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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134305, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514039

RESUMO

Eutrophy in Albufera of Valencia (Eastern Iberian Peninsula) is a quite old problem since after the intense eutrophication processes throughout the 1960s. The system shifted to a turbid stable state consolidated by the virtual disappearance of macrophytes by the early 1970s. The lagoon has been studied extensively since the 1980s, but efforts to revert the system to a clear state have not yielded the expected results because cultural eutrophication due to the growth of population in its area of influence and the effects of climate change, decreasing rainfall and increasing evaporation. This has driven to an increase in water retention times in the lagoon in recent years, resulting in a phytoplanktonic shift towards potentially toxic cyanobacteria species, often forming blooms. Cyanobacterial blooms severely affect water quality for human use, ranging from recreation and fishing to drinking water resources, as indicated in the surveillance protocol of World Health Organization (WHO). The current state of the lake requires constant monitoring and remote sensing is an optimal tool for the continuous monitoring of the whole water mass. This work is included in the ESAQS project (Ecological Status of AQuatic systems with Sentinel satellites), to establish a protocol for regular and frequent monitoring of the ecological status of reservoirs, lakes and lagoons. Algorithms are developed using the images provided by the Sentinel-2 (A and B), provided with a spatial resolution of 10 m and a temporal frequency of 5 days. In this work we demonstrate that using this new earth observation satellite is possible to develop a consistent and suitable algorithm to estimate the phycocyanin concentration [PC] and establish a protocol for regular and frequent monitoring. Calibrating (R2 = 0.841; n = 21; p < 0.001) and validating (R2 = 0.775; n = 55; p < 0.001; RMSE% = 40) the algorithm with field data are also demonstrated.

2.
Infectio ; 23(supl.1): 92-96, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-984512

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of comorbidities among adults living with HIV from two healthcare centers in Colombia, and to identify factors associated with comorbidity-free years. Methods: Observational, retrospective medical chart review study. Summary statistics for demographic and clinical characteristics were developed and relationship between comorbidity-free years were analyzed through Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression. Results: 669 clinical charts were included, 71.7% were male and 16.1% were 50 years or older, 69.96% had at least one comorbidity. The most frequent comorbidities were dislipidemia(15.06%), hypertension(5.67%), risk factors were tobacco use(15.33%), alcohol intake(24.36%) and drugs abuse (14.66%). Discussion: These findings are consistent with previous reports showing the underlying processes of patients, producing multiple comorbidities. Conclusions: Significant proportion of patients have comorbidities that may increase risk of other complications or reduced comorbidity-free years. Poly-pharmacy among HIV+ adults need to be addressed to ensure adherence and minimize drug-drug interactions.


Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de comorbilidades entre adultos viviendo con VIH en dos centros de atención en Colombia e identificar los factores asociados con años libres de comorbilidad . Metodos: Revisión observacional retrospectiva de historias clínicas. Resumen de estadísticas de características demográficas y clínicas y análisis de correlación entre características clínicas a través de pruebas de Kaplan-Meier y regresión de Cox. Resultados: Se analizaron 669 historias clínicas, 71.7% fueron hombres y 16.1% tuvieron 50 años o más, 69.96% tuvieron al menos una comorbilidad. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron dislipidemia(15.06%), hipertensión (5.67%), los factores de riesgo fueron el uso de tabaco (15.33%), ingesta de alcohol (24.36%) y abuso de drogas (14.66%). Discusión: Estos hallazgos son consistentes con reportes previos que evidencian los procesos subyacentes que llevan a múltiples comorbilidades. Conclusiones: Una proporción significativa de pacientes tiene comorbilidades que pueden aumentar el riesgo de otras condiciones o los años libres de comorbilidad. La polifarmacia en pacientes HIV+ debe hacerse de manera que se asegure la adherencia y se minimicen las interacciones entre medicamentos.

3.
Microbes Infect ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689532

RESUMO

Diabetes has been associated with an increased risk of developing tuberculosis. The reasons related to the increased susceptibility to develop TB in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) individuals, has not been completely elucidated. However, this susceptibility has been attributed to several factors including failures and misfunctioning of the immune system. In the present study, we aimed to determine the role of anti-hyperglycemic drugs such as glyburide, insulin, and metformin to promote the killing of mycobacteria through the regulation of innate immune molecules such as host defense peptides (HDP) in lung epithelial cells and macrophages. Our results showed that metformin reduces bacillary loads in macrophages and lung epithelial cells which correlates with higher production of ß-defensin-2, -3 and -4. Since ß-defensins are crucial molecules for controlling Mycobacteriumtuberculosis growth, the present results suggest that the use of metformin would be the first choice in the treatment for T2DM2, in patients within tuberculosis-endemic areas.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(45): 25344-25361, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701962

RESUMO

Interfacial metal-oxide systems with ultra-thin oxide layers are of high interest for their use in catalysis. The chemical activity of ultra-thin metal-oxide layers can be substantially enhanced compared to interfacial models with thicker oxide. In this study, we present a Density Functional Theory (DFT) investigation of the structure of ultra-thin rutile layers (one and two TiO2 layers) supported on TiN and the stability of water on these interfacial structures. The rutile layers are stabilized on the TiN surface through the formation of interfacial Ti-O bonds. Charge transfer from the TiN substrate leads to the formation of reduced Ti3+ cations in TiO2. The concentration of Ti3+ is proportionally higher in the ultra-thin oxide, compared to interfacial models with thicker oxide layers. The structure of the one-layer oxide slab is strongly distorted at the interface while the thicker TiO2 layer preserves the rutile structure. The energy cost for the formation of a single O vacancy in the one-layer oxide slab is only 0.5 eV with respect to the ideal interface. For the two-layer oxide slab, the introduction of several vacancies in an already non-stoichiometric system becomes progressively more favourable, which indicates the stability of the highly defective interfaces. Isolated water molecules dissociate when adsorbed at the TiO2 layers. At higher coverages, the preference is for molecular water adsorption. Our ab initio thermodynamics calculations show the fully water covered stoichiometric models as the most stable structure at typical ambient conditions. This behaviour is similar to that observed on thicker oxide in TiO2-TiN interfaces or pure TiO2 surfaces. In contrast, interfacial models with multiple vacancies are most stable at low (reducing) oxygen chemical potential values. The high concentration on reduced Ti3+ introduces significant distortions in the O-defective slab. Whereas, a water monolayer adsorbs dissociatively on the highly distorted 2-layer TiO1.75-TiN interface, where the Ti3+ states lying above the top of the valence band contribute to a significant reduction of the energy gap compared to the stoichiometric TiO2-TiN model. Our results provide a guide for the design of novel interfacial systems containing ultra-thin TiO2 with potential application as photocatalytic water splitting devices.

5.
BMC Fam Pract ; 20(1): 156, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of vertigo. Little is known on how posterior canal BPPV affects health-related quality of life in patients diagnosed and treated at primary care facilities or on whether patients with subjective and objective disease perceive the effects differently. This study was designed to describe how patients diagnosed with posterior canal BPPV in primary care perceive disability. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study performed at two urban primary care centers. Participants were patients aged 18 years or older with suspected posterior canal BPPV recruited for baseline evaluation in a clinical trial on the effectiveness of the Epley maneuver in primary care. The recruitment period was from November 2012 to January 2015. Perceived disability was evaluated using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory - Screening version (DHI-S). Other variables collected were age and sex, a history or diagnosis of anxiety or depression, treatment with antidepressants and/or anxiolytics, and results of the Dix-Hallpike (DH) test, which was considered positive when it triggered vertigo with or without nystagmus and negative when it triggered neither. RESULTS: The DH test was positive in 134 patients, 40.30% of whom had objective BPPV (vertigo with nystagmus). The median age of the patients was 52 years (interquartile range [IQR], 39.00-68.50 years) and 76.1% were women. The median total score on the DHI-S was 16 out of 40 (IQR, 8.00-22.00). Scores were higher (greater perceived disability) in women (p < 0.001) and patients with subjective BPPV (vertigo without nystagmus) (p = 0.033). The items perceived as causing the greatest disability were feeling depressed (67.1%) and worsening of the condition on turning over in bed (88%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients diagnosed with posterior canal BPPV in primary care perceive their condition as a disability according to DHI-S scores, with higher levels of disability reported by women and patients with subjective BPPV. Feelings of depression and turning over in bed were associated with the greatest perceived difficulties. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01969513. Retrospectively registered. First Posted: October 25, 2013. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01969513.

6.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125347, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765904

RESUMO

There is growing interest in investigating the human health risk associated with metals in airborne particulate matter. The objective of this paper is the health risk assessment of Al, Be, Sb, Sn, Ti and Tl in PM10 under different advections of air masses. These metals/semi-metal were studied in samples collected in an area influenced by industrial activities in northern Spain with the aim of analysing the variations in PM10 metal/semi-metal. Elemental concentrations were assessed over a period of one year in terms of air mass origin by means of back trajectories (HYSPLIT), the conditional probability function, polar plots, PM concentration roses, aerosol maps (NAAPs) and receptor modelling. The mean concentrations of Al, Be, Sb, Sn, Ti and Tl were 254, 0.02, 1.30, 1.15, 15.3 and 0.20  ng/m3, respectively, and were within the usual range for suburban stations in Europe. The highest levels were recorded during conditions of regional air mass origin, highlighting the importance of sources not far from the station. Under these circumstances, the renovation of air masses was not produced. The main sources of metals were anthropogenic, mostly related to the use of coal and coke production. In general, the cancer and non-cancer risk values obtained in this study fell within accepted precautionary criteria in all trajectory groups. However, in order to improve air quality and reduce risks to human health, the impact resulting from the joint inhalation of Al, Be, Sb, Sn, Ti and Tl should not be ignored when air masses are fundamentally of regional origin.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223789, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613910

RESUMO

This paper presents an alternative calculation procedure to calculate the mortality rate, exploiting the data available in the Eurostat demography database for Spain. This methodology has been devised based on two of the most widely known and widespread models to establish the mortality rate: The Gompertz-Makeham (GM) and Lee-Carter (LC) models. Our main goal is to obtain a model yielding a similar accuracy than LC or GM, but able to capture the variation of their parameters over time and ages. The method proposed herewith works by applying simple or double fitting, with non-linear functions, to the values of the parameters considered by each one of such models. One of the main advantages of our approach is that we considerably reduce the amount of data that is required to establish the mortality rate, with respect to what would be needed if the traditional models were used. On the other hand, it also allows analyzing the evolution of the mortality rate, even if no real data was available for a particular year. The results evince that, besides fulfilling the two aforementioned goals, the proposed scheme yields an estimation error that is comparable with that offered by the traditional approach.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(42): 20947-20952, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570578

RESUMO

Human milk fat substitute (HMFS) is a class of structured lipid that is widely used as an ingredient in infant formulas. Like human milk fat, HMFS is characterized by enrichment of palmitoyl (C16:0) groups specifically at the middle (sn-2 or ß) position on the glycerol backbone, and there is evidence that triacylglycerol (TAG) with this unusual stereoisomeric structure provides nutritional benefits. HMFS is currently made by in vitro enzyme-based catalysis because there is no appropriate biological alternative to human milk fat. Most of the fat currently used in infant formulas is obtained from plants, which exclude C16:0 from the middle position. In this study, we have modified the metabolic pathway for TAG biosynthesis in the model oilseed Arabidopsis thaliana to increase the percentage of C16:0 at the middle (vs. outer) positions by more than 20-fold (i.e., from ∼3% in wild type to >70% in our final iteration). This level of C16:0 enrichment is comparable to human milk fat. We achieved this by relocating the C16:0-specific chloroplast isoform of the enzyme lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT) to the endoplasmic reticulum so that it functions within the cytosolic glycerolipid biosynthetic pathway to esterify C16:0 to the middle position. We then suppressed endogenous LPAT activity to relieve competition and knocked out phosphatidylcholine:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase activity to promote the flux of newly made diacylglycerol directly into TAG. Applying this technology to oilseed crops might provide a source of HMFS for infant formula.

9.
Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574573

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: To provide a normative vessel density (VD) database for the macula through swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to assess the main determinants of this measurement. BACKGROUND: In contrast with dye angiography, the recently introduced OCTA technique allows for the non-invasive measurement of retinal and choroidal VD metrics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: The right eyes of 346 healthy subjects were studied. In 105 subjects both eyes were imaged. METHODS: Foveal and parafoveal macular VD measurements were obtained in the retinal superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and in the choriocapillaris (CC) layer. Also recorded were age, sex, axial length (AL), foveal and choroidal thickness (CT). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Normative database and determinants of macular VD measured by OCTA. RESULTS: Mean participant age was 38.3 ± 20.1 years (mean ± SD) (range 5-83). Foveal VDs in the different plexuses were: SCP 22.1% ± 5.0% (7.3-35.1), DCP 19.9% ± 6.3% (6.9-51.2) and CC: 52.8% ± 4.3% (40.2-62.1). Parafoveal VDs ranged from 45.4% ± 3.7% to 51.8% ± 4.6%. Positive correlation was observed between foveal VD and foveal thickness (R = .327), as well as between parafoveal DCP VD and CT (R = .250;P ≤ .006), while correlation with age was negative in the SCP and CC (R = -.283;P < .001). No associations were detected between macular VD and sex or AL (P ≥ .05). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Macular VD showed wide individual variation, was positively correlated with foveal thickness and with CT, negatively correlated with age, and showed no correlation with AL or sex.

10.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 68: 40-45, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621617

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (SN+) in transcranial sonography (TCS) is frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD), while lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity (LN+) and 3rd ventricle enlargement (3V+) are typical of Atypical Parkinsonisms (AP). However, there are no studies assessing the diagnostic yield of all TCS biomarkers in the three AP (progressive supranuclear palsy, PSP, multiple system atrophy, MSA, corticobasal degeneration, CBD). Previous references lack homogeneous criteria and data are incomprehensive. METHODS: Analysis of TCS performed in routine clinical practice in AP and PD patients from two tertiary hospitals. Expert recommendations were strictly followed. Previous literature was critically analysed. RESULTS: 155 AP (98 PSP, 40 MSA, 14 CBD), 254 PD, 145 control subjects were included. We confirmed good sensitivity for SN+ in PD (80%), but specificity was lower than reported (61%). LN+ and 3V + had moderate sensitivity for AP and PSP diagnosis respectively (65%, 63%), but specificity was higher than reported (87%, 91%). We confirmed high specificity and positive predictive value of the combination SN/LN (98%, 93% AP; 83%, 86% PD). The combinations of two or three echofeatures, previously unreported, showed high specificity but lower sensitivity (SN/3V: 75% sensitivity, 87% specificity PD; 42% sensitivity, 98% specificity PSP) (SN + LN+: 79% sensitivity, 86% specificity CBD) (SN/3V/LN: 67% sensitivity, 89% specificity PD; 29% sensitivity, 99% specificity PSP; 41% sensitivity, 95% specificity MSA; 57% sensitivity 91% specificity CBD). CONCLUSIONS: We present a large comprehensive study of TCS, confirming its usefulness and certain limitations in AP diagnosis. Adherence to consensus criteria is critical to implement TCS for clinical and research purposes.

11.
Nano Lett ; 19(11): 8103-8108, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661285

RESUMO

Highly dispersed, supported oxides are ubiquitous solid catalysts but can be challenging to characterize with atomic precision. Here, it is shown that crystalline anatase TiO2 nanosheets (∼5 nm thick) are ideal supports for imaging highly dispersed active sites. Ta cations were deposited by several routes, and high-resolution high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the location of Ta with respect to the TiO2 lattice and quantify Ta-Ta distances. In the best case, it is shown that >80% of Ta atoms are isolated from one another, whereas other techniques are blind to this critical catalytic property or give only qualitative estimates. TiO2 nanosheets may prove to be a useful platform for other types of catalysis studies.

12.
Phys Rev E ; 100(2-1): 023205, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574725

RESUMO

The correct modeling of velocity distribution functions for particles in steady-state plasmas is a central element in the study of nuclear fusion and also in the description of space plasmas. In this paper, a statistical mechanical formalism for the description of collisionless plasmas in a steady state is presented, based solely on the application of the rules of probability and not relying on the concept of entropy. Beck and Cohen's superstatistical framework [Beck and Cohen, Physica A 322, 267 (2003)PHYADX0378-437110.1016/S0378-4371(03)00019-0] is recovered as a limiting case, and a "microscopic" definition of inverse temperature ß is given. Nonextensivity is not invoked a priori but enters the picture only through the analysis of correlations between parts of the system.

13.
In Vivo ; 33(5): 1531-1538, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pericardial synovial sarcomas (PSS) are very rare tumors, with dismal prognosis and limited data. We describe the clinical features and identify prognostic factors of primary PSS. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 56-year-old male patient with PSS managed by the multidisciplinary team of thoracic oncology. The therapeutic plan comprised surgery, chemotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and targeted therapy, with excellent results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 37 cases reported in English during the past 20 years were gathered and analyzed. PSS was found to occur at a mean age of 36±17.082 (range=13-67) years. Survival analysis was performed on 20 cases with follow-up of at least 6 months. CONCLUSION: Only complete resection of the tumor seems to be an independent prognostic factor. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the safety and effectivity of pazopanib in PSS and may provide guidance for similar cases in the future.

14.
Dalton Trans ; 48(39): 14873-14884, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555791

RESUMO

A new CoII2YIII2 complex with the formula [{Co(µ-L)Y(NO3)}2(µ-CO3)2]·2CH3OH·2H2O (where H2L = N,N',N''-trimethyl-N,N''-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylbenzyl)diethylenetriamine) has been prepared and its structure solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The tetranuclear structure is formed by the connection of two [Co(µ-L)Y(NO3)] dinuclear units through two carbonate bridging ligands, which exhibit a µ3-κ2-O,O':κ-O:κ-O'' tetradentate coordination mode. The CoII ion exhibits a slightly distorted octahedral CoN3O3 coordination environment. From direct-current magnetic data a large and positive axial anisotropy parameter was extracted (D = +80.6 cm-1) and its sign unambiguously confirmed by HFEPR spectra and ab initio calculations. The extracted D value is rather larger than those previously reported for the analogous CoIIYIII dinuclear complexes, which agrees with the fact that the CoII ion in the CoII2YIII2 complex exhibits a lower distortion from the octahedral geometry in this family of CoIInYIIIn complexes. Dynamic ac magnetic measurements show that the reported compound presents field-induced slow relaxation for magnetization reversal, through a combination of direct and Raman processes. Magnetic measurements on the diluted magnetic counterpart (Zn/Co = 10/1) show the persistence of these processes, pointing out their single-ion origin. The Raman relaxation process for the CoII2YIII2 complex is faster that those observed for its CoIIYIII dinuclear counterparts. This fact and the existence of the persistent direct process at low temperature could be attributed to the former molecule being larger and more flexible than the latter ones.

15.
Photosynth Res ; 142(3): 283-305, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541418

RESUMO

Regulated heat dissipation under excessive light comprises a complexity of mechanisms, whereby the supramolecular light-harvesting pigment-protein complex (LHC) shifts state from light harvesting towards heat dissipation, quenching the excess of photo-induced excitation energy in a non-photochemical way. Based on whole-leaf spectroscopy measuring upward and downward spectral radiance fluxes, we studied spectrally contiguous (hyperspectral) transient time series of absorbance A(λ,t) and passively induced chlorophyll fluorescence F(λ,t) dynamics of intact leaves in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths (VIS-NIR, 400-800 nm) after sudden strong natural-like illumination exposure. Besides light avoidance mechanism, we observed on absorbance signatures, calculated from simultaneous reflectance R(λ,t) and transmittance T(λ,t) measurements as A(λ,t) = 1 - R(λ,t) - T(λ,t), major dynamic events with specific onsets and kinetical behaviour. A consistent well-known fast carotenoid absorbance feature (500-570 nm) appears within the first seconds to minutes, seen from both the reflected (backscattered) and transmitted (forward scattered) radiance differences. Simultaneous fast Chl features are observed, either as an increased or decreased scattering behaviour during quick light adjustment consistent with re-organizations of the membrane. The carotenoid absorbance feature shows up simultaneously with a major F decrease and corresponds to the xanthophyll conversion, as quick response to the proton gradient build-up. After xanthophyll conversion (t = 3 min), a kinetically slower but major and smooth absorbance increase was occasionally observed from the transmitted radiance measurements as wide peaks in the green (~ 550 nm) and the near-infrared (~ 750 nm) wavelengths, involving no further F quenching. Surprisingly, in relation to the response to high light, this broad and consistent VIS-NIR feature indicates a slowly induced absorbance increase with a sigmoid kinetical behaviour. In analogy to sub-leaf-level observations, we suggest that this mechanism can be explained by a structure-induced low-energy-shifted energy redistribution involving both Car and Chl. These findings might pave the way towards a further non-invasive spectral investigation of antenna conformations and their relations with energy quenching at the intact leaf level, which is, in combination with F measurements, of a high importance for assessing plant photosynthesis in vivo and in addition from remote observations.

16.
Food Res Int ; 125: 108567, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554075

RESUMO

This randomized, double-blind, parallel and placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate the effect of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086® probiotic (GanedenBC30®) against upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and gastrointestinal tract infections (GITI) in eighty healthy school-aged children (6-8 years old). The participants received daily a sachet containing either GanedenBC30 (1 × 109 colony-forming units) or placebo (maltodextrin) for three months. GanedenBC30 significantly decreased the incidence of URTI symptoms including nasal congestion, bloody nasal mucus, itchy nose, and hoarseness. The duration of the URTI-associated symptoms of hoarseness, headache, red eyes, and fatigue was also decreased. GanedenBC30 supplementation also significantly reduced the incidence rate of flatulence. These beneficial effects were associated with the modulation of serum TNFα, CD163, G-CSF, ICAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-2, RAGE, uPAR, and PF4. Therefore, probiotic B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 modulated immune-related proteins in healthy children, decreasing several URTI and GITI symptoms, thus, this functional ingredient may contribute to a healthier lifestyle.

17.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 239-245, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-2290

RESUMO

Background: Experimental substance use among young people is related to individual factors including personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between these three sets of variables. Methods: Volunteer undergraduate students (N = 861, 76% female, M = 20.7 years) completed an ad hoc questionnaire on variables related to their consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, synthetic drugs and cocaine. In addition, 591 of them completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and the Sensation Seeking Scale-V (SSS-V). All participants were genotyped in FAAH C385A SNP and its proxy variant rs12075550. Results: Consistent with previous data, both impulsivity and sensation seeking were associated with most of the variables related to experimental substance use. In addition, we found the first evidence of an association between the rs12075550 SNP and some of these consumption phenotypes. However, no significant association was found between either of the two SNPs and impulsivity or sensation seeking. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of considering both personality and genetic differences, together with contextual factors, in the analysis of substance use


Antecedentes: el uso experimental de sustancias en los jóvenes está relacionada con factores individuales que incluyen rasgos de personalidad, como impulsividad o búsqueda de sensaciones, y variaciones genéticas, como polimorfismos de un solo nucleótido (SNPs) del gen amida hidrolasa de ácidos grasos (FAAH). El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la relación entre estos tres conjuntos de variables. Método: estudiantes universitarios voluntarios (N = 861, 76% mujeres, M = 20,7 años) rellenaron un cuestionario ad hoc de variables relacionadas con el consumo de alcohol, tabaco, cannabis, drogas sintéticas y cocaína. Además, 591 de ellos rellenaron las escalas BIS-11 y SSS-V. Se genotipó a todos ellos en SNP FAAH C385A y su variante proxy rs12075550. Resultados: como se esperaba, la impulsividad y la búsqueda de sensaciones estuvieron asociadas con la mayor parte de las variables relativas al uso experimental de sustancias. Además, encontramos por primera vez evidencia de una asociación entre rs12075550 y algunos de estos fenotipos de consumo. Sin embargo, no encontramos asociaciones significativas entre SNPs e impulsividad o búsqueda de sensaciones. Conclusiones: los resultados resaltan la importancia de tener en cuenta las diferencias genéticas y las de personalidad, junto con los factores contextuales, al analizar el uso de sustancias

18.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Once in the pulmonary alveoli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) enters into contact with alveolar macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). DCs represent the link between the innate and adaptive immune system owing to their capacity to be both a sentinel and an orchestrator of the antigen-specific immune responses against Mtb. The effect that the virulence of Mtb has on the interaction between the bacilli and human DCs has not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Mtb virulence on human monocyte-derived DCs. METHODS: We exposed human monocyte-derived DCs to Mtb clinical strains (isolated from an epidemiological Mtb diversity study in Mexico) bearing different degrees of virulence and evaluated the capacity of DCs to internalise the bacilli, control intracellular growth, engage cell death pathways, express markers for activation and antigen presentation, and expand to stimulate autologous CD4+ T cells proliferation. FINDINGS: In the case of the hypervirulent Mtb strain (Phenotype 1, strain 9005186, lineage 3), we report that DCs internalise and neutralise intracellular growth of the bacilli, undergo low rates of apoptosis, and contribute poorly to T-cell expansion, as compared to the H37Rv reference strain. In the case of the hypovirulent Mtb strain (Phenotype 4, strain 9985449, lineage 4), although DCs internalise and preclude proliferation of the bacilli, the DCs also display a high level of apoptosis, massive levels of apoptosis that prevent them from maintaining autologous CD4+ T cells in a co-culture system, as compared to H37Rv. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that variability in virulence among Mtb clinical strains affects the capacity of DCs to respond to pathogenic challenge and mount an immune response against it, highlighting important parallels to studies previously done in mouse models.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Linfócitos T Reguladores/parasitologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais , Virulência
19.
Percept Mot Skills ; 126(6): 1158-1177, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403894

RESUMO

This research aimed to adapt the Psychological Need Thwarting Scale for use in the Spanish physical education (PE) context and to examine its psychometric properties with secondary school students. Participants were 459 secondary school PE students (206 boys and 253 girls, Mage = 15.41, SDage = 1.05). A confirmatory factor analysis supported an 11-item three-factor correlated model that remained invariant across gender and age. Internal consistency analysis showed adequate values for autonomy (α = .79, ρ = .80, average variance extracted [AVE] = .50), competence (α = .85, ρ = .86, AVE = .61), and relatedness (α = .86, ρ = .86, AVE = .68) need frustration. Temporal stability analysis displayed appropriate values for autonomy (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .81), competence (ICC = .89), and relatedness (ICC = .78) need frustration. Structural equation modeling showed that, while psychological need satisfaction positively predicted autonomous motivation (ß = .72, p < .001), psychological need frustration positively predicted controlled motivation (ß = .43, p < .001) and amotivation (ß = .48, p < .001). The adapted Psychological Need Thwarting Scale was shown to be a valid and reliable measure for assessing psychological need frustration in Spanish secondary school students.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(2): 025901, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386506

RESUMO

Based on the thermal hysteresis of a phase change material exchanging radiative heat with a phase invariable one, we propose a radiative thermal memristor characterized by a Lissajous curve between their exchanged heat flux and temperature difference periodically modulated in time. For a memristor with terminals of VO_{2} and a blackbody, it is shown that (i) the temperature variations of its memristance follow a closed loop determined by the thermal hysteresis width of VO_{2}, and (ii) the thermal memristance on-off ratio is determined by the contrast of VO_{2} emissivities for its insulating and metallic phases and is equal to 3.6. The analogy of the proposed memristor to its electrical counterpart makes it promising to lay the foundations of the thermal computing with photons.

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