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1.
J Neurol ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452932

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To describe the reasons for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and to evaluate the outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) admitted to the ICU. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of 101 PCNSL patients admitted to 3 ICUs over a two-decade period. RESULTS: Acute respiratory failure, mainly secondary to aspiration pneumonia and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, was the leading reason for ICU admission (33%). Aspiration pneumonia was more common in patients with brainstem tumor (67% vs. 0%, p < 0.001), whereas patients with intracranial hypertension were more frequently admitted for coma without seizures (61% vs. 9%, p = 0.004). Hospital and 6-month mortality were 47% and 53%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, admission for coma without seizures (OR 7.28), cancer progression (OR 3.47), mechanical ventilation (OR 6.58) and vasopressors (OR 4.07) were associated with higher 6-month mortality. Karnofsky performance status prior to ICU admission was independently associated with lower 6-month mortality (OR 0.96). DISCUSSION: Six-month survival of PCNSL patients admitted to the ICU appears to be relatively favorable (around 50%) and the presence of PCNSL alone is not a relevant criterion for ICU refusal. Predictive factors of mortality may help clinicians to make optimal triage decisions.

2.
Chest ; 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The decision making on antiplatelet drug withdrawal or continuation before performing a pleural procedure is based on the balance between the risk of bleeding associated with the antiplatelet therapy and the risk of arterial thrombosis due to its interruption. Knowledge on antiplatelet therapy-associated risk of bleeding after pleural procedure is lacking. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is the risk of bleeding associated with antiplatelet drugs increased in patients undergoing pleural procedures? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a French multicenter cohort study in 19 centers. The main outcome was the occurrence of bleeding, defined as hematoma, hemoptysis or hemothorax, during the 24 hours following the pleural procedure. Serious bleedings were defined as bleeding requiring blood transfusion, respiratory support, endotracheal intubation, embolization, surgery or death. RESULTS: A total of 1124 patients was included (66% of men, median age of 62.6 ± 27.7 years), of whom 182 were on antiplatelet therapy and 942 were not. Fifteen patients experienced a bleeding event including eight serious bleedings. The 24-hour incidence of bleeding was 3.23% (95% CI, 1.08 to 5.91) in the antiplatelet group and 0.96% (95% CI, 0.43 to 1.60) in the control group. The occurrence of bleeding events was significantly associated with antiplatelet therapy in univariate (OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.14 to 9.66; p=0.021) and multivariate analysis (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.01 to 17.03; p=0.044) after adjusting for demographic data and the main risks factors for bleeding. Likewise, antiplatelet therapy was significantly associated with serious bleeding in univariate (OR, 8.61; 95% CI, 2.09 to 42.3; p=0.003) and multivariate analysis (OR, 7.27; 95% CI, 1.18 to 56.1; p=0.032) after adjusting for the number of risk factors for bleeding. INTERPRETATION: Antiplatelet therapy was associated with an increased risk of post-pleural procedure bleeding and serious bleeding. Future guidelines should take into account these results for patient safety.

3.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 669, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diaphragm dysfunction is highly prevalent in mechanically ventilated patients. Recent work showed that changes in diaphragm shear modulus (ΔSMdi) assessed using ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) are strongly related to changes in Pdi (ΔPdi) in healthy subjects. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between ΔSMdi and ΔPdi in mechanically ventilated patients, and whether ΔSMdi is responsive to change in respiratory load when varying the ventilator settings. METHODS: A prospective, monocentric study was conducted in a 15-bed ICU. Patients were included if they met the readiness-to-wean criteria. Pdi was continuously monitored using a double-balloon feeding catheter orally introduced. The zone of apposition of the right hemidiaphragm was imaged using a linear transducer (SL10-2, Aixplorer, Supersonic Imagine, France). Ultrasound recordings were performed under various pressure support settings and during a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). A breath-by-breath analysis was performed, allowing the direct comparison between ΔPdi and ΔSMdi. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) were used to investigate within-individual relationships between variables, and repeated measure correlations (R) were used for determining overall relationships between variables. Linear mixed models were used to compare breathing indices across the conditions of ventilation. RESULTS: Thirty patients were included and 930 respiratory cycles were analyzed. Twenty-five were considered for the analysis. A significant correlation was found between ΔPdi and ΔSMdi (R = 0.45, 95% CIs [0.35 0.54], p < 0.001). Individual correlation displays a significant correlation in 8 patients out of 25 (r = 0.55-0.86, all p < 0.05, versus r = - 0.43-0.52, all p > 0.06). Changing the condition of ventilation similarly affected ΔPdi and ΔSMdi. Patients in which ΔPdi-ΔSMdi correlation was non-significant had a faster respiratory rate as compared to that of patient with a significant ΔPdi-ΔSMdi relationship (median (Q1-Q3), 25 (18-33) vs. 21 (15-26) breaths.min-1, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that ultrasound SWE may be a promising surrogate to Pdi in mechanically ventilated patients. Respiratory rate appears to negatively impact SMdi measurement. Technological developments are needed to generalize this method in tachypneic patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03832231 .

4.
J Neurol ; 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860544

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Only limited data are available regarding the long-term prognosis of patients with high-grade glioma discharged alive from the intensive care unit. We sought to quantify 1-year mortality and evaluate the association between mortality and (1) functional status, and (2) management of anticancer therapy in patients with high-grade glioma discharged alive from the intensive care unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of patients with high-grade glioma admitted to two intensive care units between January 2009 and June 2018. Functional status was assessed by the Karnofsky Performance Status. Anticancer therapy after discharge was classified as (1) continued (unchanged), (2) modified (changed or stopped), or (3) initiated (for newly diagnosed disease). RESULTS: Ninety-one high-grade glioma patients (73% of whom had glioblastoma) were included and 78 (86%) of these patients were discharged alive from the intensive care unit. Anticancer therapy was continued, modified, and initiated in 41%, 42%, and 17% of patients, respectively. Corticosteroid therapy at the time of ICU admission [odds ratio (OR) 0.07] and cancer progression (OR 0.09) was independently associated with continuation of anticancer therapy. The mortality rate 1 year after ICU admission was 73%. On multivariate analysis, continuation of anticancer therapy (OR 0.18) and Karnofsky performance status on admission (OR 0.90) were independently associated with lower 1-year mortality. CONCLUSION: The presence of high-grade glioma is not sufficient to justify refusal of intensive care unit admission. Performance status and continuation of anticancer therapy are associated with higher survival after intensive care unit discharge. PREVIOUS PRESENTATION: Preliminary results were presented at the most recent congress of the French Intensive Care Society, Paris, 2019.

5.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 418, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak is spreading worldwide. To date, no specific treatment has convincingly demonstrated its efficacy. Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir have potential interest, but virological and clinical data are scarce, especially in critically ill patients. METHODS: The present report took the opportunity of compassionate use and successive drug shortages to compare the effects of two therapeutic options, lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine, as compared to standard of care only. The primary outcomes were treatment escalation (intubation, extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation support, or renal replacement therapy) after day 1 until day 28. Secondary outcomes included ventilator-free days at day 28, mortality at day 14 and day 28, treatment safety issues and changes in respiratory tracts, and plasma viral load (as estimated by cycle threshold value) between admission and day 7. RESULTS: Eighty patients were treated during a 4-week period and included in the analysis: 22 (28%) received standard of care only, 20 (25%) patients received lopinavir/ritonavir associated to standard of care, and 38 (47%) patients received hydroxychloroquine and standard of care. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between the 3 groups. Treatment escalation occurred in 9 (41%), 10 (50%), and 15 (39%) patients who received standard of care only, standard of care and lopinavir/ritonavir, and standard of care and hydroxychloroquine, respectively (p = 0.567). There was no significant difference between groups regarding the number of ventilator-free days at day 28 and mortality at day 14 and day 28. Finally, there was no significant change between groups in viral respiratory or plasma load between admission and day 7. CONCLUSION: In critically ill patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia, no difference was found between hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir/ritonavir as compared to standard of care only on the proportion of patients who needed treatment escalation at day 28. Further randomized controlled trials are required to demonstrate whether these drugs may be useful in this context.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Padrão de Cuidado , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Radiology ; 297(3): E313-E323, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677875

RESUMO

Background This study provides a detailed imaging assessment in a large series of patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and presenting with neurologic manifestations. Purpose To review the MRI findings associated with acute neurologic manifestations in patients with COVID-19. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted between March 23 and May 7, 2020, at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, a reference center for COVID-19 in the Paris area. Adult patients were included if they had a diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with acute neurologic manifestations and referral for brain MRI. Patients with a prior history of neurologic disease were excluded. The characteristics and frequency of different MRI features were investigated. The findings were analyzed separately in patients in intensive care units (ICUs) and other departments (non-ICU). Results During the inclusion period, 1176 patients suspected of having COVID-19 were hospitalized. Of 308 patients with acute neurologic symptoms, 73 met the inclusion criteria and were included (23.7%): thirty-five patients were in the ICU (47.9%) and 38 were not (52.1%). The mean age was 58.5 years ± 15.6 [standard deviation], with a male predominance (65.8% vs 34.2%). Forty-three patients had abnormal MRI findings 2-4 weeks after symptom onset (58.9%), including 17 with acute ischemic infarct (23.3%), one with a deep venous thrombosis (1.4%), eight with multiple microhemorrhages (11.3%), 22 with perfusion abnormalities (47.7%), and three with restricted diffusion foci within the corpus callosum consistent with cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (4.1%). Multifocal white matter-enhancing lesions were seen in four patients in the ICU (5%). Basal ganglia abnormalities were seen in four other patients (5%). Cerebrospinal fluid analyses were negative for SARS-CoV-2 in all patients tested (n = 39). Conclusion In addition to cerebrovascular lesions, perfusion abnormalities, cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum, and intensive care unit-related complications, we identified two patterns including white matter-enhancing lesions and basal ganglia abnormalities that could be related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Anesthesiology ; 132(5): 1114-1125, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of diaphragm function with diaphragm ultrasound seems to bring important clinical information to describe diaphragm work and weakness. When the diaphragm is weak, extradiaphragmatic muscles may play an important role, but whether ultrasound can also assess their activity and function is unknown. This study aimed to (1) evaluate the feasibility of measuring the thickening of the parasternal intercostal and investigate the responsiveness of this muscle to assisted ventilation; and (2) evaluate whether a combined evaluation of the parasternal and the diaphragm could predict failure of a spontaneous breathing trial. METHODS: First, an exploratory evaluation of the parasternal in 23 healthy subjects. Second, the responsiveness of parasternal to several pressure support levels were studied in 16 patients. Last, parasternal activity was compared in presence or absence of diaphragm dysfunction (assessed by magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerves and ultrasound) and in case of success/failure of a spontaneous breathing trial in 54 patients. RESULTS: The parasternal was easily accessible in all patients. The interobserver reproducibility was good (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.89). There was a progressive decrease in parasternal muscle thickening fraction with increasing levels of pressure support (Spearman ρ = -0.61 [95% CI, -0.74 to -0.44]; P < 0.0001) and an inverse correlation between parasternal muscle thickening fraction and the pressure generating capacity of the diaphragm (Spearman ρ = -0.79 [95% CI, -0.87 to -0.66]; P < 0.0001). The parasternal muscle thickening fraction was higher in patients with diaphragm dysfunction: 17% (10 to 25) versus 5% (3 to 8), P < 0.0001. The pressure generating capacity of the diaphragm, the diaphragm thickening fraction and the parasternal thickening fraction similarly predicted failure or the spontaneous breathing trial. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound assessment of the parasternal intercostal muscle is feasible in the intensive care unit and provides novel information regarding the respiratory capacity load balance.


Assuntos
Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Intercostais/diagnóstico por imagem , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Adulto , Diafragma/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Músculos Intercostais/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 1, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness and diaphragm dysfunction are frequent conditions, both associated with poor prognosis in critically ill patients. While it is well established that ICU-acquired weakness severely impairs long-term prognosis, the association of diaphragm dysfunction with this outcome has never been reported. This study investigated whether diaphragm dysfunction is associated with negative long-term outcomes and whether the coexistence of diaphragm dysfunction and ICU-acquired weakness has a particular association with 2-year survival and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: This study is an ancillary study derived from an observational cohort study. Patients under mechanical ventilation were enrolled at the time of their first spontaneous breathing trial. Diaphragm dysfunction was defined by tracheal pressure generated by phrenic nerve stimulation < 11 cmH2O and ICU-acquired weakness was defined by Medical Research Council (MRC) score < 48. HRQOL was evaluated with the SF-36 questionnaire. RESULTS: Sixty-nine of the 76 patients enrolled in the original study were included in the survival analysis and 40 were interviewed. Overall 2-year survival was 67% (46/69): 64% (29/45) in patients with diaphragm dysfunction, 71% (17/24) in patients without diaphragm dysfunction, 46% (11/24) in patients with ICU-acquired weakness and 76% (34/45) in patients without ICU-acquired weakness. Patients with concomitant diaphragm dysfunction and ICU-acquired weakness had a poorer outcome with a 2-year survival rate of 36% (5/14) compared to patients without diaphragm function and ICU-acquired weakness [79% (11/14) (p < 0.01)]. Health-related quality of life was not influenced by the presence of ICU-acquired weakness, diaphragm dysfunction or their coexistence. CONCLUSIONS: ICU-acquired weakness but not diaphragm dysfunction was associated with a poor 2-year survival of critically ill patients.

9.
Crit Care Med ; 48(1): 83-90, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Thyroid storm represents a rare but life-threatening endocrine emergency. Only rare data are available on its management and the outcome of the most severe forms requiring ICU admission. We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, management and in-ICU and 6-month survival rates of patients with those most severe thyroid storm forms requiring ICU admission. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, national study over an 18-year period (2000-2017). SETTING: Thirty-one French ICUs. PATIENTS: The local medical records of patients from each participating ICU were screened using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Inclusion criteria were "definite thyroid storm," as defined by the Japanese Thyroid Association criteria, and at least one thyroid storm-related organ failure. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included in the study. Amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease represented the main thyroid storm etiologies (30 [33%] and 24 [26%] patients, respectively), while hyperthyroidism was unknown in 29 patients (32%) before ICU admission. Amiodarone use (24 patients [26%]) and antithyroid-drug discontinuation (13 patients [14%]) were the main thyroid storm-triggering factors. No triggering factor was identified for 30 patients (33%). Thirty-five patients (38%) developed cardiogenic shock within the first 48 hours after ICU admission. In-ICU and 6-month postadmission mortality rates were 17% and 22%, respectively. ICU nonsurvivors more frequently required vasopressors, extracorporeal membrane of oxygenation, renal replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation, and/or therapeutic plasmapheresis. Multivariable analyses retained Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score without cardiovascular component (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.46; p = 0.025) and cardiogenic shock within 48 hours post-ICU admission (odds ratio, 9.43; 1.77-50.12; p = 0.008) as being independently associated with in-ICU mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid storm requiring ICU admission causes high in-ICU mortality. Multiple organ failure and early cardiogenic shock seem to markedly impact the prognosis, suggesting a prompt identification and an aggressive management.


Assuntos
Crise Tireóidea , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Crise Tireóidea/diagnóstico , Crise Tireóidea/mortalidade , Crise Tireóidea/terapia
10.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 115, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The French Emergency Medicine Society, the French Intensive Care Society and the Pediatric Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine French-Speaking Group edited guidelines on severe asthma exacerbation (SAE) in adult and pediatric patients. RESULTS: The guidelines were related to 5 areas: diagnosis, pharmacological treatment, oxygen therapy and ventilation, patients triage, specific considerations regarding pregnant women. The literature analysis and formulation of the guidelines were conducted according to the Grade of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. An extensive literature research was conducted based on publications indexed in PubMed™ and Cochrane™ databases. Of the 21 formalized guidelines, 4 had a high level of evidence (GRADE 1+/-) and 7 a low level of evidence (GRADE 2+/-). The GRADE method was inapplicable to 10 guidelines, which resulted in expert opinions. A strong agreement was reached for all guidelines. CONCLUSION: The conjunct work of 36 experts from 3 scientific societies resulted in 21 formalized recommendations to help improving the emergency and intensive care management of adult and pediatric patients with SAE.

11.
Ann Intensive Care ; 8(1): 87, 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-synthetase (AS) and dermato-pulmonary associated with anti-MDA-5 antibodies (aMDA-5) syndromes are near one of the other autoimmune inflammatory myopathies potentially responsible for severe acute interstitial lung disease. We undertook a 13-year retrospective multicenter study in 35 French ICUs in order to describe the clinical presentation and the outcome of patients admitted to the ICU for acute respiratory failure (ARF) revealing AS or aMDA-5 syndromes. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2017, 47 patients (23 males; median age 60 [1st-3rd quartiles 52-69] years, no comorbidity 85%) were admitted to the ICU for ARF revealing AS (n = 28, 60%) or aMDA-5 (n = 19, 40%) syndromes. Muscular, articular and cutaneous manifestations occurred in 11 patients (23%), 14 (30%) and 20 (43%) patients, respectively. Seventeen of them (36%) had no extra-pulmonary manifestations. C-reactive protein was increased (139 [40-208] mg/L), whereas procalcitonine was not (0.30 [0.12-0.56] ng/mL). Proportion of patients with creatine kinase ≥ 2N was 20% (n = 9/47). Forty-two patients (89%) had ARDS, which was severe in 86%, with a rate of 17% (n = 8/47) of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation requirement. Proportion of patients who received corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulins and plasma exchange were 100%, 72%, 15%, 21% and 17%, respectively. ICU and hospital mortality rates were 45% (n = 21/47) and 51% (n = 24/47), respectively. Patients with aMDA-5 dermato-pulmonary syndrome had a higher hospital mortality than those with AS syndrome (n = 16/19, 84% vs. n = 8/28, 29%; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Intensivists should consider inflammatory myopathies as a cause of ARF of unknown origin. Extra-pulmonary manifestations are commonly lacking. Mortality is high, especially in aMDA-5 dermato-pulmonary syndrome.

12.
Ann Intensive Care ; 8(1): 53, 2018 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diaphragm dysfunction is defined by a value of twitch tracheal pressure in response to magnetic phrenic stimulation (twitch pressure) amounting to less than 11 cmH2O. This study assessed whether this threshold or a lower one would predict accurately weaning failure from mechanical ventilation. Twitch pressure was compared to ultrasound measurement of diaphragm function. METHODS: In patients undergoing a first spontaneous breathing trial, diaphragm function was evaluated by twitch pressure and by diaphragm ultrasound (thickening fraction). Receiver operating characteristics curves were computed to determine the best thresholds predicting failure of spontaneous breathing trial. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients were evaluated, 48 (63%) succeeded and 28 (37%) failed the spontaneous breathing trial. The optimal thresholds of twitch pressure and thickening fraction to predict failure of the spontaneous breathing trial were, respectively, 7.2 cmH2O and 25.8%, respectively. The receiver operating characteristics curves were 0.80 (95% CI 0.70-0.89) for twitch pressure and 0.82 (95% CI 0.73-0.93) for thickening fraction. Both receiver operating characteristics curves were similar (p = 0.83). A twitch pressure value lower than 11 cmH2O (the traditional cutoff for diaphragm dysfunction) predicted failure of the spontaneous breathing trial with a sensitivity of 89% (95% CI 72-98%) and a specificity of 45% (95% CI 30-60%). CONCLUSIONS: Failure of spontaneous breathing trial can be predicted with a lower value of twitch pressure than the value defining diaphragm dysfunction. Twitch pressure and thickening fraction had similar strong performance in the prediction of failure of the spontaneous breathing trial.

13.
Crit Care ; 21(1): 284, 2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor sleep is common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, where environmental factors contribute to reduce and fragment sleep. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of earplugs and eye mask on sleep architecture in ICU patients. METHODS: A single-center randomized controlled trial of 64 ICU patients was conducted from July 2012 to December 2013. Patients were randomly assigned to sleep with or without earplugs and an eye mask from inclusion until ICU discharge. Polysomnography was performed on the first day and night following inclusion. The primary outcome was the proportion of stage N3 sleep over total sleep time. Secondary outcomes were other descriptors of sleep and major outcome variables. RESULTS: In the intervention group, nine (30%) patients did not wear earplugs all night long. The proportion of N3 sleep was 21 [7-28]% in the intervention group and 11 [3-23]% in the control group (p = 0.09). The duration of N3 sleep was higher among the patients in the intervention group who wore earplugs all night long than in the control group (74 [32-106] vs. 31 [7-76] minutes, p = 0.039). The number of prolonged awakenings was smaller in the intervention group (21 [19-26] vs. 31 [21-47] in the control group, p = 0.02). No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of clinical outcome variables. CONCLUSIONS: Earplugs and eye mask reduce long awakenings and increase N3 duration when they are well tolerated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02292134 . Registered on 21 Nov 2013.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção das Orelhas/normas , Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos/normas , Privação do Sono/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Luz/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Máscaras/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Paris , Polissonografia/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Privação do Sono/terapia
14.
Eur Respir J ; 47(6): 1818-28, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27076590

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease causing diaphragm weakness that can be partially compensated by inspiratory neck muscle recruitment. This disappears during sleep, which is compatible with a cortical contribution to the drive to breathe. We hypothesised that ALS patients with respiratory failure exhibit respiratory-related cortical activity, relieved by noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and related to dyspnoea.We studied 14 ALS patients with respiratory failure. Electroencephalographic recordings (EEGs) and electromyographic recordings of inspiratory neck muscles were performed during spontaneous breathing and NIV. Dyspnoea was evaluated using the Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile.Eight patients exhibited slow EEG negativities preceding inspiration (pre-inspiratory potentials) during spontaneous breathing. Pre-inspiratory potentials were attenuated during NIV (p=0.04). Patients without pre-inspiratory potentials presented more advanced forms of ALS and more severe respiratory impairment, but less severe dyspnoea. Patients with pre-inspiratory potentials had stronger inspiratory neck muscle activation and more severe dyspnoea during spontaneous breathing.ALS-related diaphragm weakness can engage cortical resources to augment the neural drive to breathe. This might reflect a compensatory mechanism, with the intensity of dyspnoea a negative consequence. Disease progression and the corresponding neural loss could abolish this phenomenon. A putative cognitive cost should be investigated.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Ventilação não Invasiva , Respiração , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Cognição , Diafragma , Eletroencefalografia , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular , Sono
15.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 87(10): 1045-50, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27090433

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is part of standard care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Intolerance or unavailability of NIV, as well as the quality of correction of nocturnal hypoventilation, has a direct impact on prognosis. OBJECTIVES: We describe the importance of NIV failure due to upper airway obstructive events, the clinical characteristics, as well as their impact on the prognosis of ALS. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the data of 190 patients with ALS and NIV in a single centre for the period 2011-2014. 179 patients tolerating NIV for more than 4 h per night without leaks were analysed. RESULTS: Among the 179 patients, after correction of leaks, 73 remained inadequately ventilated at night (defined as more than 5% of the night spent at <90% of SpO2), as a result of obstructive events in 67% of cases (n=48). Patients who remained inadequately ventilated after optimal adjustment of ventilator settings presented with shorter survival than adequately ventilated patients. Unexpectedly, patients with upper airway obstructive events without nocturnal desaturation and in whom no adjustment of treatment was therefore performed also presented with shorter survival. On initiation of NIV, no difference was demonstrated between patients with and without upper airway obstructive events. In all patients, upper airway obstruction was concomitant with reduction of ventilatory drive. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that upper airway obstruction during NIV occurs in patients with ALS and is associated with poorer prognosis. Such events should be identified as they can be corrected by adjusting ventilator settings.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/mortalidade , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/terapia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Ventilação não Invasiva , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Polissonografia , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Riluzol/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Sleep ; 38(11): 1743-9, 2015 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26158887

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) involves recurrent sleep-related upper airways (UA) collapse. UA mechanical properties and neural control are altered, imposing a mechanical load on inspiration. UA collapse does not occur during wakefulness, hence arousal-dependent compensation. Experimental inspiratory loading in normal subjects elicits respiratory-related cortical activity. The objective of this study was to test whether awake OSAS patients would exhibit a similar cortical activity. DESIGN: Descriptive physiology study. SETTING: Sleep laboratory in a large university affiliated tertiary hospital. PATIENTS: 26 patients with moderate OSAS according to polysomnography (5 < apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≤ 30, n = 14) or severe OSAS (AHI > 30, n = 12); 13 non-OSAS patients for comparison. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS: Respiratory time-locked electroencephalographic segments ensemble averaged and analyzed for slow premotor potentials preceding inspiration ("pre-inspiratory potentials" [PIPs]). RESULTS: PIPs were present in 1/13 controls and 11/26 patients (P = 0.0336; 4/14 "moderate" and 7/12 "severe" patients). Awake OSAS patients therefore exhibit respiratory-related cortical activity during quiet breathing significantly more frequently than non-OSAS individuals. The corresponding PIPs resemble those observed during prepared voluntary inspirations and in response to experimental inspiratory loads in normal subjects, which involve a cortical network comprising the supplementary motor area. CONCLUSIONS: A respiratory-related cortical activity could contribute to the increased neural drive to upper airway and to inspiratory muscles that has previously been described in obstructive sleep apnea, and could therefore contribute to the arousal-dependent compensation of upper airway abnormalities. Whether or not such cortical compensatory mechanisms have cognitive consequences remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Respiração , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Nível de Alerta , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Sono
17.
N Engl J Med ; 372(23): 2185-96, 2015 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25981908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether noninvasive ventilation should be administered in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure is debated. Therapy with high-flow oxygen through a nasal cannula may offer an alternative in patients with hypoxemia. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, open-label trial in which we randomly assigned patients without hypercapnia who had acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and a ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less to high-flow oxygen therapy, standard oxygen therapy delivered through a face mask, or noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients intubated at day 28; secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality in the intensive care unit and at 90 days and the number of ventilator-free days at day 28. RESULTS: A total of 310 patients were included in the analyses. The intubation rate (primary outcome) was 38% (40 of 106 patients) in the high-flow-oxygen group, 47% (44 of 94) in the standard group, and 50% (55 of 110) in the noninvasive-ventilation group (P=0.18 for all comparisons). The number of ventilator-free days at day 28 was significantly higher in the high-flow-oxygen group (24±8 days, vs. 22±10 in the standard-oxygen group and 19±12 in the noninvasive-ventilation group; P=0.02 for all comparisons). The hazard ratio for death at 90 days was 2.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 3.99) with standard oxygen versus high-flow oxygen (P=0.046) and 2.50 (95% CI, 1.31 to 4.78) with noninvasive ventilation versus high-flow oxygen (P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with nonhypercapnic acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, treatment with high-flow oxygen, standard oxygen, or noninvasive ventilation did not result in significantly different intubation rates. There was a significant difference in favor of high-flow oxygen in 90-day mortality. (Funded by the Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique Interrégional 2010 of the French Ministry of Health; FLORALI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01320384.).


Assuntos
Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/instrumentação , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia/instrumentação , Insuficiência Respiratória/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade
18.
Crit Care ; 19: 56, 2015 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25879592

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective was to compare the impact of three assistance levels of different modes of mechanical ventilation; neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), proportional assist ventilation (PAV), and pressure support ventilation (PSV) on major features of patient-ventilator interaction. METHODS: PSV, NAVA, and PAV were set to obtain a tidal volume (VT) of 6 to 8 ml/kg (PSV100, NAVA100, and PAV100) in 16 intubated patients. Assistance was further decreased by 50% (PSV50, NAVA50, and PAV50) and then increased by 50% (PSV150, NAVA150, and PAV150) with all modes. The three modes were randomly applied. Airway flow and pressure, electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi), and blood gases were measured. VT, peak EAdi, coefficient of variation of VT and EAdi, and the prevalence of the main patient-ventilator asynchronies were calculated. RESULTS: PAV and NAVA prevented the increase of VT with high levels of assistance (median 7.4 (interquartile range (IQR) 5.7 to 10.1) ml/kg and 7.4 (IQR, 5.9 to 10.5) ml/kg with PAV150 and NAVA150 versus 10.9 (IQR, 8.9 to 12.0) ml/kg with PSV150, P <0.05). EAdi was higher with PAV than with PSV at level100 and level150. The coefficient of variation of VT was higher with NAVA and PAV (19 (IQR, 14 to 31)% and 21 (IQR 16 to 29)% with NAVA100 and PAV100 versus 13 (IQR 11 to 18)% with PSV100, P <0.05). The prevalence of ineffective triggering was lower with PAV and NAVA than with PSV (P <0.05), but the prevalence of double triggering was higher with NAVA than with PAV and PSV (P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PAV and NAVA both prevent overdistention, improve neuromechanical coupling, restore the variability of the breathing pattern, and decrease patient-ventilator asynchrony in fairly similar ways compared with PSV. Further studies are needed to evaluate the possible clinical benefits of NAVA and PAV on clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02056093 . Registered 18 December 2013.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Diafragma/fisiologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gasometria , Diafragma/inervação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Distribuição Aleatória , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia
19.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 118(8): 1023-30, 2015 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25663669

RESUMO

In normal humans during quiet breathing, expiration is mostly driven by elastic recoil of the lungs. Expiration becomes active when ventilation must be increased to meet augmented metabolic demands, or in response to expiratory loading, be it experimental or disease-related. The response to expiratory loading is considered to be mediated by both reflex and cortical mechanisms, but the latter phenomenon have not been neurophysiologically characterized. We recorded the EEG in 20 healthy volunteers (9 men, 11 women, age: 22 to 50 yr) during unloaded breathing, voluntary expirations, and in response to 50 cmH2O·l(-1)·s expiratory resistive load (ERL), 20 cmH2O expiratory threshold load (high ETL), and 10 cmH2O expiratory threshold load (low ETL). EEGs were processed by ensemble averaging expiratory time-locked segments and examined for pre-expiratory potentials, defined as a slow negative shift from the baseline signal preceding expiration, and suggestive of cortical preparation of expiration involving the supplementary motor area. Four subjects were excluded because of technical EEG problems. Pre-expiratory potentials were present in one subject at baseline and in all subjects during voluntary expirations. They were present in eight subjects during low ETL, in 15 subjects during high ETL, and in 13 subjets during ERL (control vs. low ETL, P = 0.008; control vs. high ETL, P < 0.001; and control vs. ERL, P < 0.001). Respiratory discomfort was more intense in the presence of pre-expiratory potentials (P < 0.001). These results provide a neurophysiological substrate to a cortical component of the physiological response to experimental expiratory loads in humans.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Expiração , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
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