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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575283

RESUMO

Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). An animal study revealed a distinct subset of IL-15-producing γδ T cells that correlate with disease severity. The aim of the current study was to test whether such a subset is also present in humans and its importance for the pathogenesis of MS. The peripheral blood from 29 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (including 6 relapses) and 22 controls was stained with monoclonal antibodies and analyzed with flow cytometry. The existence of IL-15+ γδ T cells was confirmed. Moreover, the percentage of IL-15+ γδ T is significantly increased in MS patients and correlates with disease severity. Nevertheless, additional functional studies are needed to fully understand the importance of those cells in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502425

RESUMO

NKT cells comprise three subsets-type I (invariant, iNKT), type II, and NKT-like cells, of which iNKT cells are the most studied subset. They are capable of rapid cytokine production after the initial stimulus, thus they may be important for polarisation of Th cells. Due to this, they may be an important cell subset in autoimmune diseases. In the current review, we are summarising results of NKT-oriented studies in major neurological autoimmune diseases-multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome and their corresponding animal models.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Miastenia Gravis/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Animais , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Miastenia Gravis/patologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/patologia
3.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501259

RESUMO

Selective IgA deficiency (sIgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency disease (PID), with an estimated occurrence from about 1:3000 to even 1:150, depending on population. sIgAD is diagnosed in adults and children after the 4th year of age, with immunoglobulin A level below 0.07 g/L and normal levels of IgM and IgG. Usually, the disease remains undiagnosed throughout the patient's life, due to its frequent asymptomatic course. If symptomatic, sIgAD is connected to more frequent viral and bacterial infections of upper respiratory, urinary, and gastrointestinal tracts, as well as autoimmune and allergic diseases. Interestingly, it may also be associated with other PIDs, such as IgG subclasses deficiency or specific antibodies deficiency. Rarely sIgAD can evolve to common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID). It should also be remembered that IgA deficiency may occur in the course of other conditions or result from their treatment. It is hypothesized that allergic diseases (e.g., eczema, rhinitis, asthma) are more common in patients diagnosed with this particular PID. Selective IgA deficiency, although usually mildly symptomatic, can be difficult for clinicians. The aim of the study is to summarize the connection between selective IgA deficiency and atopic diseases.

4.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571840

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is most known to cause a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal impairments; however, an increasing number of studies indicates that H. pylori infection might be involved in numerous extragastric diseases such as neurological, dermatological, hematologic, ocular, cardiovascular, metabolic, hepatobiliary, or even allergic diseases. In this review, we focused on the nervous system and aimed to summarize the findings regarding H. pylori infection and its involvement in the induction/progression of neurological disorders. Neurological impairments induced by H. pylori infection are primarily due to impairments in the gut-brain axis (GBA) and to an altered gut microbiota facilitated by H. pylori colonization. Currently, regarding a potential relationship between Helicobacter infection and neurological disorders, most of the studies are mainly focused on H. pylori.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/microbiologia , Animais , Humanos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209289

RESUMO

The continually evolving severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in a vast number of either acute or chronic medical impairments of a pathophysiology that is not yet fully understood. SARS-CoV-2 tropism for the organs is associated with bilateral organ cross-talks as well as targeted dysfunctions, among which acute kidney injury (AKI) seems to be highly prevalent in infected patients. The need for efficient management of COVID-related AKI patients is an aspect that is still being investigated by nephrologists; however, another reason for concern is a disturbingly high proportion of various types of kidney dysfunctions in patients who have recovered from COVID-19. Even though the clinical picture of AKI and COVID-related AKI seems to be quite similar, it must be considered that regarding the latter, little is known about both the optimal management and long-term consequences. These discrepancies raise an urgent need for further research aimed at evaluating the molecular mechanisms associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced kidney damage as well as standardized management of COVID-related AKI patients. The following review presents a comprehensive and most-recent insight into the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, recommended patient management, treatment strategies, and post-mortem findings in patients with COVID-related AKI.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , COVID-19/patologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Rabdomiólise/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937740

RESUMO

In the current study, we analysed the role and prognostic value of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). The frequency of circulating monocytic MDSC (M-MDSC; defined as CD14+CD11b+CD15-HLA-DR-/low cells) was assessed in correlation with clinical and laboratory parameters characterising the disease activity and patient immune status. Samples of peripheral blood from untreated CLL patients and healthy volunteers were stained with monoclonal antibodies for flow cytometry analysis. CLL patients with M-MDSC percentages above 9.35% (according to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis) had a shorter time-to-treatment and shorter survival time than the group with a lower percentage of M-MDSC. The M-MDSC percentage was higher in patients with adverse prognostic factors (i.e., 17p and 11q deletion and CD38 and ZAP-70 expression). A high M-MDSC percentage was linked to significantly lower expression of the CD3ζ in T cells. Furthermore, an analysis of immune regulatory molecules (arginase 1 (ARG1), nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß), and interleukin (IL)-10) was performed. By the means of flow cytometry and RT-qPCR, we showed an overexpression of three of them in M-MDSC of CLL patients. M-MDSC cells seem to be an important factor in the immunosuppressive microenvironment of CLL and seem to be a good and novel prognostic factor.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933213

RESUMO

One of the major challenges faced by modern nephrology is the identification of biomarkers associated with histopathological patterns or defined pathogenic mechanisms that may assist in the non-invasive diagnosis of kidney disease, particularly glomerulopathy. The identification of such molecules may allow prognostic subgroups to be established based on the type of disease, thereby predicting response to treatment or disease relapse. Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases, such as membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, IgA (immunoglobulin A) nephropathy, and diabetic nephropathy, along with the progressive development and standardization of plasma and urine proteomics techniques, have facilitated the identification of an increasing number of molecules that may be useful for these purposes. The growing number of studies on the role of TLR (toll-like receptor) receptors in the pathogenesis of kidney disease forces contemporary researchers to reflect on these molecules, which may soon join the group of renal biomarkers and become a helpful tool in the diagnosis of glomerulopathy. In this article, we conducted a thorough review of the literature on the role of TLRs in the pathogenesis of glomerulopathy. The role of TLR receptors as potential marker molecules for the development of neoplastic diseases is emphasized more and more often, as prognostic factors in diseases on several epidemiological backgrounds.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Prognóstico
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