessed using laser-assisted indocyanine green fluorescence angiography. In group B, flap regions were assessed using 4-dimensional computed tomographic angiography. All flaps were analyzed for microvessel density using micro-computed tomography and histological assessment using hematoxylin and eosin and CD3 immunohistochemistry. Results: Thirty-two flaps were included in this study (N = 16 intervention and matched controls). Four-dimensional computed tomographic angiography demonstrated 17% greater tissue perfusion in preconditioned flaps (mean, 78.7 HU; SD, 8.8) versus controls (mean, 67.3 HU; SD, 15.7; P < 0.01). Laser-assisted indocyanine green fluorescence angiography showed a 30% higher mean absolute intensity in preconditioned flaps versus controls (P < 0.01). Postsurgery mean absolute intensity in preconditioned flaps remained 21% higher than in controls (P = 0.03). Preconditioned flaps demonstrated a 2-fold increase in mean vessel volume of 9.1 mm3 (SD, 7) versus 4.5 mm3 (SD, 3) in controls (P = 0.04); there was a 33% higher mean area fraction of CD31 in preconditioned flaps, 3.9% (SD, 3) versus 2.9% (SD, 3) in controls (P = 0.03). Conclusion: FMES preconditioning has the potential to augment vascularity of tissue for flap harvest; however, further experimental studies are required to optimize strategies and evaluate long-term effects for clinical applications.

15.
J Orthop Res ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936480

RESUMO

Reducing tendon failure after repair remains a challenge due to its poor intrinsic healing ability. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of a novel tissue-engineered purified exosome product (PEP) patch on tendon healing in a canine ex vivo model. Lacerated flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons from three canines' paws underwent simulated repair with Tisseel patch alone or biopotentiated with PEP. For ex vivo model, FDP tendons were randomly divided into 3 groups: FDP tendon repair alone group (Control), Tisseel patch alone group, and Tisseel plus PEP (TEPEP) patch group. Following four weeks of tissue culture, the failure load, stiffness, histology and gene expression of the healing tendon were evaluated. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that exosomes of PEP the diameters ranged from 93.70 to 124.65 nm, and the patch release test showed this TEPEP patch could stably release the extracellular vesicle over two weeks. The failure strength of tendon in the TEPEP patch group was significantly higher than that of the Control group and Tisseel alone group. The results of histology showed that the TEPEP patch group had the smallest healing gap and the largest number of fibroblasts on the surface of the injured tendon. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that TEPEP patch increased the expression of COL3, MMP2, MMP3, MMP14, and reduced the expression of TGF-beta1, IL-6. This study shows that the TEPEP patch could promote tendon repair by reducing gap formation and inflammatory response, increasing the activity of endogenous cells and the formation of type III collagen. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
Clin Plast Surg ; 47(4): 561-572, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892801

RESUMO

As microsurgical expertise has improved, allowing for the safe transfer of smaller and more refined flaps, free tissue transfer has continued to gain popularity for the management of pediatric soft tissue and bony defects. For the past 2 decades pediatric microsurgery has been shown to be technically feasible and reliable. The major advantage of free tissue transfer in children is the ability to reconstruct defects in a single stage, avoiding the historic treatments of skin grafting, tissue expansion, and pedicled flaps. This article reviews the present state-of-the-art in pediatric microsurgery.

17.
Clin Plast Surg ; 47(4): 621-634, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892805

RESUMO

The pedicled anterolateral thigh (PALT) flap is an underutilized flap for locoregional reconstruction largely because methods to maximize its reach are neither universally implemented nor fully understood. In addition, most of the available literature has focused on the utility of the free anterolateral thigh flap with less emphasis on the PALT flap. Moreover, flap design concepts to maximize its utility and reach and optimize outcomes have not been comprehensively described. In an effort to address this knowledge gap, the authors sought to review their institution's experience with the PALT flap for locoregional reconstruction.

18.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 73(11): 1989-1994, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917570

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nonunion is a known complication following fracture in the setting of radiotherapy. Free vascularized fibular (FVF) flaps have been used successfully in the treatment of segmental bone defects; however, their efficacy in the treatment of radiated nonunions is limited. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the outcome following FVFG for radiation-associated femoral fracture nonunions. METHODS: 23 (11 male and 12 female; mean age 60 ±â€¯12 years) patients underwent FVF for radiation-associated femoral fracture nonunions. The most common indication for radiotherapy was soft tissue sarcomas (n = 16). The mean follow-up was 5 ±â€¯4 years. Mean radiation dose was 51 ±â€¯14 Gy at a mean of 11 ±â€¯3 years prior to FVF. The mean FVF length was 17 ±â€¯4 cm and placed commonly with an intramedullary nail (n = 18). RESULTS: First time union was 52% (n = 12) following additional bone grafting, the overall union was 78% (n = 18) at a mean of 13 ±â€¯6 months. Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scores improved from 30% preoperatively to 73% at latest follow-up (p < 0.0001). Five fractures failed to unite; 3 were converted to proximal femoral replacements. CONCLUSIONS: FVF are a reasonable treatment option for radiation-associated femoral fracture nonunions, providing a union rate of 78% and an improvement in functional outcome. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV.

19.
J Surg Oncol ; 122(7): 1356-1363, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794224

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treatment for bone sarcomas are large undertakings. Emergency department (ED) visits and unplanned hospital readmissions are a potential target for cost containment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for ED visits and unplanned readmissions following extremity bone sarcoma surgery. METHODS: Data from Optum Labs Data Warehouse, a national administrative claims database, was analyzed to identify patients with extremity bone sarcomas from 2006 to 2017. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with ED visits and readmissions. RESULTS: Of 1390 (743 males, 647 female) adult patients, 137 (12%) visited the ED and 245 (18%) were readmitted within 30 days of discharge. The most common indication for ED visits (n = 63, 45.9%) and readmission (n = 119, 48.5%) were complications of surgery. Length of stay >10 days was associated with ED utilization (OR, 1.83; P = .01) and readmission (OR, 4.47; P < .001). CONCLUSION: One in ten patients will use the ED, and one in five patients will be readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of discharge following extremity bone sarcoma surgery. Length of stay was associated with ED visits and readmission. These patients could be targeted with alternative management strategies in the outpatient setting with early clinical follow-up to minimize readmission.

20.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 40(9): e833-e838, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limb salvage of the proximal tibia can be difficult due to the growth potential of and functional demands of the pediatric patients. Multiple reconstruction techniques exist, however, the ideal form of reconstruction is yet to be elucidated. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate outcomes in patients with an intercalary resection of the proximal tibia reconstructed with an allograft with or without a free vascularized fibula flap (FVF). METHODS: Seventeen pediatric patients (9 males, 8 females) underwent lower extremity limb salvage with the use of intercalary cadaveric allograft at a mean age of 12±4 years. The most common diagnoses were osteosarcoma (n=6) and Ewing sarcoma (n=6). Patients were reconstructed with an allograft alone (n=6) or supplemented with an FVF (n=11). RESULTS: All surviving patients had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up, with the mean follow-up of 12±7 years. The mean time to union of the allograft was 11±4 months, with 6 patients requiring additional bone grafting. There was no difference in the need for an additional bone graft (odds ratio=1.14, P=1.0) between patients with an FVF and those without. Four patients underwent an amputation, all with an allograft alone, due to disease recurrence (n=2) and due to infection (n=2). As such, there was a higher 10-year overall limb-salvage rate when the allograft was combined with an FVF compared with an allograft alone (100% vs. 33%, P=0.001). At last follow-up, the mean Mankin and Musculoskeletal Tumor Society rating was 86%, with a higher mean score in patients reconstructed with an FVF (94% vs. 70%, P=0.002). CONCLUSION: Use of an intercalary allograft supplemented with an FVF to reconstruct the proximal tibia provides a durable means of reconstruction with an excellent functional outcome following oncologic proximal tibia resection in a pediatric population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-therapeutic level.

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