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1.
Infectio ; 23(supl.1): 92-96, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-984512

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of comorbidities among adults living with HIV from two healthcare centers in Colombia, and to identify factors associated with comorbidity-free years. Methods: Observational, retrospective medical chart review study. Summary statistics for demographic and clinical characteristics were developed and relationship between comorbidity-free years were analyzed through Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression. Results: 669 clinical charts were included, 71.7% were male and 16.1% were 50 years or older, 69.96% had at least one comorbidity. The most frequent comorbidities were dislipidemia(15.06%), hypertension(5.67%), risk factors were tobacco use(15.33%), alcohol intake(24.36%) and drugs abuse (14.66%). Discussion: These findings are consistent with previous reports showing the underlying processes of patients, producing multiple comorbidities. Conclusions: Significant proportion of patients have comorbidities that may increase risk of other complications or reduced comorbidity-free years. Poly-pharmacy among HIV+ adults need to be addressed to ensure adherence and minimize drug-drug interactions.


Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de comorbilidades entre adultos viviendo con VIH en dos centros de atención en Colombia e identificar los factores asociados con años libres de comorbilidad . Metodos: Revisión observacional retrospectiva de historias clínicas. Resumen de estadísticas de características demográficas y clínicas y análisis de correlación entre características clínicas a través de pruebas de Kaplan-Meier y regresión de Cox. Resultados: Se analizaron 669 historias clínicas, 71.7% fueron hombres y 16.1% tuvieron 50 años o más, 69.96% tuvieron al menos una comorbilidad. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron dislipidemia(15.06%), hipertensión (5.67%), los factores de riesgo fueron el uso de tabaco (15.33%), ingesta de alcohol (24.36%) y abuso de drogas (14.66%). Discusión: Estos hallazgos son consistentes con reportes previos que evidencian los procesos subyacentes que llevan a múltiples comorbilidades. Conclusiones: Una proporción significativa de pacientes tiene comorbilidades que pueden aumentar el riesgo de otras condiciones o los años libres de comorbilidad. La polifarmacia en pacientes HIV+ debe hacerse de manera que se asegure la adherencia y se minimicen las interacciones entre medicamentos.

2.
In Vivo ; 33(5): 1531-1538, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pericardial synovial sarcomas (PSS) are very rare tumors, with dismal prognosis and limited data. We describe the clinical features and identify prognostic factors of primary PSS. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 56-year-old male patient with PSS managed by the multidisciplinary team of thoracic oncology. The therapeutic plan comprised surgery, chemotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and targeted therapy, with excellent results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 37 cases reported in English during the past 20 years were gathered and analyzed. PSS was found to occur at a mean age of 36±17.082 (range=13-67) years. Survival analysis was performed on 20 cases with follow-up of at least 6 months. CONCLUSION: Only complete resection of the tumor seems to be an independent prognostic factor. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the safety and effectivity of pazopanib in PSS and may provide guidance for similar cases in the future.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134305, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514039

RESUMO

Eutrophy in Albufera of Valencia (Eastern Iberian Peninsula) is a quite old problem since after the intense eutrophication processes throughout the 1960s. The system shifted to a turbid stable state consolidated by the virtual disappearance of macrophytes by the early 1970s. The lagoon has been studied extensively since the 1980s, but efforts to revert the system to a clear state have not yielded the expected results because cultural eutrophication due to the growth of population in its area of influence and the effects of climate change, decreasing rainfall and increasing evaporation. This has driven to an increase in water retention times in the lagoon in recent years, resulting in a phytoplanktonic shift towards potentially toxic cyanobacteria species, often forming blooms. Cyanobacterial blooms severely affect water quality for human use, ranging from recreation and fishing to drinking water resources, as indicated in the surveillance protocol of World Health Organization (WHO). The current state of the lake requires constant monitoring and remote sensing is an optimal tool for the continuous monitoring of the whole water mass. This work is included in the ESAQS project (Ecological Status of AQuatic systems with Sentinel satellites), to establish a protocol for regular and frequent monitoring of the ecological status of reservoirs, lakes and lagoons. Algorithms are developed using the images provided by the Sentinel-2 (A and B), provided with a spatial resolution of 10 m and a temporal frequency of 5 days. In this work we demonstrate that using this new earth observation satellite is possible to develop a consistent and suitable algorithm to estimate the phycocyanin concentration [PC] and establish a protocol for regular and frequent monitoring. Calibrating (R2 = 0.841; n = 21; p < 0.001) and validating (R2 = 0.775; n = 55; p < 0.001; RMSE% = 40) the algorithm with field data are also demonstrated.

4.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Once in the pulmonary alveoli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) enters into contact with alveolar macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). DCs represent the link between the innate and adaptive immune system owing to their capacity to be both a sentinel and an orchestrator of the antigen-specific immune responses against Mtb. The effect that the virulence of Mtb has on the interaction between the bacilli and human DCs has not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Mtb virulence on human monocyte-derived DCs. METHODS: We exposed human monocyte-derived DCs to Mtb clinical strains (isolated from an epidemiological Mtb diversity study in Mexico) bearing different degrees of virulence and evaluated the capacity of DCs to internalise the bacilli, control intracellular growth, engage cell death pathways, express markers for activation and antigen presentation, and expand to stimulate autologous CD4+ T cells proliferation. FINDINGS: In the case of the hypervirulent Mtb strain (Phenotype 1, strain 9005186, lineage 3), we report that DCs internalise and neutralise intracellular growth of the bacilli, undergo low rates of apoptosis, and contribute poorly to T-cell expansion, as compared to the H37Rv reference strain. In the case of the hypovirulent Mtb strain (Phenotype 4, strain 9985449, lineage 4), although DCs internalise and preclude proliferation of the bacilli, the DCs also display a high level of apoptosis, massive levels of apoptosis that prevent them from maintaining autologous CD4+ T cells in a co-culture system, as compared to H37Rv. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that variability in virulence among Mtb clinical strains affects the capacity of DCs to respond to pathogenic challenge and mount an immune response against it, highlighting important parallels to studies previously done in mouse models.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Linfócitos T Reguladores/parasitologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais , Virulência
5.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of oral contraceptives (OC) has been suggested to represent a potential risk factor for the development of obesity. However, the available literature assessing the relationship between OC use and the development of obesity is still scarce and characterised by controversial heterogeneity. We prospectively evaluated the association between the use of OC and the development of obesity in female participants of a middle-aged and free-living cohort. METHODS: The study population included 4920 female Spanish university graduates, initially nonobese women, with mean age (standard deviation) 28.2 (5.4) years. The study population was followed up for a mean of 8.6 (3.7) years. Self-reported use of OC and body mass index were assessed at baseline and biennially during follow-up. We used generalized estimating equation models to evaluate the association between exposure to OC and the development of obesity. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, baseline OC use was associated with higher odds of new-onset obesity during the full follow-up period (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.78; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.01-3.15). The continued use of OC for periods of time longer than 2 years was significantly associated with a higher risk of developing obesity (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.17-6.82). CONCLUSIONS: According to our prospective cohort study, OC use is significantly associated with higher odds of obesity development, especially when the use of OC is steady and extends over periods of more than 2 years.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3481, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375717

RESUMO

Identifying the global drivers of soil priming is essential to understanding C cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. We conducted a survey of soils across 86 globally-distributed locations, spanning a wide range of climates, biotic communities, and soil conditions, and evaluated the apparent soil priming effect using 13C-glucose labeling. Here we show that the magnitude of the positive apparent priming effect (increase in CO2 release through accelerated microbial biomass turnover) was negatively associated with SOC content and microbial respiration rates. Our statistical modeling suggests that apparent priming effects tend to be negative in more mesic sites associated with higher SOC contents. In contrast, a single-input of labile C causes positive apparent priming effects in more arid locations with low SOC contents. Our results provide solid evidence that SOC content plays a critical role in regulating apparent priming effects, with important implications for the improvement of C cycling models under global change scenarios.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(2): 025901, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386506

RESUMO

Based on the thermal hysteresis of a phase change material exchanging radiative heat with a phase invariable one, we propose a radiative thermal memristor characterized by a Lissajous curve between their exchanged heat flux and temperature difference periodically modulated in time. For a memristor with terminals of VO_{2} and a blackbody, it is shown that (i) the temperature variations of its memristance follow a closed loop determined by the thermal hysteresis width of VO_{2}, and (ii) the thermal memristance on-off ratio is determined by the contrast of VO_{2} emissivities for its insulating and metallic phases and is equal to 3.6. The analogy of the proposed memristor to its electrical counterpart makes it promising to lay the foundations of the thermal computing with photons.

8.
Percept Mot Skills ; 126(6): 1158-1177, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403894

RESUMO

This research aimed to adapt the Psychological Need Thwarting Scale for use in the Spanish physical education (PE) context and to examine its psychometric properties with secondary school students. Participants were 459 secondary school PE students (206 boys and 253 girls, Mage = 15.41, SDage = 1.05). A confirmatory factor analysis supported an 11-item three-factor correlated model that remained invariant across gender and age. Internal consistency analysis showed adequate values for autonomy (α = .79, ρ = .80, average variance extracted [AVE] = .50), competence (α = .85, ρ = .86, AVE = .61), and relatedness (α = .86, ρ = .86, AVE = .68) need frustration. Temporal stability analysis displayed appropriate values for autonomy (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .81), competence (ICC = .89), and relatedness (ICC = .78) need frustration. Structural equation modeling showed that, while psychological need satisfaction positively predicted autonomous motivation (ß = .72, p < .001), psychological need frustration positively predicted controlled motivation (ß = .43, p < .001) and amotivation (ß = .48, p < .001). The adapted Psychological Need Thwarting Scale was shown to be a valid and reliable measure for assessing psychological need frustration in Spanish secondary school students.

9.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 18(3): e287-e293, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant bowel obstruction can occur in 18% of cases. Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) can be an alternative to surgery. Bevacizumab (BV) has been associated with bowel perforation, but data on the safety of SEMS for occlusive colon cancer during BV-containing regimens are lacking. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 78 patients with malignant bowel obstruction who underwent placement of SEMS as a palliative intent for stage IV disease. Chemotherapy and BV-containing regimens, stent-related complications, and outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Overall, major stent-related complications were observed in 27 (35%) patients: Re-obstruction occurred in 14 (52%) patients, and there were 7 (26%) perforations, 4 (15%) minor bleeding, and 2 (7%) migrations. Sixteen patients received BV; 2 (12.5%) had a perforation. No differences were observed between chemotherapy alone and BV in overall complications. Univariate analysis did not show that BV was more likely to develop perforations, although the incidence was higher in this subset of patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant association with longer overall survival for patients treated with systemic therapy (27 vs. 11 months; P ≤ .00001). Also, there is a significant benefit of BV compared with chemotherapy alone (43 vs. 39 months; P = .02). CONCLUSION: Placement of SEMS is effective and relatively safe but with an overall complication rate of 35% in the metastatic setting. The major early risk is perforation, which can increase up to 12% during BV treatment. In patients with obstructing advanced colorectal cancer that would benefit from SEMS, we should consider the risks associated with systemic therapies, taking into account the improvement in survival observed with BV.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355469

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with a progressive loss of pancreatic ß-cell mass. It is known that miR-146a, miR-34a, and miR-375 are involved in ß-cell functionality. In this work, we evaluated the levels of these miRNAs in normal-glycaemic individuals, pre-diabetic, and T2D patients in relation to ß-cell functionality, insulin resistance, and metabolic parameters. The relative expression of the miRNAs was evaluated in serum samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In a principal component analysis, we observed that T2D patients and pre-diabetic individuals were not associated with ß-cell functionality. However, in a correlation matrix analysis, we detected that miR-34a was related to miR-146a and insulin resistance. The relative expression of miR-375 was correlated with cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels. A decrease of ß-cell function in pre-diabetic individuals and T2D patients was observed. The insulin resistance was higher in pre-diabetic individuals and T2D patients. The relative expression of miR-146a in pre-diabetic individuals, T2D patients with insulin treatment, and T2D patients with nephropathy and diabetic foot was decreased. In addition, miR-34a was increased in T2D patients who were overweight and obese. The relative expression of miR-375 was increased in T2D patients with poor glycaemic control, while a decrease was seen in T2D patients with nephropathy and diabetic foot. Circulating miR-375, miR-34a, and miR-146a were not associated with ß-cell functionality, but their expression was differentially affected by glycaemia, obesity, insulin treatment, and the presence of nephropathy and diabetic foot.

11.
Clin Nucl Med ; 44(10): e548-e558, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306196

RESUMO

AIM: To study the association of metabolic features of F-fluorocholine in gliomas with histopathological and molecular parameters, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). METHODS: Prospective multicenter and nonrandomized study (Functional and Metabolic Glioma Analysis). Patients underwent a basal F-fluorocholine PET/CT and were included after histological confirmation of glioma. Histological and molecular profile was assessed: grade, Ki-67, isocitrate dehydrogenase status and 1p/19q codeletion. Patients underwent standard treatment after surgery or biopsy, depending on their clinical situation. Overall survival and PFS were obtained after follow-up. After tumor segmentation of PET images, SUV and volume-based variables, sphericity, surface, coefficient of variation, and multilesionality were obtained. Relations of metabolic variables with histological, molecular profile and prognosis were evaluated using Pearson χ and t test. Receiver operator caracteristic curves were used to obtain the cutoff of PET variables. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Forty-five patients were assessed; 38 were diagnosed as having high-grade gliomas. Significant differences of SUV-based variables with isocitrate dehydrogenase status, tumor grade, and Ki-67 were found. Tumor grade, Ki-67, SUVmax, and SUVmean were related to progression. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed significant associations of SUVmax, SUVmean, and multilesionaly with OS and PFS. SUVmean, sphericity, and multilesionality were independent predictors of OS and PFS in Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic information obtained from F-fluorocholine PET of patients with glioma may be useful in the prediction of tumor biology and patient prognosis.

12.
J Sports Sci ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354059

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the goodness of fit and the reliability of different regression models for fitting the force-velocity relationship (FV) of bench press (BP) and squat (SQ). Additionally, the reliability of the position on FV of the velocity (V1RM) and the force performed with the 1RM (F1RM) was explored. Nine rugby players and 12 judokas participated in this study. The FV of BP and SQ were obtained twice by a protocol performed until the 1RM. Individual FV were fitted by linear (LM), quadratic polynomial (PM), and exponential models (EM). Adjusted coefficients of determination of LM and PM (medians higher than 0.919) were higher than for EM. The reliability was higher for LM in comparison with PM. The reliability of V1RM was not acceptable (CV% = 19 and 18% for BP and SQ). High reliability was observed for F1RM (CV% = 3 and 2% for BP and SQ) and for the ratio between F1RM and the force-axis intercept of FV (CV% = 2 and 4% for BP and SQ). The reliability of the relative values of F1RM around 92 and 87% of F0 for BP and SQ suggests the use of these values for monitoring resistance training programmes.

13.
Arch Med Res ; 50(2): 71-78, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349956

RESUMO

Type-2 Diabetes (T2D) is a predisposing cause for developing tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries. TB-T2D comorbidity worsens clinical control and prognosis of the affected individuals. The underlying metabolic alterations for this infectious-metabolic disease are still largely unknown. Possible mediators of the increased susceptibility to TB in diabetic patients are lipids levels, which are altered in individuals with T2D. To evaluate the modulation of glycerophospholipids in patients with TB-T2D, an untargeted lipidomic approach was developed by means of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QToF). In addition, tandem mass spectrometry was performed to determine the identity of the differentially expressed metabolites. We found that TB infected individuals with or without T2D share a common glycerophospholipid profile characterized by a decrease in phosphatidylcholines. A total of 14 glycerophospholipids were differentially deregulated in TB and TB-T2D patients and could potentially be considered biomarkers. It is necessary to further validate these identified lipids as biomarkers, focusing on the anticipate diagnosis for TB development in T2D predisposed individuals.

14.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 1120672119861623, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop guidance on the use of intravitreal dexamethasone implants in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. METHOD: The study was performed using the modified Delphi method to obtain a consensus among a panel of experts on management of patients with diabetic macular edema and use of intravitreal dexamethasone implants in clinical practice. Thirty-seven panel members, experts on retina, from different Spanish centers were invited to participate. Individual and anonymous opinions were asked by answering a 76-item questionnaire across 11 topic areas (two rounds were done). Level of agreement was assessed using a Likert-type scale of 9 points. RESULTS: Agreement on "consensus" was reached during the first round in 63 items. The 13 remaining items underwent a second round of voting. After the second round, agreement on "consensus" was reached on five items. Finally, eight items remained without consensus. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal dexamethasone implants are useful in the treatment of patients with diabetic macular edema with different profiles, for example, pseudophakic, poor-adherents, vitrectomized, candidates for cataract surgery, patients with high inflammatory component, and with a history of cardiovascular events. The use of intravitreal dexamethasone reduces the number of visits and facilitates compliance. Experts thought that the switch from anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy to intravitreal dexamethasone implants should be done preferably after three injections. Also, pro re nata treatment provides better results in diabetic macular edema patients as it helps to prevent undertreatment. Finally, experts concluded that clinical guidelines and treatment protocols for diabetic macular edema need to be updated.

15.
Psicothema ; 31(3): 239-245, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental substance use among young people is related to individual factors including personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between these three sets of variables. METHODS: Volunteer undergraduate students (N = 861, 76% female, M = 20.7 years) completed an ad hoc questionnaire on variables related to their consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, synthetic drugs and cocaine. In addition, 591 of them completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and the Sensation Seeking Scale-V (SSS-V). All participants were genotyped in FAAH C385A SNP and its proxy variant rs12075550. RESULTS: Consistent with previous data, both impulsivity and sensation seeking were associated with most of the variables related to experimental substance use. In addition, we found the first evidence of an association between the rs12075550 SNP and some of these consumption phenotypes. However, no significant association was found between either of the two SNPs and impulsivity or sensation seeking. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance of considering both personality and genetic differences, together with contextual factors, in the analysis of substance use.

16.
Clin Nucl Med ; 44(8): e472-e476, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274626

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder that causes CNS tumors in around 20% of patients, being pilocytic astrocytomas (PA), and particularly optic pathway gliomas (OPG), the most common. We present three cases of NF1 patients referred for F-fluorocholine PET/CT because of suspected glioma in the setting of ongoing FUMEGA (Functional and Metabolic Glioma Analysis) trial. One case turned out to be a WHO grade I ganglioglioma; the second was a high grade glioma; and the last one (negative in PET) a probable low-grade glioma.

17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(14)2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319632

RESUMO

Keeping a vehicle well-localized within a prebuilt-map is at the core of any autonomous vehicle navigation system. In this work, we show that both standard SIR sampling and rejection-based optimal sampling are suitable for efficient (10 to 20 ms) real-time pose tracking without feature detection that is using raw point clouds from a 3D LiDAR. Motivated by the large amount of information captured by these sensors, we perform a systematic statistical analysis of how many points are actually required to reach an optimal ratio between efficiency and positioning accuracy. Furthermore, initialization from adverse conditions, e.g., poor GPS signal in urban canyons, we also identify the optimal particle filter settings required to ensure convergence. Our findings include that a decimation factor between 100 and 200 on incoming point clouds provides a large savings in computational cost with a negligible loss in localization accuracy for a VLP-16 scanner. Furthermore, an initial density of ∼2 particles/m 2 is required to achieve 100% convergence success for large-scale (∼100,000 m 2 ), outdoor global localization without any additional hint from GPS or magnetic field sensors. All implementations have been released as open-source software.

18.
J Fluoresc ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321643

RESUMO

Nano-size and shape of fluorescent silver nanostructures are important for a wide range of bio-applications, especially as drug delivery systems, imaging and sensing. The aim of the work is to develop a fluorescent silver nano-structured system, synthesized by chemical reduction of aqueous AgNO3 solution by Tryptophan using Dextran 70 as stabilizing agent (SNPsFL). The formed fluorescent nano-system was analyzed by UV-Vis absorption, DLS, SEM, TEM, AFM, steady-state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. TEM analysis showed multi-twined nanoparticle, with the size within 15-40 nm. SNPsFL shows the fluorescence emission at 346 nm, the fluorescence quantum yield, Φ = 0.034 and the integrated fluorescence lifetime, <τ > = 1.82 ns. Riboflavin fluorescence behaviour in the RF/SNPsFL system, has been also studied. The results have relevance in using SNPsFL as a potential marker/emissive system to solve various biological barriers in humans, like drug release and protein structure.

19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 24946-24957, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243662

RESUMO

Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an A-esterase calcium-dependent enzyme that is associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and capable of hydrolyzing a wide variety of substrates, including organophosphate (OP) pesticides. The PON1 phenotype can be modulated by multiple internal and external factors, thereby affecting the catalytic capacity of the enzyme. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors that could modulate PON1 activity in a sample occupationally exposed to pesticides. A cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried out with 240 workers. The participants were stratified according to their level of pesticide exposure as reference, moderate-exposure, and high-exposure groups. PON1 activities (arylesterase/AREase, CMPAase, and ssPONase (salt-stimulated)) were determined by spectrophotometry, and the Q192R and L55MPON1 genotypes by real-time PCR. The most frequent genotypes were heterozygous (QR) and homozygous (LL) for PON1Q192R and PON1L55M polymorphisms, respectively. The internal factors associated with the activity of PON1 were the PON1 genotypes (55 and 192) and biochemical parameters related to the lipid profile, in contrast, various external factors related to diet and harmful habits as well as with exposure to pesticides were associated with the activity of PON1. However, using a multivariate mixed ordinal regression model, we found a significant reduction of ssPONase activity in the high-exposure group compared with the reference group only in haplotypes QQLL and RRLL.

20.
Urology ; 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207303

RESUMO

We reviewed the literature for the biologic, prognostic, and predictive significance of circulating prostate cancer tumor cells (CTCs), and circulating tumor DNA in the blood of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer patients. CTCs demonstrate robust prognostic value independent of PSA in predicting overall survival. The CTC androgen receptor variant receptor 7 phenotype predicts resistance to androgen receptor synthesis inhibitors and sensitivity to taxane based chemotherapy in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer patients who are candidates for second line therapy. Research is rapidly pivoting toward circulating tumor DNA analysis because the approach is sensitive, prognostic, cost effective, and it can elucidate mechanisms of systemic therapy.

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