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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233523, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153470

RESUMO

Abstract Microbiological studies of the sanitary and health status of psittacine birds that will be reintroduced is important in evaluating whether these animals act as carriers of pathogenic agents to other animals and humans. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a faster and more accurate method to identify bacteria than conventional microbiology methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health status of psittacines housed in captivity, by assessment of Gram-negative bacteria from fecal microbiota through MALDI- TOF MS identification. The results indicate high frequency of Gram-negative bacteria in feces (96.5%), especially from the Enterobacteriaceae family (88.7%). The most prevalent bacteria were Escherichia coli (39.0%), Proteus vulgaris (12.2%), Klebsiella spp. (12.1%) and Raoultella ornithinolytica (8.7%). Proteus hauseri, Citrobacter spp., Morganella morgannii, Providencia rettgeri, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia hermannii were isolated with lower frequency. . All these agents are potentially pathogenic for parrots and can cause systemic infections in other animals and humans. These findings reinforce that MALDI- TOF MS proved to be a rapid and accurate method of identification of the microorganism and evaluation of the health status of psittacines, providing relevant data to assist decision-making regarding the sanitary protocols in wildlife centers, and possible future reintroduction of wild birds.


Resumo Estudos microbiológicos da sanidade de psitacídeos que serão reintroduzidos são importantes para avaliar se esses animais atuam como portadores de agentes patogênicos para outros animais e humanos. A espectrometria de massa por ionização/dessorção de matriz assistida por laser/tempo de vôo (MALDI-TOF MS) é um método mais rápido e preciso para identificar bactérias na comparação com métodos convencionais de microbiologia. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o estado de saúde de psitacídeos cativos, identificando bactérias Gram-negativas da microbiota fecal por MALDI -TOF MS. Os resultados indicaram alta frequência de bactérias Gram-negativas nas fezes (96,5%), principalmente da família Enterobacteriaceae (88,7%). As mais prevalentes foram Escherichia coli (39,0%), Proteus vulgaris (12,2%), Klebsiella spp. (12,1%) e Raoultella ornithinolytica (8,7%). Proteus hauseri, Citrobacter spp., Morganella morgannii, Providencia rettgeri, Enterobacter spp. e Escherichia hermannii foram isolados com menor frequência. Todos esses agentes são potencialmente patogênicos para os papagaios e podem causar infecções sistêmicas em outros animais e seres humanos. Esses achados reforçam que o MALDI- TOF MS é um método rápido e preciso de identificação do microrganismo e avaliação do estado de saúde dos psitacídeos, fornecendo dados relevantes para auxiliar na tomada de decisões sobre os protocolos sanitários em centros de triagem de animais selvagens e sobre a possibilidade de reintrodução futura.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e233523, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787713

RESUMO

Microbiological studies of the sanitary and health status of psittacine birds that will be reintroduced is important in evaluating whether these animals act as carriers of pathogenic agents to other animals and humans. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a faster and more accurate method to identify bacteria than conventional microbiology methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health status of psittacines housed in captivity, by assessment of Gram-negative bacteria from fecal microbiota through MALDI- TOF MS identification. The results indicate high frequency of Gram-negative bacteria in feces (96.5%), especially from the Enterobacteriaceae family (88.7%). The most prevalent bacteria were Escherichia coli (39.0%), Proteus vulgaris (12.2%), Klebsiella spp. (12.1%) and Raoultella ornithinolytica (8.7%). Proteus hauseri, Citrobacter spp., Morganella morgannii, Providencia rettgeri, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia hermannii were isolated with lower frequency. . All these agents are potentially pathogenic for parrots and can cause systemic infections in other animals and humans. These findings reinforce that MALDI- TOF MS proved to be a rapid and accurate method of identification of the microorganism and evaluation of the health status of psittacines, providing relevant data to assist decision-making regarding the sanitary protocols in wildlife centers, and possible future reintroduction of wild birds.


Assuntos
Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Psittaciformes , Animais , Enterobacteriaceae , Humanos , Proteus , Providencia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
3.
Cir Pediatr ; 34(1): 43-46, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507644

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Enterocutaneous fistula treatment in patients undergoing multiple surgeries is complex and requires creative solutions. We present the case of an enterocutaneous fistula managed with laser diode and cyanoacrylates. CLINICAL CASE: 15-year-old patient, diagnosed with ulcerative colitis at 12 years of age, undergoing full colectomy with urgent ileostomy as a result of a flare-up refractory to medical treatment. Five months later, an ileoanal pull-through with pouch was carried out, leaving a protection ileostomy in place. However, postoperative evolution was poor, with pelvic infection, so two further urgent open surgeries were required for lavage and hemostasis purposes. Six months later, anastomotic stricture was noted. It was healed following various pneumatic dilations under ultrasound vision and at-home dilations using Hegar dilators. One year following this, ileostomy was closed, but one month later, abdominal distension occurred. It was associated with a fistula in the abdominal midline, which could be endoscopically guided, with its origin being located at the ileoanal anastomosis. Laser diode sessions were applied for treatment purposes, with partial improvement, but still with gas emission. One year later, embolization was performed by placing platinum coils and lipiodol-diluted cyanoacrylates, and clinical signs disappeared. 17 months following this surgery, the patient has no symptoms, with full day and night fecal continence and 3 daily stools, and the fistula is completely closed. CONCLUSION: Combined treatment with laser diode and platinum coil and cyanoacrylate embolization proves effective in the management of enterocutaneous fistula, with low morbidity.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894417

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the online attention to research in the field of paediatric dentistry in relation to publication details and citations. METHODS: The articles were identified by a search performed through the Dimensions Free App. The search included the six journals related to paediatric dentistry listed in the SCImago Journal and Country Rank. The 200 articles with the highest AAS (Altmetric Attention Score) were collected and screened for data related to publication, authorship, and research topic. Citations were harvested from WOS (Web of Science) and Scopus. RESULTS: The 86.3% of the 200 articles belonged to only two of the journals: the International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry and the European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. The 53.5% of the articles were published between 2014 and 2019. The mean AAS was 8.3. Cross-sectional studies were the most prevalent study design. AAS did not correlate to the number of citations as reported in WOS and Scopus. CONCLUSIONS: Online attention to research in paediatric dentistry can be improved. According to the topic, erosion studies displayed high visibility. The classic citation count in combination with the AAS offers a more comprehensive insight iinto research. The online profile of journals and their social media dissemination policies should be improved to facilitate the spread of research information in scholar and non-scholar audiences through the web.

5.
Med Intensiva ; 43(9): 569-577, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377023

RESUMO

Despite low mortality in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, the number of high-risk patients is increasing and has become a health problem. At present, surgery is understood as a continuous process, in which numerous guidelines added to less invasive techniques offering a lesser physiological impact upon patients with serious comorbidities are responsible for the final outcome. The prevention, identification and early treatment of complications prove as important as the preoperative or surgical technique.?The introduction of ERAS (enhanced recovery after surgery) protocols is the cornerstone for the management of these patients, and is advocated by most surgical societies for reducing mortality, length of hospital stay and hospital costs. The postoperative management of these patients in postsurgery Intensive Care Units guarantees effectiveness and efficiency in maintaining optimum patient care.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Analgesia , Anestesia/normas , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Métodos de Alimentação , Hidratação , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Período Pós-Operatório , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
6.
J Hosp Infect ; 99(3): 346-355, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an important agent of colonization and infection in haematology patients. However, the role of virulence on VRE colonization and infection is controversial. AIM: To characterize the lineage, virulence and resistance profile of VRE infection and colonization isolates; as well as their impact on outcome of haematology patients using a regression logistic model. METHODS: Eighty-six isolates (80 Enterococcus faecium and six E. faecalis) from 76 patients were evaluated. Polymerase chain reaction for resistance and virulence genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole genome sequencing of the major clusters, were performed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to evaluate the role of virulence genes on outcome. FINDINGS: All isolates harboured the vanA gene. Regarding the virulence genes, 96.5% of isolates were positive for esp, 69.8% for gelE and asa1 genes. VRE infection isolates were more virulent than colonization isolates and harboured more often the gelE gene (P = 0.008). Infections caused by VRE carrying asa1 gene resulted more frequently in death (P = 0.004), but only the predominant clone remained as protector in the multivariate model. The E. faecium strains were assigned to seven STs (ST78, ST412, ST478, ST792, ST896, ST987, ST963) that belonged to CC17. The E. faecalis sequenced belonged to ST9 (CC9). CONCLUSION: E. faecium was predominant, and infection isolates were more virulent than colonization isolates and harboured more often the gene gelE. Infections caused by VRE carrying the asa1 gene appeared to be associated with a fatal outcome.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Enterococcus faecalis/classificação , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Enterococcus faecium/classificação , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/genética , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Genótipo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/classificação , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/genética , Fatores de Virulência/análise , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
7.
Biomed Mater ; 12(1): 015025, 2017 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28211364

RESUMO

Polylactic acid/Mg composites have been recently proposed for biodegradable osteosynthesis devices because, with regards to the neat polymer, they combine an enhanced biocompatibility and bioactivity with better mechanical properties, particularly creep strength. A question still arises about their bacterial behavior. For this purpose, composites of poly-L-D-lactic acid (PLDA) loaded with 1 and 10 wt.% of Mg microparticles were evaluated using Staphylococcus epidermidis, with special emphasis on the study of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. During biofilm formation the bacteria viability of the composites decreased up to 65.3% with respect to PLDA. These antibacterial properties do not compromise the cytocompatibility of the material as the composites enhanced the viability of mesenchymal stem cells and their osteogenic commitment. These findings provide an important added value to the biodegradable and biocompatible PLDA/Mg composites for the manufacture of osteosynthesis devices.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Magnésio/química , Magnésio/farmacologia , Poliésteres/química , Poliésteres/farmacologia , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Teste de Materiais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/fisiologia
8.
Rev Esp Cir Ortop Traumatol ; 60(4): 260-6, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27239017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vivo anti-staphylococcal bactericidal activity of farnesol on Ti6Al4V surfaces. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An experimental model of infection in biomaterials was developed by inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 into the canal of both femurs of 15 Wistar rats. A Ti6Al4V pin impregnated with 30mM of farnesol was inserted into study femur, and a Ti6Al4V control was inserted into the control femur. To evaluate the bactericidal efficacy, a comparison was made between the median of the colony forming units recovered after inoculation in the study group and the control group for different times of euthanasia and inoculum size. RESULTS: The median expressed as Log10 CFU counts obtained with farnesol titanium pin was 4.26, and in control group, it was 4.86, which was statistically significant (P=.001) on applying the Student t test for related samples. The median reduction obtained in farnesol pins relative to the control was 74%. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with farnesol 30mM on Ti6Al4V pins appears to decrease the rate of colonisation by Staphylococcus aureus.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Pinos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Farneseno Álcool/administração & dosagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Titânio , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pinos Ortopédicos/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Farneseno Álcool/uso terapêutico , Fêmur/microbiologia , Fêmur/cirurgia , Masculino , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 184: 27-30, 2016 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26854341

RESUMO

Psittacidae are frequently bred as pets worldwide, but little is known about the zoonotic risks of these animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in the feces of psittacine birds housed as pets. A total of 171 fecal samples (67 cockatiels, 59 budgerigars, and 45 agapornis) were cultured. Forty-two (E. coli) strains were identified, and the presence of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes was determined using PCR. The antimicrobial resistance profiles of the STEC strains were determined using the disk diffusion method and phylogenetic analysis according to the new Clermont phylotyping method. Using these methods, 19.4% (8/42) of the STEC strains were determined to be positive for the eae and stx2 genes. The results revealed a STEC frequency of 4.6% in the birds (8/171), with a percentage of 8.47% in budgerigars (5/59), 4.47% in cockatiels (3/67), and 0% in agapornis (0/45). None of the STEC isolates belonged to the O157 serogroup. Most of the strains were classified as sensitive to the 18 antibiotics tested. None of the strains exhibited a multiresistance profile. In the phylogenetic analysis, two strains were classified as non-typeable, three were classified as B2, two were classified as F, and one was classified as Clade I. Seven of the eight STEC strains showed a clonal profile using AFLP. E. coli strains that are stx2(+) plus eae(+) are usually associated with severe human diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The STEC-positive results indicate the zoonotic risk of breeding psittacidae in home environments.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Papagaios/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Avian Pathol ; 45(2): 194-201, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26813537

RESUMO

Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered one of the most important Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens. The contact between humans and birds poses health risks to both. The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance and virulence of K. pneumoniae isolates from psittacines and passerines, seized from illegal trade in Brazil. We analysed 32 strains isolated from birds of the orders Psittaciformes and Passeriformes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for virulence factor genes. Antibiotic resistance was assessed by disk diffusion assay and PCR. The results indicated that fimH (100%), uge (96.8%), kfu (81.2%) and irp-2 (68.7%) were the most common virulence genes, followed by kpn (46.8%), K2 (43.7%), mrkD (34.3%) and iroN (15.6%). The combination of virulence genes resulted in a great diversity of genotypes and the heterogeneity of the strains is also confirmed in the analysis by amplified fragment length polymorphism. The susceptibility profiles of the K. pneumoniae showed 25% of multiple antibiotic resistance strains. We identified seven strains that presented non-extended spectrum beta lactamase blaSHV variants SHV-1 and SHV-11 and one strain positive to the blaTEM-1 gene. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance was present in 10 strains (10/32). The data obtained in this study reveal the pathogenic potential of this pathogen and highlight the need for surveillance and monitoring.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Klebsiella pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Passeriformes/microbiologia , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Brasil , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Virulência
11.
Cir Pediatr ; 29(2): 72-76, 2016 Apr 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28139106

RESUMO

Patients with recto vestibular fistula may have gynecological malformations that could be unnoticed at the initial examination. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the incidence of these malformations and propose a study method to help diagnose these malformations, avoiding unnecessary surgeries. We reviewed the records of patients treated with rectovaginal fistula (RVF) in the last 18 years and studied their gynecological malformations, time at diagnosis and treatment received. Of the 39 patients treated, 5 of them (13.1%) demonstrated 9 gynecological malformations: Hemivaginas (2), hemiuteros (2), uterine agenesis (2), vaginal agenesis (2) and vaginal septum (1). The diagnosis was made after the posterior sagittal approach (PSA) in two patients (acute abdomen and hydrometrocolpos), during the PSA in 2 patients and only one of them was diagnosed before the PSA. The 2 patients with hemivaginas and hemiuterus underwent a hemihysterosalpinguectomy and a vaginoplasty later in adolescence. The patient with vaginal and uterine agenesis diagnosed prior to PSA underwent a posterior sagittal anorectoplasty and a vaginoplasty with colon in the same procedure. The patient with vaginal and uterine agenesis (age 13 months) is waiting for vaginal replacement. The patient with vaginal septum (intraoperative finding) underwent a septum resection during the PSA. Gynecological defects are part of RVF spectrum. Girls with RVF require a complete gynecological examination prior to the definitive repair. Preoperative examinations assist in the timing and type of repair, and ultimately avoids complications and unnecessary interventions.


Assuntos
Fístula Retovaginal/cirurgia , Útero/anormalidades , Vagina/anormalidades , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fístula Retovaginal/etiologia , Útero/cirurgia , Vagina/cirurgia
12.
Cir Pediatr ; 29(4): 166-170, 2016 Oct 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28481070

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: The management of children with enterocutaneous fistulas (EF) along with large abdominal wall defects secondary to multiple surgical interventions can be difficult and sometimes lead to intestinal failure (IF). The aim of this study is to present the results of negative pressure systems and their properties (edema reduction angiogenesis promotion and granulation tissue formation) in children with enterocutaneous fistulas (EF) and their prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of children with refractory, high output EF treated with NPS between 2008-2014. Outcome variables were duration and effectiveness of treatment as well as complications associated with NPS. RESULTS: Eight patients met inclusion criteria and were treated with NPS during a median of 25 days (range 5-50). The aetiologies were volvulus (2), necrotizing enterocolitis (2), gastroschisis (2), Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus (1) and duodenopancreatic anastomosis fistula following hepatopancreatic transplantation (1). Most patients (n=7) had large abdominal wall defects that closed during treatment, though two patients required further laparotomies due to evisceration. Two patients developed a second EF that was also successfully treated with NPS. No complications were identified arising from the use of NPS. After a 5-yr follow up 3 patients had a multivisceral transplantation and survive, and 4 died due to encephalopathy (1), hemolytic anemia (1), catheter-related sepsis (1) and one while waiting for a multivisceral graft for transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Despite of a limited series of patients we recommend NPS as a useful tool in the management of EF and/ or abdominal wall defects.


Assuntos
Fístula Cutânea/terapia , Fístula Intestinal/terapia , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Criança , Fístula Cutânea/etiologia , Humanos , Fístula Intestinal/etiologia , Laparotomia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 62(4): 343-9, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25958924

RESUMO

In 2013, the circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in the Lombardy region and the following year a surveillance programme was activated with the aim of early identification of the viral distribution in mosquitoes and wild birds. A total of 50 959 Culex spp. mosquitoes grouped in six hundred and forty-seven pools as well as 1400 birds were screened by RT-PCR for the presence of West Nile virus leading to the identification of the viral genome in 32 mosquito pools and 13 wild birds. The surveillance was able to detect the WNV circulation on an average of 42 days (CI 95% 29.98-53.86; Student's t-distribution) before the occurrence of human West Nile disease (WND) cases in the same area. These results demonstrate the presence of WNV in the Lombardy region and confirm entomological and wild birds surveillance as an effective measure for the early identification of WNV circulation in infected areas, thus providing a useful and cost-effective tool for the public health authorities in the application of measures to prevent human infection.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/virologia , Culex/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Aves , Itália/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , RNA Viral/análise , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/prevenção & controle , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética
14.
Exp Gerontol ; 60: 92-9, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25456842

RESUMO

Anandamide is an endocannabinoid involved in several physiological functions including neuroprotection. Anandamide is synthesized on demand and its endogenous level is regulated through its degradation, where fatty acid amide hydrolase plays a major role. The aim of this study was to characterize anandamide breakdown in physiological and pathological aging and its regulation by CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists. Fatty acid amide hydrolase activity was analyzed in an independent cohort of human cortical membrane samples from control and Alzheimer's disease patients, and in membrane and synaptosomes from adult and aged rat cerebral cortex. Our results demonstrate that fatty acid amide hydrolase activity decreases in the frontal cortex from human patients with Alzheimer's disease and this effect is mimicked by Aß(1-40) peptide. This activity increases and decreases in aged rat cerebrocortical membranes and synaptosomes, respectively. Also, while the presence of JWH-133, a CB2 selective agonist, slightly increases anandamide hydrolysis in human controls, it decreases this activity in adults and aged rat cerebrocortical membranes and synaptosomes. In the presence of WIN55,212-2, a mixed CB1/CB2 agonist, anandamide hydrolysis increases in Alzheimer's disease patients but decreases in human controls as well as in adult and aged rat cerebrocortical membranes and synaptosomes. Although a similar profile is observed in fatty acid amide hydrolase activity between aged rat synaptic endings and human Alzheimer's disease brains, it is differently modulated by CB1/CB2 agonists. This modulation leads to a reduced availability of anandamide in Alzheimer's disease and to an increased availability of this endocannabinoid in aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amidoidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Araquidônicos/metabolismo , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Benzoxazinas/farmacologia , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sinaptossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinaptossomos/metabolismo
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(11): 972-976, 11/2014. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-723908

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of respiratory muscle fatigue on intercostal and forearm muscle perfusion and oxygenation in patients with heart failure. Five clinically stable heart failure patients with respiratory muscle weakness (age, 66±12 years; left ventricle ejection fraction, 34±3%) and nine matched healthy controls underwent a respiratory muscle fatigue protocol, breathing against a fixed resistance at 60% of their maximal inspiratory pressure for as long as they could sustain the predetermined inspiratory pressure. Intercostal and forearm muscle blood volume and oxygenation were continuously monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy with transducers placed on the seventh left intercostal space and the left forearm. Data were compared by two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni correction. Respiratory fatigue occurred at 5.1±1.3 min in heart failure patients and at 9.3±1.4 min in controls (P<0.05), but perceived effort, changes in heart rate, and in systolic blood pressure were similar between groups (P>0.05). Respiratory fatigue in heart failure reduced intercostal and forearm muscle blood volume (P<0.05) along with decreased tissue oxygenation both in intercostal (heart failure, -2.6±1.6%; controls, +1.6±0.5%; P<0.05) and in forearm muscles (heart failure, -4.5±0.5%; controls, +0.5±0.8%; P<0.05). These results suggest that respiratory fatigue in patients with heart failure causes an oxygen demand/delivery mismatch in respiratory muscles, probably leading to a reflex reduction in peripheral limb muscle perfusion, featuring a respiratory metaboreflex.


Assuntos
Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Músculos Intercostais/metabolismo , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Reflexo/fisiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/metabolismo , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Volume Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Antebraço , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Esforço Físico , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia
16.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 47(11): 972-6, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25296359

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of respiratory muscle fatigue on intercostal and forearm muscle perfusion and oxygenation in patients with heart failure. Five clinically stable heart failure patients with respiratory muscle weakness (age, 66 ± 12 years; left ventricle ejection fraction, 34 ± 3%) and nine matched healthy controls underwent a respiratory muscle fatigue protocol, breathing against a fixed resistance at 60% of their maximal inspiratory pressure for as long as they could sustain the predetermined inspiratory pressure. Intercostal and forearm muscle blood volume and oxygenation were continuously monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy with transducers placed on the seventh left intercostal space and the left forearm. Data were compared by two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni correction. Respiratory fatigue occurred at 5.1 ± 1.3 min in heart failure patients and at 9.3 ± 1.4 min in controls (P<0.05), but perceived effort, changes in heart rate, and in systolic blood pressure were similar between groups (P>0.05). Respiratory fatigue in heart failure reduced intercostal and forearm muscle blood volume (P<0.05) along with decreased tissue oxygenation both in intercostal (heart failure, -2.6 ± 1.6%; controls, +1.6 ± 0.5%; P<0.05) and in forearm muscles (heart failure, -4.5 ± 0.5%; controls, +0.5 ± 0.8%; P<0.05). These results suggest that respiratory fatigue in patients with heart failure causes an oxygen demand/delivery mismatch in respiratory muscles, probably leading to a reflex reduction in peripheral limb muscle perfusion, featuring a respiratory metaboreflex.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Músculos Intercostais/metabolismo , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Reflexo/fisiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/metabolismo , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Volume Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Feminino , Antebraço , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esforço Físico , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia
17.
Gene Ther ; 21(3): 298-308, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24430238

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that leptin is able to ameliorate Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathologies, including brain amyloid-ß (Aß) burden. In order to improve the therapeutic potential for AD, we generated a lentivirus vector expressing leptin protein in a self-inactivating HIV-1 vector (HIV-leptin), and delivered this by intra-cerebroventricular administration to APP/PS1 transgenic model of AD. Three months after intra-cerebroventricular administration of HIV-leptin, brain Aß accumulation was reduced. By electron microscopy, we found that APP/PS1 mice exhibited deficits in synaptic density, which were partially rescued by HIV-leptin treatment. Synaptic deficits in APP/PS1 mice correlated with an enhancement of caspase-3 expression, and a reduction in synaptophysin levels in synaptosome preparations. Notably, HIV-leptin therapy reverted these dysfunctions. Moreover, leptin modulated neurite outgrowth in primary neuronal cultures, and rescued them from Aß42-induced toxicity. All the above changes suggest that leptin may affect multiple aspects of the synaptic status, and correlate with behavioral improvements. Our data suggest that leptin gene delivery has a therapeutic potential for Aß-targeted treatment of mouse model of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Terapia Genética , HIV-1/genética , Leptina/genética , Transtornos da Memória/terapia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Animais , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , HIV-1/metabolismo , Injeções Intraventriculares , Leptina/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Camundongos , Neurônios/patologia , Presenilina-1/genética , Sinapses/patologia , Sinaptofisina/genética , Sinaptofisina/metabolismo
18.
An. pediatr. (2003, Ed. impr.) ; 79(4): 218-223, oct. 2013. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-116358

RESUMO

Introducción: La citrulina es un aminoácido producido exclusivamente por los enterocitos. Se estudió su valor como biomarcador de masa enterocitaria funcionante en pacientes con fracaso intestinal por síndrome de intestino corto (SIC) y su relación con la tolerancia digestiva. Material y métodos: Se determinó la concentración plasmática de citrulina por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (normal > 15 μmol/L) en 57 pacientes (edad 0, 5-18 años) con fracaso intestinal en distintas situaciones evolutivas. Fueron excluidos pacientes deshidratados, con insuficiencia renal u otras situaciones que pudieran alterar los resultados. Se clasificaron en grupos: I : SIC extremo dependientes de nutrición parenteral (NP); II : SIC en alimentación mixta enteral-parenteral; III : SIC adaptados y autónomos sin NP; IV : trasplantados y autónomos sin NP. Resultados: Los valores medios ± DE de citrulina plasmática fueron: grupo I (n = 15): 7,1 ± 4,1; grupo II (n = 11): 15,8 ± 8,9; grupo III (n = 13): 20,6 ± 7,5; grupo IV (n = 25): 28,8 ± 10,1. Los valores resultaron inferiores en el grupo I comparados con los grupos II - III - IV (p < 0,001) y en el grupo II comparados con los grupos III - IV (p < 0,001). Se observó una fuerte correlación entre la citrulinemia y la longitud del intestino delgado remanente (r = 0,85; p < 0,001). En el grupo IV la citrulina descendió > 50% coincidiendo con rechazo moderado-severo en 3 pacientes y con enteritis viral en un paciente. Conclusiones: 1. La citrulina plasmática puede ser un biomarcador sensible y específico del intestino funcional residual. 2. Se relaciona con la tolerancia a la alimentación enteral. 3. Debe confirmarse su valor pronóstico en el proceso de adaptación intestinal y como marcador de rechazo en pacientes trasplantados (AU)


Introduction: Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid produced solely in the enterocyte. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of serum citrulline as a biomarker of enterocyte load in children with intestinal failure due to short bowel syndrome (SBS) and its relationship to enteral adaptation. Material and methods: Plasma citrulline concentration was determined by chromatography (normal value > 15 mol/L) in 57 patients (age 0.5-18 years) admitted to our Intestinal Rehabilitation Unit with intestinal failure. Those who were dehydrated, with renal insufficiency, or other conditions able to modify the results were excluded. Patients were divided into 4 groups: group I: SBS totally dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN); group II: SBS under mixed enteral parenteral nutrition; group III: IF weaned from PN after a rehabilitation period; group IV: small bowel transplanted patients weaned from PN and taking a normal diet. Results: The mean ± SD plasma citrulline values were: group I (n = 15): 7.1±4.1; group II (n = 11): 15.8±8.9; group III (n = 13): 20.6±7.5; group IV (n = 25): 28.8±10.1. Values were significantly lower in group I in comparison with groups II-III-IV (P <0 .001), and in group II in comparison with groups III-IV (P < 0.001). A low citrulline was associated with remnant small bowel length (P < 0.001, r = 0.85). In group IV citrulline levels decreased > 50% in 3 patients who developed moderates ever e rejection, and in one patient who developed viral enteritis. Conclusions: 1. Plasma citrulline could be a sensitive and specific biomarker of the residual functional enterocyte load. 2. It is related to enteral feeding tolerance. 3. Its prognostic value in the process of intestinal adaptation and as a rejection marker in small bowel transplanted patients needs to be confirmed (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Citrulina/sangue , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/transplante , Biomarcadores/análise , Enterócitos/fisiologia
19.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 79(4): 218-23, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23528708

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid produced solely in the enterocyte. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of serum citrulline as a biomarker of enterocyte load in children with intestinal failure due to short bowel syndrome (SBS) and its relationship to enteral adaptation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plasma citrulline concentration was determined by chromatography (normal value>15 µmol/L) in 57 patients (age 0.5-18 years) admitted to our Intestinal Rehabilitation Unit with intestinal failure. Those who were dehydrated, with renal insufficiency, or other conditions able to modify the results were excluded. Patients were divided into 4 groups: group i: SBS totally dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN); group ii: SBS under mixed enteral-parenteral nutrition; group iii: IF weaned from PN after a rehabilitation period; group iv: small bowel transplanted patients weaned from PN and taking a normal diet. RESULTS: The mean ± SD plasma citrulline values were: group i (n=15): 7.1 ± 4.1; group ii (n=11): 15.8 ± 8.9; group iii (n=13): 20.6 ± 7.5; group iv (n=25): 28.8 ± 10.1. Values were significantly lower in group i in comparison with groups ii-iii-iv (P<.001), and in group ii in comparison with groups iii-iv (P<.001). A low citrulline was associated with remnant small bowel length (P<.001, r=0.85). In group iv citrulline levels decreased >50% in 3 patients who developed moderate-severe rejection, and in one patient who developed viral enteritis. CONCLUSIONS: 1. Plasma citrulline could be a sensitive and specific biomarker of the residual functional enterocyte load. 2. It is related to enteral feeding tolerance. 3. Its prognostic value in the process of intestinal adaptation and as a rejection marker in small bowel transplanted patients needs to be confirmed.


Assuntos
Citrulina/sangue , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/transplante , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/sangue , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterócitos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
20.
Int J Impot Res ; 25(4): 133-7, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23425974

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to confirm that spinal cord injury (SCI) alters the neurological pathways of sexual function (SF) and to ascertain whether other differences exist among men with SCI compared with men without SCI (WSCI) and sexual dysfunction (SD). The method comprise a case study of 98 men with SCI and SD, and 89 men with WSCI and SD as controls. A questionnaire was administered to these men regarding their SF, anxiety, depression, self-esteem and quality of life. Additionally, a penile eco-Doppler study was performed after a prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) injection, in addition to neurophysiological tests of the innervation pathways of SF. The mean age of cases (39.35 years) was significantly lower than the control group (48.5 years). The SCI group had a higher frequency of ejaculatory disorders, and the WSCI group had a higher frequency of decreased sexual desire, erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation. The WSCI group had greater anxiety and depression than the SCI group. The systolic velocities of both cavernous arteries were higher in the SCI group. Significant differences were observed in electromyography of the bulbocavernosus muscle, pudendal sensory thresholds, somatosensory potentials, genital sympathetic potentials and electromyography of the cavernous bodies after PGE1 injection. SCI causes significant alterations in the innervation pathways of SF.


Assuntos
Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/etiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Adulto , Alprostadil , Ansiedade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão , Ejaculação , Disfunção Erétil/diagnóstico , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pênis/diagnóstico por imagem , Pênis/inervação , Qualidade de Vida , Autoimagem , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/epidemiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/fisiopatologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/epidemiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ultrassonografia
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