Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 16 de 16
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Intervalo de ano
1.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(6): 704-716, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172578

RESUMO

Phenotypic heterogeneity is a hallmark of complex traits, and genetic studies of such traits may focus on them as a single diagnostic entity or by analyzing specific components. For example, in orofacial clefting (OFC), three subtypes-cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and palate (CLP), and cleft palate (CP) have been studied separately and in combination. To further dissect the genetic architecture of OFCs and how a given associated locus may be contributing to distinct subtypes of a trait we developed a framework for quantifying and interpreting evidence of subtype-specific or shared genetic effects in complex traits. We applied this technique to create a "cleft map" of the association of 30 genetic loci with three OFC subtypes. In addition to new associations, we found loci with subtype-specific effects (e.g., GRHL3 [CP], WNT5A [CLP]), as well as loci associated with two or all three subtypes. We cross-referenced these results with mouse craniofacial gene expression datasets, which identified additional promising candidate genes. However, we found no strong correlation between OFC subtypes and expression patterns. In aggregate, the cleft map revealed that neither subtype-specific nor shared genetic effects operate in isolation in OFC architecture. Our approach can be easily applied to any complex trait with distinct phenotypic subgroups.

2.
Front Genet ; 9: 497, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405702

RESUMO

Many factors influence human facial morphology, including genetics, age, nutrition, biomechanical forces, and endocrine factors. Moreover, facial features clearly differ between males and females, and these differences are driven primarily by the influence of sex hormones during growth and development. Specific genetic variants are known to influence circulating sex hormone levels in humans, which we hypothesize, in turn, affect facial features. In this study, we investigated the effects of testosterone-related genetic variants on facial morphology. We tested 32 genetic variants across 22 candidate genes related to levels of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHGB) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in three cohorts of healthy individuals for which 3D facial surface images were available (Pittsburgh 3DFN, Penn State and ALSPAC cohorts; total n = 7418). Facial shape was described using a recently developed extension of the dense-surface correspondence approach, in which the 3D facial surface was partitioned into a set of 63 hierarchically organized modules. Each variant was tested against each of the facial surface modules in a multivariate genetic association-testing framework and meta-analyzed. Additionally, the association between these candidate SNPs and five facial ratios was investigated in the Pittsburgh 3DFN cohort. Two significant associations involving intronic variants of SHBG were found: both rs12150660 (p = 1.07E-07) and rs1799941 (p = 6.15E-06) showed an effect on mandible shape. Rs8023580 (an intronic variant of NR2F2-AS1) showed an association with the total and upper facial width to height ratios (p = 9.61E-04 and p = 7.35E-04, respectively). These results indicate that testosterone-related genetic variants affect normal-range facial morphology, and in particular, facial features known to exhibit strong sexual dimorphism in humans.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 913-924, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198719

RESUMO

The genetic basis of earlobe attachment has been a matter of debate since the early 20th century, such that geneticists argue both for and against polygenic inheritance. Recent genetic studies have identified a few loci associated with the trait, but large-scale analyses are still lacking. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of lobe attachment in a multiethnic sample of 74,660 individuals from four cohorts (three with the trait scored by an expert rater and one with the trait self-reported). Meta-analysis of the three expert-rater-scored cohorts revealed six associated loci harboring numerous candidate genes, including EDAR, SP5, MRPS22, ADGRG6 (GPR126), KIAA1217, and PAX9. The large self-reported 23andMe cohort recapitulated each of these six loci. Moreover, meta-analysis across all four cohorts revealed a total of 49 significant (p < 5 × 10-8) loci. Annotation and enrichment analyses of these 49 loci showed strong evidence of genes involved in ear development and syndromes with auricular phenotypes. RNA sequencing data from both human fetal ear and mouse second branchial arch tissue confirmed that genes located among associated loci showed evidence of expression. These results provide strong evidence for the polygenic nature of earlobe attachment and offer insights into the biological basis of normal and abnormal ear development.


Assuntos
Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Região Branquial/anatomia & histologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Receptor Edar/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX9/genética , Proteínas/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 54(6): 631-638, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27505181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since the 1960s, multiple studies have reported a tendency toward hypertelorism in individuals with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs). However, the association between specific cleft types and increased interorbital distance has been inconsistent. Using three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging, we tested whether different forms of clefting showed evidence of increased interorbital distance. METHODS: Intercanthal and outercanthal distances and intercanthal indices were calculated from 3D facial surface images of 287 individuals with repaired OFCs. Raw measurements were converted to sex and age-normalized Z-scores. Mean Z-scores for individuals with cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and palate (CLP), and cleft palate (CP) were compared with reference normative values (controls) and one another directly using t tests and analysis of variance. RESULTS: The CLP group showed a significant increase in intercanthal width (P = .001) and intercanthal index (P < .001) compared with reference norms. The CP group showed a significant decrease (P < .001) in outercanthal width. The CL group showed no difference from reference norms. The proportion of clinically hyperteloric individuals was generally low but highest in the CLP group (7.4%). Cleft severity had little effect on interorbital spacing. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with CLP exhibited on average a tendency toward mild hypertelorism, driven primarily by an increase in intercanthal distance. This tendency was not seen in CL or CP.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertelorismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Tridimensional , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fenda Labial/complicações , Fissura Palatina/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertelorismo/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
PLoS Genet ; 12(8): e1006149, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27560520

RESUMO

Numerous lines of evidence point to a genetic basis for facial morphology in humans, yet little is known about how specific genetic variants relate to the phenotypic expression of many common facial features. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of 20 quantitative facial measurements derived from the 3D surface images of 3118 healthy individuals of European ancestry belonging to two US cohorts. Analyses were performed on just under one million genotyped SNPs (Illumina OmniExpress+Exome v1.2 array) imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel (Phase 3). We observed genome-wide significant associations (p < 5 x 10-8) for cranial base width at 14q21.1 and 20q12, intercanthal width at 1p13.3 and Xq13.2, nasal width at 20p11.22, nasal ala length at 14q11.2, and upper facial depth at 11q22.1. Several genes in the associated regions are known to play roles in craniofacial development or in syndromes affecting the face: MAFB, PAX9, MIPOL1, ALX3, HDAC8, and PAX1. We also tested genotype-phenotype associations reported in two previous genome-wide studies and found evidence of replication for nasal ala length and SNPs in CACNA2D3 and PRDM16. These results provide further evidence that common variants in regions harboring genes of known craniofacial function contribute to normal variation in human facial features. Improved understanding of the genes associated with facial morphology in healthy individuals can provide insights into the pathways and mechanisms controlling normal and abnormal facial morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Biol Sex Differ ; 7: 23, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27110347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although craniofacial sex differences have been extensively studied in humans, relatively little is known about when various dimorphic features manifest during postnatal life. Using cross-sectional data derived from the 3D Facial Norms data repository, we tested for sexual dimorphism of craniofacial soft-tissue morphology at different ages. METHODS: One thousand five hundred fifty-five individuals, pre-screened for craniofacial conditions, between 3 and 25 years of age were placed in to one of six age-defined categories: early childhood, late childhood, puberty, adolescence, young adult, and adult. At each age group, sex differences were tested by ANCOVA for 29 traditional soft-tissue anthropometric measurements collected from 3D facial scans. Additionally, sex differences in shape were tested using a geometric morphometric analysis of 24 3D facial landmarks. RESULTS: Significant (p < 0.05) sex differences were observed in every age group for measurements covering multiple aspects of the craniofacial complex. The magnitude of the dimorphism generally increased with age, with large spikes in the nasal, cranial, and facial measurements observed after puberty. Significant facial shape differences (p < 0.05) were also seen at each age, with some dimorphic features already present in young children (eye fissure inclination) and others emerging only after puberty (mandibular position). CONCLUSIONS: Several craniofacial soft-tissue sex differences were already present in the youngest age group studied, indicating that these differences emerged prior to 3 years of age. The results paint a complex and heterogeneous picture, with different groups of traits exhibiting distinct patterns of dimorphism during ontogeny. The definitive adult male and female facial shape was present following puberty, but arose from numerous distinct changes taking place at earlier stages.

7.
Am J Epidemiol ; 183(9): 834-41, 2016 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27045073

RESUMO

Maternal cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for oral clefts. Evidence is less clear for passive (secondhand) smoke exposure. We combined individual-level data from 4 population-based studies (the Norway Facial Clefts Study, 1996-2001; the Utah Child and Family Health Study, 1995-2004; the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, 1999-2009; and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (United States), 1999-2007) to obtain 4,508 cleft cases and 9,626 controls. We categorized first-trimester passive and active smoke exposure. Multivariable logistic models adjusted for possible confounders (maternal alcohol consumption, use of folic acid supplements, age, body size, education, and employment, plus study fixed effects). Children whose mothers actively smoked had an increased risk of oral clefts (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.46). Children of passively exposed nonsmoking mothers also had an increased risk (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27). Cleft risk was further elevated among babies of smoking mothers who were exposed to passive smoke (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.70). Using a large pooled data set, we found a modest association between first-trimester passive smoking and oral clefts that was consistent across populations, diverse study designs, and cleft subtypes. While this association may reflect subtle confounding or bias, we cannot rule out the possibility that passive smoke exposure during pregnancy is teratogenic.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 53(6): e185-e197, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26492185

RESUMO

With the current widespread use of three-dimensional (3D) facial surface imaging in clinical and research environments, there is a growing demand for high-quality craniofacial norms based on 3D imaging technology. The principal goal of the 3D Facial Norms (3DFN) project was to create an interactive, Web-based repository of 3D facial images and measurements. Unlike other repositories, users can gain access to both summary-level statistics and individual-level data, including 3D facial landmark coordinates, 3D-derived anthropometric measurements, 3D facial surface images, and genotypes from every individual in the dataset. The 3DFN database currently consists of 2454 male and female participants ranging in age from 3 to 40 years. The subjects were recruited at four US sites and screened for a history of craniofacial conditions. The goal of this article is to introduce readers to the 3DFN repository by providing a general overview of the project, explaining the rationale behind the creation of the database, and describing the methods used to collect the data. Sex- and age-specific summary statistics (means and standard deviations) and growth curves for every anthropometric measurement in the 3DFN dataset are provided as a supplement available online. These summary statistics and growth curves can aid clinicians in the assessment of craniofacial dysmorphology.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Bases de Dados Factuais , Face/anatomia & histologia , Internet , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Biodemography Soc Biol ; 57(1): 3-32, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21845925

RESUMO

There is a large literature showing the detrimental effects of prenatal smoking on birth and childhood health outcomes. It is somewhat unclear though, whether these effects are causal or reflect other characteristics and choices by mothers who choose to smoke that may also affect child health outcomes or biased reporting of smoking. In this paper we use genetic markers that predict smoking behaviors as instruments to address the endogeneity of smoking choices in the production of birth and childhood health outcomes. Our results indicate that prenatal smoking produces more dramatic declines in birth weight than estimates that ignore the endogeneity of prenatal smoking, which is consistent with previous studies with non-genetic instruments. We use data from two distinct samples from Norway and the United States with different measured instruments and find nearly identical results. The study provides a novel application that can be extended to study several behavioral impacts on health and social and economic outcomes.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/genética , Adolescente , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Comportamento Materno , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Nat Genet ; 42(6): 525-9, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20436469

RESUMO

Case-parent trios were used in a genome-wide association study of cleft lip with and without cleft palate. SNPs near two genes not previously associated with cleft lip with and without cleft palate (MAFB, most significant SNP rs13041247, with odds ratio (OR) per minor allele = 0.704, 95% CI 0.635-0.778, P = 1.44 x 10(-11); and ABCA4, most significant SNP rs560426, with OR = 1.432, 95% CI 1.292-1.587, P = 5.01 x 10(-12)) and two previously identified regions (at chromosome 8q24 and IRF6) attained genome-wide significance. Stratifying trios into European and Asian ancestry groups revealed differences in statistical significance, although estimated effect sizes remained similar. Replication studies from several populations showed confirming evidence, with families of European ancestry giving stronger evidence for markers in 8q24, whereas Asian families showed stronger evidence for association with MAFB and ABCA4. Expression studies support a role for MAFB in palatal development.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fator de Transcrição MafB/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Camundongos
12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 18(24): 4879-96, 2009 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19779022

RESUMO

Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are a common complex birth defect caused by genetic and environmental factors and/or their interactions. A previous genome-wide linkage scan discovered a novel locus for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) at 9q22-q33. To identify the etiologic gene, we undertook an iterative and complementary fine mapping strategy using family-based CL/P samples from Colombia, USA and the Philippines. Candidate genes within 9q22-q33 were sequenced, revealing 32 new variants. Concurrently, 397 SNPs spanning the 9q22-q33 2-LOD-unit interval were tested for association. Significant SNP and haplotype association signals (P = 1.45E - 08) narrowed the interval to a 200 kb region containing: FOXE1, C9ORF156 and HEMGN. Association results were replicated in CL/P families of European descent and when all populations were combined the two most associated SNPs, rs3758249 (P = 5.01E - 13) and rs4460498 (P = 6.51E - 12), were located inside a 70 kb high linkage disequilibrium block containing FOXE1. Association signals for Caucasians and Asians clustered 5' and 3' of FOXE1, respectively. Isolated cleft palate (CP) was also associated, indicating that FOXE1 plays a role in two phenotypes thought to be genetically distinct. Foxe1 expression was found in the epithelium undergoing fusion between the medial nasal and maxillary processes. Mutation screens of FOXE1 identified two family-specific missense mutations at highly conserved amino acids. These data indicate that FOXE1 is a major gene for CL/P and provides new insights for improved counseling and genetic interaction studies.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Haplótipos , Humanos , Escore Lod
13.
Semin Orthod ; 14(2): 103-114, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19492008

RESUMO

Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the most common facial birth defect and it is caused by a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the spectrum of the genetic causes for cleft lip and cleft palate using both syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of clefting as examples. Although the gene identification process for orofacial clefting in humans is in the early stages, the pace is rapidly accelerating. Recently, several genes have been identified that have a combined role in up to 20% of all clefts. While this is a significant step forward, it is apparent that additional cleft causing genes have yet to be identified. Ongoing human genome-wide linkage studies have identified regions in the genome that likely contain genes that when mutated cause orofacial clefting, including a major gene on chromosome 9 that is positive in multiple racial groups. Currently, efforts are focused to identify which genes are mutated in these regions. In addition, parallel studies are also evaluating genes involved in environmental pathways. Furthermore, statistical geneticists are developing new methods to characterize both gene-gene and gene-environment interactions to build better models for pathogenesis of this common birth defect. The ultimate goal of these studies is to provide knowledge for more accurate risk counseling and the development of preventive therapies.

14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 16(18): 2241-8, 2007 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17616516

RESUMO

Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) results from the complex interaction between genes and environmental factors. Candidate gene analysis and genome scans have been employed to identify the genes contributing to NSCLP. In this study, we evaluated the 16q24.1 chromosomal region, which has been identified by multiple genome scans as an NSCLP region of interest. Two candidate genes were found in the region: interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) and cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain containing 2 (CRISPLD2). Initially, Caucasian and Hispanic NSCLP multiplex families and simplex parent-child trios were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both IRF8 and CRISPLD2. CRISPLD2 was subsequently genotyped in a data set comprised of NSCLP families from Colombia, South America. Linkage disequilibrium analysis identified a significant association between CRISPLD2 and NSCLP in both our Caucasian and Hispanic NSCLP cohorts. SNP rs1546124 and haplotypes between rs1546124 and either rs4783099 or rs16974880 were significant in the Caucasian multiplex population (P=0.01, P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively). An altered transmission of CRISPLD2 SNPs rs8061351 (P=0.02) and rs2326398 (P=0.06) was detected in the Hispanic population. No association was found between CRISPLD2 and our Colombian population or IRF8 and NSCLP. In situ hybridization showed that CRISPLD2 is expressed in the mandible, palate and nasopharynx regions during craniofacial development at E13.5-E17.5, respectively. Altogether, these data suggest that genetic variation in CRISPLD2 has a role in the etiology of NSCLP.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/biossíntese , Fenda Labial/metabolismo , Fenda Labial/patologia , Fissura Palatina/metabolismo , Fissura Palatina/patologia , Colômbia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Família , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/biossíntese , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Masculino , Mandíbula/embriologia , Mandíbula/patologia , Camundongos
15.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 17(6): 731-9, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16282779

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Orofacial clefts are common birth defects with a known genetic component to their etiology. Most orofacial clefts are nonsyndromic, isolated defects, which can be separated into two different phenotypes: (1) cleft lip with or without cleft palate and (2) cleft palate only. Both are genetically complex traits, which has limited the ability to identify disease loci or genes. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent progress of human genetic studies in identifying causal genes for isolated or nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. RECENT FINDINGS: The results of multiple genome scans and a subsequent meta-analysis have significantly advanced our knowledge by revealing novel loci. Furthermore, candidate gene approaches have identified important roles for IRF6 and MSX1. To date, causal mutations with a known functional effect have not yet been described. SUMMARY: With the implementation of genome-wide association studies and inexpensive sequencing, future studies will identify disease genes and characterize both gene-environment and gene-gene interactions to provide knowledge for risk counseling and the development of preventive therapies.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Criança , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Fator de Transcrição MSX1/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta3
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 125A(2): 135-44, 2004 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14981713

RESUMO

Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a genetically complex birth defect, with a prevalence from 1/500 to 1/1,000 live births. Evidence from linkage and linkage disequilibrium studies is contradictory suggesting that heterogeneity between study populations may exist. A recent report of a genome widescan in 92 sib pairs from the United Kingdom revealed suggestive linkage to 10 loci [Prescott et al., 2000]. The purpose of this study is to replicate those results and evaluate additional candidate genes in 49 Colombian and 13 Ohio families. Genotypes were obtained for STRPs at 1p36, 2p13 (TGFA), 4p16 (MSX1), 6p23-25, 6q25-27, 8q23-24, 11p12-q13, 12q13, 14q24 (TGFB3), 16q22-24, 17q12-21 (RARA), and Xcen-q21. Linkage was performed using parametric (dominant and recessive models) and non-parametric (GenehunterNPL and SimIBD) analyses. In addition, heterogeneity was analyzed using GenehunterHLOD, and association determined by the TDT. The Colombian families showed significant SimIBD results for 11p12-q13 (P = 0.034), 12q13 (P = 0.015), 16q22-24 (0.01), and 17q12-21 (0.009), while the Ohio families showed significant SimIBD results for 1p36 (P = 0.02), TGFA (P = 0.005), 6p23 (P = 0.004), 11p12-q13 (P = 0.048) and significant NPL results for TGFA (NPL = 3.01, P = 0.009), 4p16 (MNPL = 2.07, P = 0.03) and 12q13 (SNPL = 3.55, P = 0.007). Significant association results were obtained only for the Colombian families in the regions 1p36 (P = 0.046), 6p23-25 (P = 0.020), and 12q13 (P = 0.046). In addition several families yielded LOD scores ranging from 1.09 to 1.73, for loci at 4p16, 6p23-25, 16q22-24, and 17q13. These results confirm previous reports for these loci. However, the differences between the two populations suggest that population specific locus heterogeneity exists. This article contains supplementary material, which may be viewed at the American Journal of Medical Genetics website at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0148-7299/suppmat/index.html.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Ligação Genética/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Fenda Labial/patologia , Fissura Palatina/patologia , Colômbia , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Genes Dominantes , Genes Recessivos , Genótipo , Humanos , Escore Lod , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Ohio , Linhagem , Prevalência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA