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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2206: 89-101, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754813

RESUMO

The rabbit corneal micropocket assay uses the avascular cornea as a substrate to study angiogenesis in vivo. The continuous monitoring of neovascular growth in the same animal allows for the evaluation of drugs acting as suppressors or stimulators of angiogenesis. Through the use of standardized slow-release pellets, a predictable angiogenic response can be quantified over the course of 1-2 weeks. Uniform slow-release pellets are prepared by mixing purified angiogenic growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a synthetic polymer to allow for their slow release. A micropocket is surgically created in the cornea thickness under anesthesia and in sterile conditions. The angiogenesis stimulus (growth factor but also tissue fragment or cell suspension) is placed into the pocket in order to induce vascular outgrowth from the limbal capillaries where vessels are preexisting. On the following days, the neovascular development and progression are measured and qualified using a slit lamp, as well as the concomitant vascular phenotype or inflammatory features. The results of the assay allow to assess the ability of potential therapeutic molecules to modulate angiogenesis in vivo, both when released locally or given by ocular formulations or through systemic treatment. In this chapter the experimental details of the avascular rabbit cornea assay, the technical challenges, advantages, and limitations are discussed.

2.
Pharmacol Res ; 159: 104964, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485281

RESUMO

The vascular endothelium is one of the first barriers encountered by drugs and xenobiotics, which, once administered, enter the blood stream and diffuse to all organs through blood vessels. The continuous exposure of endothelial cells to drugs and chemical compounds turns out to be a huge risk for the cardiovascular system, as these substances could compromise endothelial vitality and function and create irreparable, localized or systemic damages. For this reason, a special attention should be paid to the safety of developing drugs on the cardiovascular system. In this study we focused our attention on carbonic anhydrase (CA)-IX inhibitors. CA-IX is an enzyme over-expressed in tumor cells in response to hypoxia, which is involved in pH control of the neoplastic mass microenvironment and in tumor progression. Specifically, we evaluated the safety on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) of CA-IX inhibitor AA-06-05, compared to its lead compound SLC-0111, for which the efficacy on tumor cells has already been proven. In this analysis we detected an impairment in viability and mitochondrial metabolism of HUVECs treated with AA-06-05 (but not with SLC-0111) in the concentration range 1-10 µM. These data were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the cell cycle negative regulator, p21, and a down-regulation of the pro-survival proteins ERK1/2 and AKT, both in their phosphorylated and total forms. The data obtained document the likelihood for CA-IX inhibitor AA-06-05 to be developed as new anticancer drug, but a particular attention should be paid to its potential side effects on endothelial cells due to its targeting on other CA isoforms as CA-I, with ubiquitous localization and physiological significance.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340282

RESUMO

Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) plays a pivotal role in regulation of pH in tumor milieu catalyzing carbonic acid formation by hydrating CO2. An acidification of tumor microenvironment contributes to tumor progression via multiple processes, including reduced cell-cell adhesion, increased migration and matrix invasion. We aimed to assess whether the pharmacological inhibition of CA-IX could impair tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Tumor epithelial cells from breast (MDA-MB-231) and lung (A549) cancer were used to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of sulfonamide CA-IX inhibitors. Two CA-IX enzyme blockers were tested, SLC-0111 (at present in phase Ib clinical trial) and AA-06-05. In these cells, the drugs inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion through shifting of the mesenchymal phenotype toward an epithelial one and by impairing matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) activity. The antitumor activity was elicited via apoptosis pathway activation. An upregulation of p53 was observed, which in turn regulated the activation of caspase-3. Inhibition of proteolytic activity was accompanied by upregulation of the endogenous tissue inhibitor TIMP-2. Collectively, these data confirm the potential use of CA-IX inhibitors, and in particular SLC-0111 and AA-06-05, as agents to be further developed, alone or in combination with other conventional anticancer drugs.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936443

RESUMO

Wound healing is a very complex process that allows organisms to survive injuries. It is strictly regulated by a number of biochemical and physical factors, mechanical forces included. Studying wound healing in space is interesting for two main reasons: (i) defining tools, procedures, and protocols to manage serious wounds and burns eventually occurring in future long-lasting space exploration missions, without the possibility of timely medical evacuation to Earth; (ii) understanding the role of gravity and mechanical factors in the healing process and scarring, thus contributing to unravelling the mechanisms underlying the switching between perfect regeneration and imperfect repair with scarring. In the study presented here, a new in vivo sutured wound healing model in the leech (Hirudo medicinalis) has been used to evaluate the effect of unloading conditions on the healing process and the effectiveness of platelet rich plasma (PRP) as a countermeasure. The results reveal that microgravity caused a healing delay and structural alterations in the repair tissue, which were prevented by PRP treatment. Moreover, investigating the effects of microgravity and PRP on an in vitro wound healing model, it was found that PRP is able to counteract the microgravity-induced impairment in fibroblast migration to the wound site. This could be one of the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of PRP in preventing healing impairment in unloading conditions.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas/metabolismo , Ausência de Peso , Cicatrização , Animais , Contagem de Células , Movimento Celular/genética , Colágeno/metabolismo , Elasticidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sanguessugas/fisiologia , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
5.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(2): 517-527, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725211

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays an important role in pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and, particularly, its major plasma metabolite HT-3O sulfate (HT-3Os) are known olive oil antioxidant and anti-inflammatory polyphenols which exert benefits against vascular diseases by improving endothelial function. However, to date the HT-3Os role in EndMT is not well known. METHODS: To investigate the HT-3Os effects on EndMT in the inflamed endothelium, we used an in vitro model of endothelial dysfunction, challenging endothelial cells (EC), human umbilical EC (HUVEC) and human retinal EC (HREC) with Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), an inflammatory agent. HREC were used as a specific model to investigate HT-3Os effects on vascular retinal diseases. RESULTS: We found that IL-1ß treatment-induced EndMT phenotype in both cell models, also changing cell morphology. HT-3Os protected EC against IL-1ß effects, recovering cell morphology and phenotype. Mechanistically, HT-3Os targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 FGFR1 expression and let-7 miRNA, controlled transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) signalling in EC, downregulating transcription factors expression (SNAI1 and ZEB2) and gene expression of late EndMT markers (FN1, VIM, NOTCH3, CNN1, MMP2 and MMP9). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that HT-3Os blunts pathological EndMT in inflamed EC, maintaining high let-7 miRNA expression and preventing activation of TGF-ß signalling.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817719

RESUMO

Melanoma and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines are characterized by an intrinsic population of cancer stem-like cells (CSC), and high expression of detoxifying isozymes, the aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), regulating the redox state. In this study, using melanoma and NSCLC cells, we demonstrate that ALDH3A1 isozyme overexpression and activity is closely associated with a highly aggressive mesenchymal and immunosuppressive profile. The contribution of ALDH3A1 to the stemness and immunogenic status of melanoma and NSCLC cells was evaluated by their ability to grow in 3D forming tumorspheres, and by the expression of markers for stemness, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and inflammation. Furthermore, in specimens from melanoma and NSCLC patients, we investigated the expression of ALDH3A1, PD-L1, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by immunohistochemistry. We show that cells engineered to overexpress the ALDH3A1 enzyme enriched the CSCs population in melanoma and NSCLC cultures, changing their transcriptome. In fact, we found increased expression of EMT markers, such as vimentin, fibronectin, and Zeb1, and of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive mediators, such as NFkB, prostaglandin E2, and interleukin-6 and -13. ALDH3A1 overexpression enhanced PD-L1 output in tumor cells and resulted in reduced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells when co-cultured with tumor cells. Furthermore, in tumor specimens from melanoma and NSCLC patients, ALDH3A1 expression was invariably correlated with PD-L1 and the pro-inflammatory marker COX-2. These findings link ALDH3A1 expression to tumor stemness, EMT and PD-L1 expression, and suggest that aldehyde detoxification is a redox metabolic pathway that tunes the immunological output of tumors.

7.
Cells ; 8(12)2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766389

RESUMO

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is used in substitutive and aesthetic medicine with various applications. Ultrapure absorbable HA (Bioregen®) and a mix of reticulated and free low molecular weight HA (Regenyal Idea Bioexpander®) (both provided by Regenyal Laboratories Srl, San Benedetto del Tronto (AP), Italy) represent a reliable hydrating device and skin filler, useful for skin blemishes, lines and wrinkles, and lip widening, respectively. The commercial products are known for their safety, but data on the molecular, cellular, and tissue responses are lacking. We aimed to evaluate the bioavailability and the pro-angiogenic features of the products Bioregen® and Bioexpander® in vitro on cultured endothelial cells (ECs) and dermal fibroblasts in vivo when injected into experimental animals. When added to fibroblasts and ECs, Bioexpander® induced cell migration. The two HA preparations were well tolerated, while a transient proangiogenic behavior of Bioexpander®, when implanted subcutaneously in mice, was found. The neovascular response was evident in the first week with higher levels of VEGF and FGF-2 before undergoing regression. In conclusion, our data strengthen the safety of HA synthetic preparations both in vitro and in vivo. Even if a proangiogenic response is documented, it is modest and transient, leading to tissue recovery and absence of an inflammatory infiltrate.

8.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694161

RESUMO

Cardiovascular functionality strictly depends on endothelial cell trophism and proper biochemical function. Any condition (environmental, pharmacological/toxicological, physical, or neuro-humoral) that changes the vascular endothelium has great consequences for the organism's wellness and on the outcome and evolution of severe cardiovascular pathologies. Thus, knowledge of the mechanisms, both endogenous and external, that affect endothelial dysfunction is pivotal to preventing and treating these disorders. In recent decades, significant attention has been focused on gut microbiota and how these symbiotic microorganisms can influence host health and disease development. Indeed, dysbiosis has been reported to be at the base of a range of different pathologies, including pathologies of the cardiovascular system. The study of the mechanism underlying this relationship has led to the identification of a series of metabolites (released by gut bacteria) that exert different effects on all the components of the vascular system, and in particular on endothelial cells. The imbalance of factors promoting or blunting endothelial cell viability and function and angiogenesis seems to be a potential target for the development of new therapeutic interventions. This review highlights the circulating factors identified to date, either directly produced by gut microbes or resulting from the metabolism of diet derivatives as polyphenols.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Humanos
9.
ACS Omega ; 4(9): 13962-13971, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497714

RESUMO

Silica nanostructures are widely investigated for theranostic applications since relatively mild and easy synthetic methods allow the fabrication of multicompartment nanoparticles (NPs) and fine modulation of their properties. Here, we report the optimization of a synthetic strategy leading to brightly fluorescent silica NPs with a high loading ability, up to 45 molecules per NP, of Sorafenib, a small molecule acting as an antiangiogenic drug. We demonstrate that these NPs can efficiently release the drug and they are able to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation and migration and network formation. Their lyophilization can endow them with long shelf stability, whereas, once in solution, they show a much slower release compared to analogous micellar systems. Interestingly, Sorafenib released from Pluronic silica NPs completely prevented endothelial cell responses and postreceptor mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling ignited by vascular endothelial growth factor, one of the major players of tumor angiogenesis. Our results indicate that these theranostic systems represent a promising structure for anticancer applications since NPs alone have no cytotoxic effect on cultured endothelial cells, a cell type to which drugs and exogenous material are always in contact once delivered.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9297, 2019 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243320

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain is characterized by an uncertain etiology and by a poor response to common therapies. The ineffectiveness and the frequent side effects of the drugs used to counteract neuropathic pain call for the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Laser therapy proved to be effective for reducing pain sensitivity thus improving the quality of life. However, its application parameters and efficacy in chronic pain must be further analyzed. We investigated the pain relieving and protective effect of Photobiomodulation Therapy in a rat model of compressive mononeuropathy induced by Chronic Constriction Injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI). Laser (MLS-MiS) applications started 7 days after surgery and were performed ten times over a three week period showing a reduction in mechanical hypersensitivity and spontaneous pain that started from the first laser treatment until the end of the experiment. The ex vivo analysis highlighted the protective role of laser through the myelin sheath recovery in the sciatic nerve, inhibition of iNOS expression and enhancement of EAAT-2 levels in the spinal cord. In conclusion, this study supports laser treatment as a future therapeutic strategy in patients suffering from neuropathic pain induced by trauma.

11.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat ; 143: 106344, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207300

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) as gefitinib are standard treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but resistance often occurs. This study demonstrates that NSCLC cells resistant to gefitinib (GR cells) displayed a significantly higher microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression and activity than parental cells. Overexpression of mPGES-1/prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) signaling in GR cells was associated with acquisition of mesenchymal and stem-like cell properties, nuclear EGFR translocation and tolerance to cisplatin. mPGES-1 inhibition reduced mesenchymal and stem-like properties, and nuclear EGFR translocation in GR cells. Consistently, inhibition of mPGES-1 activity enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin and responsiveness to gefitinib in GR cells. We propose the mPGES-1/PGE-2 signaling as a potential target for treating aggressive and resistant lung cancers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Prostaglandina-E Sintases/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Prostaglandina-E Sintases/deficiência , Prostaglandina-E Sintases/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2007: 151-166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148112

RESUMO

Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been characterized as an endogenous mediator able to control a series of cellular and tissue functions relevant for tissue homeostasis and repair such as angiogenesis. This chapter describes the tools and their use in a set of angiogenesis assays performed by using cultured endothelial cells in order to study the relevance of exogenous or endogenous H2S production and release during the occurrence of angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Humanos
14.
Eur J Med Chem ; 162: 290-320, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448418

RESUMO

Microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) are a class of clinically successful anti-cancer drugs. The emergence of multidrug resistance to MTAs imposes the need for developing new MTAs endowed with diverse mechanistic properties. Benzoxazepines were recently identified as a novel class of MTAs. These anticancer agents were thoroughly characterized for their antitumor activity, although, their exact mechanism of action remained elusive. Combining chemical, biochemical, cellular, bioinformatics and structural efforts we developed improved pyrrolonaphthoxazepines antitumor agents and their mode of action at the molecular level was elucidated. Compound 6j, one of the most potent analogues, was confirmed by X-ray as a colchicine-site MTA. A comprehensive structural investigation was performed for a complete elucidation of the structure-activity relationships. Selected pyrrolonaphthoxazepines were evaluated for their effects on cell cycle, apoptosis and differentiation in a variety of cancer cells, including multidrug resistant cell lines. Our results define compound 6j as a potentially useful optimized hit for the development of effective compounds for treating drug-resistant tumors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Oxazepinas/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Oxazepinas/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 37(1): 311, 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a member of aldehyde dehydrogenase family, is a marker of stemness in breast cancer. During tumor progression cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported to secrete angiogenic factors to orchestrate the formation of pathological angiogenesis. This vasculature can represent the source of self-renewal of CSCs and the route for further tumor spreading. The aim of the present study has been to assess whether ALDH1A1 controls the output of angiogenic factors in breast cancer cells and regulates tumor angiogenesis in a panel of in vitro and in vivo models. METHODS: Stemness status of breast cancer cells was evaluated by the ability to form turmorspheres in vitro. A transwell system was used to assess the angiogenic features of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) when co-cultured with breast cancer cells MCF-7 harboring different levels of ALDH1A1. Under these conditions, we survey endothelial proliferation, migration, tube formation and permeability. Moreover, in vivo, MCF-7 xenografts in immunodeficient mice allow to evaluate blood flow, expression of angiogenic factors and microvascular density (MVD). RESULTS: In MCF-7 we observed that ALDH1A1 activity conferred stemness property and its expression correlated with an activation of angiogenic factors. In particular we observed a significant upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and proangiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). High levels of ALDH1A1, through the retinoic acid pathway, were significantly associated with VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in vitro. Co-culture of HUVEC with ALDH1A1 expressing tumor cells promoted endothelial proliferation, migration, tube formation and permeability. Conversely, downregulation of ALDH1A1 in MCF-7 resulted in reduction of proangiogenic factor release/expression and impaired HUVEC angiogenic functions. In vivo, when subcutaneously implanted in immunodeficient mice, ALDH1A1 overexpressing breast tumor cells displayed a higher expression of VEGF and MVD. CONCLUSION: In breast tumors, ALDH1A1 expression primes a permissive microenvironment by promoting tumor angiogenesis via retinoic acid dependent mechanism. In conclusion, ALDH1A1 might be associated to progression and diffusion of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/irrigação sanguínea , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Tretinoína/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Aldeído Desidrogenase/biossíntese , Aldeído Desidrogenase/genética , Aldeído Desidrogenase 1 , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/enzimologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Retinal Desidrogenase , Transdução de Sinais , Transfecção
16.
Molecules ; 23(10)2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340320

RESUMO

The term of angiogenesis refers to the growth of new vessels from pre-existing capillaries. The phenomenon is necessary for physiological growth, repair and functioning of our organs. When occurring in a not regulated manner, it concurs to pathological conditions as tumors, eye diseases, chronic degenerative disorders. On the contrary insufficient neovascularization or endothelial disfunction accompanies ischemic and metabolic disorders. In both the cases an inflammatory and oxidative condition exists in supporting angiogenesis deregulation and endothelial dysfunction. The use of nutraceuticals with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities can be a therapeutic option to maintain an adequate vascularization and endothelial cell proper functioning or to blunt aberrant angiogenesis. A revision of the updated literature reports on nutraceuticals to guide endothelial cell wellness and to restore physiological tissue vascularization is the objective of this paper. The critical aspects as well as lacking data for human use will be explored from a pharmacological perspective.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/química , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Oftalmopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia
17.
Dalton Trans ; 47(28): 9492-9503, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963662

RESUMO

The role of copper in cancer progression has been established since decades. Additionally, copper is able to stimulate angiogenesis through the control of VEGF expression and activity in endothelial cells. In this paper a tetrapeptide, belonging to the histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein (HPRG) and encompassing four repeats of the sequence GHHPH (named TetraHPRG), was synthesized and its copper(ii) complex species were characterized by means of potentiometry, UV-vis, circular dichroism (CD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Moreover, a peptide covalently bound through an amidic bond to trehalose (TH-TetraHPRG) was designed and synthesized as a prodrug system. The activity of both TetraHPRG and TH-TetraHPRG molecules on copper and VEGF induced angiogenic responses in endothelial cells was assessed. The two peptides show a similar and effective anti-angiogenic activity on both molecular and cellular responses. Since the trehalose derivative has a higher resistance to enzymatic degradation, it can be further exploited as a potential drug delivery system with anti-angiogenic activity.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/química , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cobre/química , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/química , Suínos , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
18.
Biomark Insights ; 13: 1177271918774800, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795976

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging techniques measuring in vivo brain perfusion and integrity of the blood-brain barrier have developed rapidly in the past decade, resulting in a wide range of available methods. This review first discusses their principles, possible pitfalls, and potential for quantification and outlines clinical application in neurological disorders. Then, we focus on the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier, pointing out their contribution in regulating vascular tone by production of vasoactive substances. Finally, the role of these substances in brain hypoperfusion in multiple sclerosis is discussed.

19.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 152: 143-152, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588193

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are now recognized as gaseous transmitters with many cardiovascular protective properties. The present study concerns the possibility that NO donors can also function through endogenous activation of NO and H2S pathways. Based on the previous characterization of a novel metal-nonoate, Ni(PipNONO)Cl, our aim was: 1) to study the effects of a zinc based compound, Zn(PipNONO)Cl, on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and 2) to assess the role and interplay between endogenous NO and H2S promoted by the nonoate. Zn(PipNONO)Cl completely reproduced the vasodilation elicited by Ni(PipNONO)Cl. In the presence of endothelium, preincubation with Zn(PipNONO)Cl sensitized the intima to acetylcholine-induced vasodilation. When tested on cultured endothelial cells, Zn(PipNONO)Cl prompted PI-3K/Akt- and MAPK/ERK1/2-mediated survival. Nitrite levels indicated fast NO release (due to the molecule) and delayed (1-6 h) NO production linked to PI-3K/Akt-dependent eNOS activation. In the same time frame (1-6 h), significant CSE-dependent H2S levels were detected in response to Zn(PipNONO)Cl. The mechanisms responsible for H2S increase seemed to depend on the NONO moiety/sGC/cGMP pathway and zinc-associated ROS production. Our results indicate that endogenous H2S and NO were produced after fast NO release from Zn(PipNONO)Cl, contributing to the vascular endothelium protective effect. The effect was partially reproduced on smooth muscle cells, where Zn(PipNONO)Cl inhibited cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, vasorelaxant effects, with complementary activities on endothelium and smooth muscle cells, are elicited by the novel metal-nonoate Zn(PipNONO)Cl.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Coelhos , Vasodilatação
20.
Oncotarget ; 9(17): 13353-13365, 2018 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568362

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) exerts conflicting effect on tumor growth and progression, depending on its concentration. We aimed to characterize the anti-cancer activity of a new NO donor, Ni(SalPipNONO) belonging to the class of metal-nonoates, in epithelial derived tumor cells, finally exploring its antiangiogenic properties. Tumor epithelial cells were screened to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of Ni(SalPipNONO), which was able to inhibit cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner, being more effective than the commercial DETA/NO. The human lung carcinoma cells A549 were chosen as model to study the anti-cancer mechanisms exerted by the compound. In these cells, Ni(SalPipNONO) inhibited clonogenicity and cell invasion, while promoting apoptosis. The antitumor activity was partly due to NO-cGMP dependent pathway, contributing to reduced cell number and apoptosis, and partly to the salicylaldehyde moiety and reactive oxygen species (ROS) activated ERK1/2 signaling converging on p53 dependent caspase-3 cleavage. An additional contribution by downstream cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived cyclopentenones may explain the tumor inhibitory activities. As NO has been described to affect tumor angiogenesis, we checked this activity both on tumor and endothelial cell co-cultures and in Matrigel in vivo assay. Our data document that Ni(SalPipNONO) was able to both reduce angiogenic factor expression by tumor cells acting on hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1 α) level, and endothelial cell functions related to angiogenesis. Collectively, these data confirm the potential use of NO donors and in particular Ni(SalPipNONO) acting through multiple mechanisms, as an agent to be further developed to be used alone or in combination with conventional therapy.

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