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1.
Transpl Int ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organ donor's age negatively influences graft survival of organs, increasing risk of complications. Aging occurs in both men and women; however the menopause marks a decrease in sex hormones and a sudden increase in the process of vascular aging. We investigated sex hormones influence on the lung inflammatory process induced by BD in female rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were grouped as: female rats from high estradiol to heat period (non-OVx) and ovariectomized (OVx) female rats. Ovariectomy was carried out 10 days before BD. BD was induced using intracranial balloon rapid inflation. Serum hormones and inflammatory mediators were quantified, leukocytes and platelets counted and lung samples were collected for RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and histological analysis. RESULTS: Female sex hormones and corticosterone were reduced 6h after BD in non-OVx group. The infiltration of leukocytes in female non-OVx lungs was higher compared to OVx. G-CSF, VEGF and CINC-1 were found increased in non-OVx group serum in comparison to OVx. Lung Mediators were increased in non-OVx rats compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: The acute reduction of sex hormones induced by BD appears to have a worse effect on lung inflammation than a reduction that has happened over a prolonged period of time, allowing a physiological adaptation prior to BD.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to evaluate the effect of bilateral sympathectomy on ventricular remodeling and function in a rat model of dilated cardiomyopathy induced by doxorubicin. METHODS: Dilated cardiomyopathy was induced in male Wistar rats by weekly intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin (2 mg/kg) for 9 weeks. Animals were divided into 4 groups: dilated cardiomyopathy; bilateral sympathectomy, submitted on day 15 of the protocol to bilateral sympathectomy; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, treated with enalapril through day 15 until the end of the experimental protocol; and sham, nonsubmitted through doxorubicin protocol, with weekly intraperitoneal injections of saline solution (0.9%). The left ventricular function was assessed, and the heart was collected for posterior analyses. RESULTS: The dilated cardiomyopathy group presented a significant decrease in the myocardial efficiency when compared with the sham group (33.4% vs 71.2%). Only the bilateral sympathectomy group was able to preserve it (57.5%; P = .0001). A significant dilatation in the left ventricular chamber was observed in the dilated cardiomyopathy group (15.9 µm2) compared with the sham group (10.2 µm2; P = .0053). Sympathectomy and enalapril prevented ventricular remodeling (9.5 and 9.6 µm2, respectively; P = .0034). There was a significant increase in interstitial myocardial fibrosis in the dilated cardiomyopathy group (14.8%) when compared with the sham group (2.4%; P = .0001). This process was significantly reduced with sympathectomy and enalapril (8.7 and 3.9%, respectively; P = .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral sympathectomy was effective in preventing remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model of dilated cardiomyopathy induced by doxorubicin.

3.
Cell Prolif ; 52(6): e12629, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Endothelial cells undergo TGF-ß-driven endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), representing up to 25% of cardiac myofibroblasts in ischaemic hearts. Previous research showed that conditioned medium of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASC-CMed) blocks the activation of fibroblasts into fibrotic myofibroblasts. We tested the hypothesis that ASC-CMed abrogates EndMT and prevents the formation of adverse myofibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with IL-1ß and TGF-ß2 to induce EndMT, and the influence of ASC-CMed was assessed. As controls, non-treated HUVEC or HUVEC treated only with IL-1ß in the absence or presence of ASC-CMed were used. Gene expression of inflammatory, endothelial, mesenchymal and extracellular matrix markers, transcription factors and cell receptors was analysed by RT-qPCR. The protein expression of endothelial and mesenchymal markers was evaluated by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting. Endothelial cell function was measured by sprouting assay. RESULTS: IL-1ß/TGF-ß2 treatment induced EndMT, as evidenced by the change in HUVEC morphology and an increase in mesenchymal markers. ASC-CMed blocked the EndMT-related fibrotic processes, as observed by reduced expression of mesenchymal markers TAGLN (P = 0.0008) and CNN1 (P = 0.0573), as well as SM22α (P = 0.0501). The angiogenesis potential was impaired in HUVEC undergoing EndMT and could not be restored by ASC-CMed. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that ASC-CMed reduces IL-1ß/TGF-ß2-induced EndMT as observed by the loss of mesenchymal markers. The present study supports the anti-fibrotic effects of ASC-CMed through the modulation of the EndMT process.

5.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16633, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413733

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) is a potent inducer of fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation and contributes to the pro-fibrotic microenvironment during cardiac remodeling. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a growth factor secreted by adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASC) which can antagonize TGF-ß1 signaling. We hypothesized that TGF-ß1-induced cardiac fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation is abrogated by FGF-2 and ASC conditioned medium (ASC-CMed). Our experiments demonstrated that TGF-ß1 treatment-induced cardiac fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts, as evidenced by the formation of contractile stress fibers rich in αSMA. FGF-2 blocked the differentiation, as evidenced by the reduction in gene (TAGLN, p < 0.0001; ACTA2, p = 0.0056) and protein (αSMA, p = 0.0338) expression of mesenchymal markers and extracellular matrix components gene expression (COL1A1, p < 0.0001; COL3A1, p = 0.0029). ASC-CMed did not block myofibroblast differentiation. The treatment with FGF-2 increased matrix metalloproteinases gene expression (MMP1, p < 0.0001; MMP14, p = 0.0027) and decreased the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase gene TIMP2 (p = 0.0023). ASC-CMed did not influence these genes. The proliferation of TGF-ß1-induced human cardiac fibroblasts was restored by both FGF-2 (p = 0.0002) and ASC-CMed (p = 0.0121). The present study supports the anti-fibrotic effects of FGF-2 through the blockage of cardiac fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts. ASC-CMed, however, did not replicate the anti-fibrotic effects of FGF-2 in vitro.

10.
Inflammation ; 41(4): 1488-1497, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737476

RESUMO

Brain death (BD) affects organs by multiple mechanisms related to hemodynamic effects, hormonal changes, and the systemic inflammatory response, which reduce organ function and viability. BD reduces microcirculatory perfusion in rat mesentery; this disturbance is also observed in the pancreas and lungs. Sex hormones can affect microcirculatory function, altering tissue perfusion and influencing the inflammatory process. Here, we present differences between sexes in the microcirculatory alterations generated by BD and in inflammatory infiltrate. Male, female, and ovariectomized-female Wistar rats were submitted to BD by intracranial balloon catheter sudden inflation. BD was confirmed by maximally dilated and fixed pupils, apnea, absence of reflexes, and a drop in mean arterial pressure. Perfusion and flow of the mesenteric microcirculation were analyzed. Intestinal myeloperoxidase activity and leukocyte infiltration were quantified. ELISA quantified serum estradiol, corticosterone, and inflammatory mediators, whereas expression of eNOS, endothelin, and endothelial adhesion molecule was measured by immunohistochemistry. Male rats presented lower percentages of mesenteric perfused microvessels and reduced blood flow compared to females. The female group presented higher eNOS and endothelin expression. Leukocyte infiltration into intestinal walls was higher in females in comparison to that in males. Moreover, the female group showed higher mesenteric vessel ICAM-1 expression than males, whereas serum TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-10 levels did not differ between sexes. The high estradiol concentration before BD and high eNOS expression apparently favored the maintenance of microvascular perfusion/flow; however, BD caused an acute reduction of female sex hormone concentration and higher ICAM-1 level; thus, the proinflammatory organ status after BD is favored.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Inflamação , Microcirculação , Fatores Sexuais , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Morte Encefálica/patologia , Endotelinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Shock ; 2018 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain death (BD) induces hemodynamic instability with microcirculatory hypoperfusion, leading to increased organ inflammation and dysfunction. This study investigated the effects of 7.5% hypertonic saline solution (HSS) on mesenteric microcirculatory dysfunction and inflammation in a rat model of BD. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. BD was induced by rapidly inflating an intracranial balloon catheter. The rats were randomly divided into: (1)SH, sham-operated rats subjected to trepanation; (2)NS, rats treated with NaCl 0.9%, 4 mL/kg immediately after BD; (3)T1, rats treated with HSS (NaCl 7.5%, 4 mL/kg) immediately or 60 min after BD, (4)T60. All groups were analyzed 180 minutes after the start of the experiment. RESULTS: Rats in BD groups presented with a similar hypertensive peak, followed by hypotension. Proportion of perfused small vessels was decreased in the NS group (46%) compared with the SH group (74%, p = 0.0039). HSS restored the proportion of perfused vessels (T1 = 71%, p = 0.0018). The eNOS protein expression significantly increased in rats given HSS (T1, and T60, p = 0.0002). Similar results were observed regarding endothelin-1 (p < 0.0001). Increased numbers of rolling (p = 0.0015) and migrated (p = 0.0063) leukocytes were observed in the NS group compared with the SH group. Rats given HSS demonstrated an overall reduction in leukocyte-endothelial interactions. The ICAM-1 levels increased in the NS group compared with the SH group, and decreased in the HSS-treated groups (p = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: HSS may improve the density of mesenteric perfused small vessels due to its effects on eNOS and endothelin-1 protein expression, and reduces inflammation by decreasing leukocyte adhesion and migration in a rat model of BD.

12.
Stem Cells Int ; 2018: 5102630, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681948

RESUMO

Background: Surgical correction of tracheal defects is a complex procedure when the gold standard treatment with primary end-to-end anastomosis is not possible. An alternative treatment may be the use of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). It has been used as graft material for bioengineering applications and to promote tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SIS grafts improved tracheal tissue regeneration in a rabbit model of experimental tracheostomy. Methods: Sixteen rabbits were randomized into two groups. Animals in the control group underwent only surgical tracheostomy, while animals in the SIS group underwent surgical tracheostomy with an SIS graft covering the defect. We examined tissues at the site of tracheostomy 60 days after surgery using histological analysis with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and analyzed the perimeter and area of the defect with Image-Pro® PLUS 4.5 (Media Cybernetics). Results: The average perimeter and area of the defects were smaller by 15.3% (p = 0.034) and 21.8% (p = 0.151), respectively, in the SIS group than in the control group. Histological analysis revealed immature cartilage, pseudostratified ciliated epithelium, and connective tissue in 54.5% (p = 0.018) of the SIS group, while no cartilaginous regeneration was observed in the control group. Conclusions: Although tracheal SIS engraftment could not prevent stenosis in a rabbit model of tracheal injury, it produced some remarkable changes, efficiently facilitating neovascularization, reepithelialization, and neoformation of immature cartilage.

13.
ESC Heart Fail ; 5(3): 355-364, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29465824

RESUMO

AIMS: Some authors have hypothesized that left ventricular chamber dilatation in ischaemic and idiopathic cardiomyopathies results in spherical transformation. Aiming to characterize how this transformation occurs, a study was performed by comparing normal and dilated specimens regarding sphericity and proportionality in left heart chambers. It is important to provide data for the development of therapeutic strategies in these diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: An anatomical study was performed by comparing normal (n = 10), ischaemic (n = 15), and idiopathic (n = 18) dilated human cardiomyopathic specimens regarding left ventricular chambers and their segmental proportionality to normal hearts. It was performed by capturing and processing images with proper software in three different levels of left ventricular chamber (basal, equatorial, and apical). These obtained data were analysed based on sphericity and proportionality by two dedicated indexes. Spherical shape: Calculated segmental indexes showed that dilated specimens were not spherical because they were smaller than as expected for a spherical shape (all values were <70% of a perfect sphere). Proportionality: There was no difference between basal index perimeters among groups, but apical index was lower in dilated specimens than in normal hearts, and so dilatation was not proportional to normal hearts. CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular chambers of anatomical specimens with dilated cardiomyopathies did not display a spherical shape and were not proportional to normal hearts.

14.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 12(3): e1525-e1530, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941146

RESUMO

Surgical correction of tracheal stenosis is still a complex and challenging procedure. Acellular human amniotic membranes (AHAM) represent a promising biomaterial source for tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether AHAM grafts improve tissue regeneration of the trachea in a rabbit model of tracheostomy. Twenty rabbits were randomized into 2 groups. Animals in the control group underwent surgical tracheostomy only, and animals in the AHAM group underwent surgical tracheostomy and received an AHAM graft that covered the defect site. We examined tissues at the site of tracheostomy 60 days after surgery by histological analysis with haematoxylin and eosin, Movat's pentachrome stain and immunohistochemistry by analysis with antiaggrecan antibodies. The average perimeter and area of the defect 60 days after surgery were smaller in animals in the control group than in the AHAM group (p = .011 and p = .011, respectively). Histological analysis of AHAM group revealed neovascularization, islands of immature cartilage, pseudostratified ciliated epithelium. and connective tissue at the site of AHAM engraftment, whereas only pseudostratified ciliated epithelium and connective tissue were observed at the defect site in tissues of animals in the control group. Regeneration of islands of immature cartilage tissue with hyaline pattern and pseudostratified ciliated epithelium were confirmed by immunohistochemistry analysis. These results indicate that AHAM engraftment could facilitate neovascularization and regeneration of immature cartilage in a model of tracheal injury. Its use may lower the risk of post-operative complications including stenosis of trachea.

15.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 26(2): 196-201, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite research into protective pharmacological adjuncts, paraplegia persists as a dreaded complication after thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic interventions. Reports on gender-related neurological outcomes after ischaemic and traumatic brain injuries have led to increased interest in hormonal neuroprotective effects and have generated other studies seeking to prove the neuroprotective effects of the therapeutic administration of 17ß-oestradiol and of progesterone. We hypothesised that acute administration of oestradiol or progesterone would prevent or attenuate spinal cord ischaemic injury induced by occlusion of the descending thoracic aorta. METHODS: Male rats were divided into groups receiving 280 µg/kg of 17ß-oestradiol or 4 mg/kg of progesterone or vehicle 30 min before transitory endovascular occlusion of the proximal descending thoracic aorta for 12 min. Hindlimb motor function was assessed by a functional grading scale (that of Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan) for 14 days after reperfusion. On the 14th day, a segment of the thoracolumbar spinal cord was harvested and prepared for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: There was significant impairment of the motor function of the hindlimb in the 3 study groups, with partial improvement noticed over time, but no difference was detected between the groups. On Day 1 of assessment, the 17ß-oestradiol group had a functional score of 9.8 (0.0-16.5); the progesterone group, a score of 0.0 (0-17.1) and the control group, a score of 6.5 (0-16.9); on the 14th day, the 17ß-oestradiol group had a functional score of 18.0 (4.4-19.4); the progesterone group had a score of 7.5 (0-18.5) and the control group had a score of 17.0 (0-19.9). Analysis of the grey matter showed that the number of viable neurons per section was not different between the study groups on the 14th day. Immunostaining of the spinal cord grey matter was also similar among the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Acute administration of oestradiol or of progesterone 30 min before transitory occlusion of the proximal descending thoracic aorta of male rats could not prevent or attenuate spinal cord ischaemic injury based on an analysis of functional and histological outcomes.

16.
J Vasc Surg ; 67(2): 597-606, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28385296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In surgical aortic repair or cardiac surgery with aorta occlusion, the occurrence of mesenteric ischemia and bowel injury has been associated with higher short-term mortality. The vascular protection of estrogens has been investigated and is mainly mediated by increasing the availability of nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, this study investigated the role of 17ß-estradiol on visceral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury after descending aorta occlusion in male rats. METHODS: Mesenteric ischemia was induced in male Wistar rats by placing a 2F Fogarty arterial embolectomy catheter (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, Calif) in the descending aorta, which remained occluded for 15 minutes, followed by reperfusion for up to 2 hours. Rats were divided into four groups: (1) rats that underwent surgical manipulation only (sham, n = 22); (2) rats that underwent I/R injury (n = 22); (3) rats treated with intravenous 17ß-estradiol (280 µg/kg) 30 minutes before I/R (n = 22); (4) or at the beginning of reperfusion (n = 22). Intestinal histopathologic changes were evaluated by histomorphometry. Mesenteric microcirculatory alterations were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry and intravital microscopy technique. Protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and endothelin-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry; in addition, eNOS and endothelin-1 gene expressions were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Serum cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Relative to the sham group, the I/R group exhibited a highly pronounced loss of intestine mucosal thickness, a reduction in mesenteric blood flow (P = .0203), increased migrated leukocytes (P < .05), and high mortality rate (35%). Treatment with 17ß-estradiol before aorta occlusion preserved intestine mucosal thickness (P = .0437) and mesenteric blood flow (P = .0251), reduced the number of migrated leukocytes (P < .05), and prevented any fatal occurrence. Furthermore, 17ß-estradiol downregulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (P = .0001) and P-selectin (P < .0001) on the endothelium and increased the protein expression of eNOS (P < .0001). The gene expressions of eNOS and endothelin-1 did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The prophylactic treatment with 17ß-estradiol showed better overall repercussions and was able to prevent any fatal occurrence, increase eNOS expression, thus preserving mesenteric perfusion and intestinal integrity, and reduce inflammation.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiopatologia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Íleo/irrigação sanguínea , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Mesentérica/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Circulação Esplâncnica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotelina-1/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Íleo/patologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Isquemia Mesentérica/etiologia , Isquemia Mesentérica/metabolismo , Isquemia Mesentérica/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Selectina-P/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 32(3): 156-161, 2017 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832792

RESUMO

Objective:: To present the results of a new experimental device developed to facilitate the transapical access in endovascular treatment of structural heart diseases. It aims to reduce the risk of bleeding and complications in this type of access and demonstrate the device as a safe, fast and effective alternative. Methods:: CorPoint is composed of three parts: introducer, base with coiled spring, and closing capsule. By rotating movements, the spring is introduced into the myocardium and progressively approaches the base to the surface of the heart. Guidewires and catheters are inserted through the hollow central part and, at the end of the procedure, the capsule is screwed over the base, therefore stopping any bleeding. Results:: The device was implanted in 15 pigs, weighing 60 kg each, through an anterolateral thoracotomy, while catheters were introduced and guided by fluoroscopy. All animals had minimal bleeding; introducers with diameter up to 22 Fr were used and various catheters and guidewires were easily handled. After finishing the procedure, the closing capsule was attached and no bleeding was observed at the site. Conclusion:: This new device has proved effective, fast and secure for the transapical access. This shows great potential for use, especially by ensuring an easier and direct access to the mitral and aortic valves; the shortest distance to be traveled by catheters; access to the ascending and descending aorta; decreased bleeding complications; decreased surgical time; and the possibility of allowing the technique to evolve and become totally percutaneous.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Animais , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Masculino , Valva Mitral/patologia , Modelos Animais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos
19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(3): 156-161, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-897908

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To present the results of a new experimental device developed to facilitate the transapical access in endovascular treatment of structural heart diseases. It aims to reduce the risk of bleeding and complications in this type of access and demonstrate the device as a safe, fast and effective alternative. Methods: CorPoint is composed of three parts: introducer, base with coiled spring, and closing capsule. By rotating movements, the spring is introduced into the myocardium and progressively approaches the base to the surface of the heart. Guidewires and catheters are inserted through the hollow central part and, at the end of the procedure, the capsule is screwed over the base, therefore stopping any bleeding. Results: The device was implanted in 15 pigs, weighing 60 kg each, through an anterolateral thoracotomy, while catheters were introduced and guided by fluoroscopy. All animals had minimal bleeding; introducers with diameter up to 22 Fr were used and various catheters and guidewires were easily handled. After finishing the procedure, the closing capsule was attached and no bleeding was observed at the site. Conclusion: This new device has proved effective, fast and secure for the transapical access. This shows great potential for use, especially by ensuring an easier and direct access to the mitral and aortic valves; the shortest distance to be traveled by catheters; access to the ascending and descending aorta; decreased bleeding complications; decreased surgical time; and the possibility of allowing the technique to evolve and become totally percutaneous.

20.
Acta Cir Bras ; 31(4): 278-85, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27168541

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate gender differences in the evolution of the inflammatory process in rats subjected to brain death (BD). METHODS: Adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: female; ovariectomized female; and male rats. BD was induced using intracranial balloon inflation and confirmed by maximal pupil dilatation, apnea, absence of reflex, and drop of mean arterial pressure. Six hours after BD, histological evaluation was performed in lungs, heart, liver and kidneys, and levels of inflammatory proteins, estrogen, progesterone, and corticosterone were determined in plasma. RESULTS: In the lungs, females presented more leukocyte infiltration compared to males (p<0.01). Ovariectomized female rat lungs were more hemorrhagic compared to other groups (p<0.001). In the heart, females had higher leukocyte infiltration and tissue edema compared to males (p<0.05). In the liver and kidneys, there were no differences among groups. In female group estradiol and progesterone were sharply reduced 6 hours after BD (p<0.001) to values observed in ovariectomized females and males. Corticosterone levels were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Sex hormones influence the development of inflammation and the status of organs. The increased inflammation in lungs and heart of female rats might be associated with the acute reduction in female hormones triggered by BD.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica/patologia , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Quimiocina CXCL1/análise , Quimiocina CXCL2/análise , Edema/patologia , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos , Ovariectomia , Progesterona/sangue , Ratos Wistar , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
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