Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 59
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Infect Genet Evol ; 80: 104171, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904555

RESUMO

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is one of the five agents considered most significant for cattle. It is important to determine the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of BLV throughout the country in order to gain a more thorough understanding of the current situation of BLV and to reveal the possibility of masked genotypes that the primers used by OIE are unable to identify. Blood samples were collected at random from 289 cows distributed in 75 farms across the country. PCR amplification of env, gag and tax gene segments was performed. The obtained amplicons were sequenced and then subjected to phylogenetic analyses. A total of 62% of the cows present at 92% of the farms were BLV-positive for gag fragment. Genotype 1 was exclusively detected by env gene segment when analyzed using previously reported primers. However, tax gene analysis revealed circulation of genotype 6 variants, which were also detected based on env gene analysis with newly designed primers. These results indicate that current genotyping approaches based on partial env sequencing may bias BLV genetic variability approaches and underestimate the diversity of the detected BLV genotypes. This report is one of the first molecular and epidemiological studies of BLV conducted in Colombia, which contributes to the global epidemiology of the virus; it also highlights the substantial impact of BLV on the country's livestock and thus is a useful resource for farmers and government entities.

2.
Ophthalmic Res ; 63(1): 8-12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Notwithstanding the significant advances in automated imaging techniques in the past 2 decades, subjective evaluation of the optic disc still remains an important part of glaucoma propaedeutic. In places with limited resources and a high demand for ophthalmic care, anatomical evaluation of glaucoma cases often relies solely on slit-lamp-based fundus biomicroscopic examination, which is frequently performed without mydriasis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare metrics related to fundus biomicroscopy examination of the optic nerve head and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) with and without mydriasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Healthy individuals, patients with early glaucoma, and glaucoma suspects were prospectively enrolled. Patients were examined before and after mydriasis by three glaucoma specialists, who estimated patients' vertical cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) and evaluated the presence of glaucomatous signs: laminar dot sign, disc hemorrhage, disc saucering, disc notching, peripapillary atrophy, localized pRNFL defect, and loss of the ISNT pattern. Main outcome measures were the intra-observer comparison, the inter-observer agreement, and the abilities to identify glaucomatous signs before and after mydriasis. RESULTS: Thirty patients (60 eyes) were enrolled (mean age, 62.3 ± 11.6 years). Considering the evaluation of the three examiners, the mean vertical CDR increased from 0.41 to 0.44 (p = 0.02), and the median of the coefficient of variation of the measures was reduced from 0.24 to 0.11 (p = 0.01) after mydriasis. Regarding the inter-observer agreement evaluation, the kappa coefficient values ranged from 0.64 to 0.72 before mydriasis and from 0.71 to 0.77 after mydriasis. Dot sign and disc notching were better identified through fundoscopic examination with mydriasis compared to the nonmydriatic examination (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that fundus biomicroscopy should be performed with mydriasis whenever possible, as it yells a better intra- and inter-observer agreement and improves the detection of glaucomatous signs. Moreover, examiners seem to underestimate CDR values without mydriasis. Further investigation is warranted to validate these findings by general ophthalmologists and in different populations.

3.
New Phytol ; 225(1): 118-125, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225901

RESUMO

In recent years, the number of emergent plant pathogens (EPPs) has grown substantially, threatening agroecosystem stability and native biodiversity. Contributing factors include, among others, shifts in biogeography, with EPP spread facilitated by the global unification of monocultures in modern agriculture, high volumes of trade in plants and plant products and an increase in sexual recombination within pathogen populations. The unpredictable nature of EPPs as they move into new territories is a situation that has led to sudden and widespread epidemics. Understanding the underlying causes of pathogen emergence is key to managing the impact of EPPs. Here, we review some factors specifically influencing the emergence of oomycete and fungal EPPs, including new introductions through anthropogenic movement, natural dispersal and weather events, as well as genetic factors linked to shifts in host range.

4.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(3): 296-298, mayo-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183753

RESUMO

La Ciudad de las Niñas y los Niños es un proyecto internacional que pretende fomentar la autonomía y la participación infantil plena en la construcción de la ciudad. Tras aprobarse en 2011 en el pleno del Ayuntamiento de Huesca, se crearon el Consejo de las Niñas y los Niños y el Laboratorio de la Ciudad, órganos en los que hay representación de todos los colegios de Huesca. Para hacer explícito el trabajo sobre la salud se han incorporado actividades como «Caminos saludables», en la que se utiliza la técnica del mapeo de activos. Además del trabajo interdisciplinario entre distintas áreas del ayuntamiento, profesionales de los sectores educativo (colegios y universidad), sanitario y social, se observan impactos en el entorno físico urbano, con la remodelación de un parque, una calle y una plaza; y en los estilos de vida de los escolares, al aumentar el número de aquellos que van andando solos al colegio


The City of Girls and Boys of Huesca (Spain) is an international project that seeks to foster children's autonomy and full participation in the construction of the city. Following its formal approval at the City Council of Huesca, the Girls and Boys Board and the City Laboratory were created, both of which include children from all the schools of Huesca. To highlightthe work on health, activities such as "Healthy School Paths", in which the asset mapping technique is used, were incorporated. Besides the interdisciplinary work among different areas of the city council, professionals from education (schools and university), health and social services, effects on the urban physical environment, with one street, park and square remodelled; and on the children's lifestyles, with more children walking to school alone, have been observed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Cidade Saudável , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Participação Social , Política Pública , Planejamento Ambiental/tendências , Programas Gente Saudável/organização & administração , Educação Infantil/tendências , Cuidado da Criança/tendências
6.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 9, 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional Map based Cloning approaches, used for the identification of desirable alleles, are extremely labour intensive and years can elapse between the mutagenesis and the detection of the polymorphism. High throughput sequencing based Mapping-by-sequencing approach requires an ordered genome assembly and cannot be used with fragmented, un-scaffolded draft genomes, limiting its application to model species and precluding many important organisms. RESULTS: We addressed this gap in resource and presented a computational method and software implementations called CHERIPIC (Computing Homozygosity Enriched Regions In genomes to Prioritise Identification of Candidate variants). We have successfully validated implementation of CHERIPIC using three different types of bulk segregant sequence data from Arabidopsis, maize and barley, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CHERIPIC allows users to rapidly analyse bulk segregant sequence data and we have made it available as a pre-packaged binary with all dependencies for Linux and MacOS and as Galaxy tool.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Arabidopsis/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Homozigoto , Hordeum/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Zea mays/genética
7.
Gac Sanit ; 33(3): 296-298, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029807

RESUMO

The City of Girls and Boys of Huesca (Spain) is an international project that seeks to foster children's autonomy and full participation in the construction of the city. Following its formal approval at the City Council of Huesca, the Girls and Boys Board and the City Laboratory were created, both of which include children from all the schools of Huesca. To highlightthe work on health, activities such as "Healthy School Paths", in which the asset mapping technique is used, were incorporated. Besides the interdisciplinary work among different areas of the city council, professionals from education (schools and university), health and social services, effects on the urban physical environment, with one street, park and square remodelled; and on the children's lifestyles, with more children walking to school alone, have been observed.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Planejamento Ambiental , Meio Ambiente , Política Pública , Criança , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
8.
Viruses ; 10(12)2018 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544785

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen member of the Flaviviridae family. ZIKV has spread rapidly in the Latin American region, causing hundreds of thousands of cases of ZIKV disease, as well as microcephaly in congenital infections. Detailed studies on the pattern of evolution of ZIKV strains have been extremely important to our understanding of viral survival, fitness, and evasion of the host's immune system. For these reasons, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of ZIKV strains recently isolated in the Americas. The results of these studies revealed evidence of diversification of ZIKV strains circulating in the Latin American region into at least five different genetic clusters. This diversification was also reflected in the different trends in dinucleotide bias and codon usage variation. Amino acid substitutions were found in E and prM proteins of the ZIKV strains isolated in this region, revealing the presence of novel genetic variants circulating in Latin America.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus/genética , Aedes/virologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , América Latina/epidemiologia , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
9.
Commun Biol ; 1: 13, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271900

RESUMO

Wheat stem rust, a devastating disease of wheat and barley caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, was largely eradicated in Western Europe during the mid-to-late twentieth century. However, isolated outbreaks have occurred in recent years. Here we investigate whether a lack of resistance in modern European varieties, increased presence of its alternate host barberry and changes in climatic conditions could be facilitating its resurgence. We report the first wheat stem rust occurrence in the United Kingdom in nearly 60 years, with only 20% of UK wheat varieties resistant to this strain. Climate changes over the past 25 years also suggest increasingly conducive conditions for infection. Furthermore, we document the first occurrence in decades of P. graminis on barberry in the UK . Our data illustrate that wheat stem rust does occur in the UK and, when climatic conditions are conducive, could severely harm wheat and barley production.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204047, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303978

RESUMO

Theileria parva is a protozoan parasite transmitted by the brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus that causes East Coast fever (ECF) in cattle, resulting in substantial economic losses in the regions of southern, eastern and central Africa. The schizont form of the parasite transforms the bovine host lymphocytes into actively proliferating cancer-like cells. However, how T. parva causes bovine host cells to proliferate and maintain a cancerous phenotype following infection is still poorly understood. On the other hand, current efforts to develop improved vaccines have identified only a few candidate antigens. In the present paper, we report the first comparative transcriptomic analysis throughout the course of T. parva infection. We observed that the development of sporoblast into sporozoite and then the establishment in the host cells as schizont is accompanied by a drastic increase of upregulated genes in the schizont stage of the parasite. In contrast, the ten highest gene expression values occurred in the arthropod vector stages. A comparative analysis showed that 2845 genes were upregulated in both sporozoite and schizont stages compared to the sporoblast. In addition, 647 were upregulated only in the sporozoite whereas 310 were only upregulated in the schizont. We detected low p67 expression in the schizont stage, an unexpected finding considering that p67 has been reported as a sporozoite stage-specific gene. In contrast, we found that transcription of p67 was 20 times higher in the sporoblast than in the sporozoite. Using the expression profiles of recently identified candidate vaccine antigens as a benchmark for selection for novel potential vaccine candidates, we identified three genes with expression similar to p67 and several other genes similar to Tp1-Tp10 schizont vaccine antigens. We propose that the antigenicity or chemotherapeutic potential of this panel of new candidate antigens be further investigated. Structural comparisons of the transcripts generated here with the existing gene models for the respective loci revealed indels. Our findings can be used to improve the structural annotation of the T. parva genome, and the identification of alternatively spliced transcripts.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Theileria parva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Theileriose/parasitologia , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Bovinos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/genética , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Esquizontes/genética , Esquizontes/imunologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Esporozoítos/genética , Esporozoítos/imunologia , Theileria parva/genética , Theileria parva/imunologia , Regulação para Cima
11.
Dis Markers ; 2018: 2514901, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30186532

RESUMO

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection treatment has dramatically changed with the advent of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). However, the efficacy of DAAs can be attenuated by the presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) before and after treatment. Indeed, RASs detected in DAA treatment-naïve HCV-infected patients could be useful for clinical management and outcome prediction. Although the frequency of naturally occurring HCV NS5A and NS5B RASs has been addressed in many countries, there are only a few reports on their prevalence in the South American region. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of RASs to NS5A and NS5B inhibitors in a DAA treatment naïve cohort of Uruguayan patients infected with chronic hepatitis C and compare them with reports from other South American countries. Here, we found that naturally occurring substitutions conferring resistance to NS5A and NS5B inhibitors were present in 8% and 19.2%, respectively, of treatment-naïve HCV genotype 1 infected patients. Importantly, the baseline substitutions in NS5A and NS5B herein identified differ from the studies previously reported in Brazil. Furthermore, Uruguayan strains subtype 1a clustered within all major world clades, showing that HCV variants currently circulating in this country are characterized by a remarkable genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Uruguai
12.
Virol J ; 15(1): 40, 2018 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Host single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the interleukin 28B (IL28B) locus are associated with sustained virological response to antiviral therapy and with spontaneous Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) clearance. Prevalence of these SNPs varies depending on ethnicity. The impact of IL28B SNPs in HCV-infected patients is currently unknown in Uruguay. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the distribution of polymorphisms in the IL28B gene (rs12979860 and rs8099917) among HCV-infected patients and healthy individuals in Uruguay and thus assess their possible association with the establishment of HCV infection. METHODS: DNA was recovered from 92 non-infected individuals and 78 HCV-infected patients and SNPs were determined by RFLP and allelic discrimination by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The distribution of rs12979860 genotypes for the infected population was 29.5%-CC, 47.4%-CT and 23.1%-TT and for the control group 45.7%, 42.4% and 11.9%, respectively. Prevalence in both infected and uninfected individuals is similar to that reported in other countries with admixed populations. The distribution of rs8099917 genotypes for the infected population was 57.7%-TT, 27.2%-TG and 14.1%-GG and for the control group 60.9%, 33.7% and 5.4%, respectively. The comparison of rs12979860 genotype distribution between the two populations evidenced a higher prevalence of the favourable genotype (CC) in the uninfected control group (p < 0.05). Additionally, results generated using logistic regression analysis show that individuals carrying rs12979860-TT or CT genotypes have a higher likelihood of developing chronic hepatitis upon infection with HCV, when compared to CC carriers, considering rs8099917 genotype as constant. CONCLUSION: Patients with HCV infection have a statistically significant lower prevalence of the favourable rs12979860 genotype when compared to uninfected individuals; therefore we can establish that only IL28B rs12979860-CT and TT genotypes seem to contribute to the occurrence of chronic HCV infection in the cohort of Uruguayan population studied. Considering that a trend towards a higher frequency of "good" response genotypes was observed in responder patients, we believe that IL28B rs12979860 genotyping could be a useful tool for predicting different therapies outcome, including in the DAA era.


Assuntos
Alelos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hepatite C Crônica/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Interleucinas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Interferons , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Uruguai
13.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 32(3): 298­303, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29561917

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine whether subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) manifesting as chronic myofascial pain (MFP) involving the masseter muscle present with significantly greater masseter muscle width, as evidenced by ultrasound, compared to individuals without MFP. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out. A total of 31 subjects presenting with MFP of the masticatory muscles involving the masseter muscle and 35 controls with TMD but no diagnosis of MFP, matched by age and sex, were included. Ultrasound was used to measure the maximum width of both masseter muscles at the intermediate point between the origin and insertion of the muscle in the light occlusal contact (LOC) position and under maximum contraction. Each side was analyzed separately. Means were compared by using single-factor analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U test; P < .05 was considered to reflect statistical significance. RESULTS: In the study group, the right masseter muscle had a mean ± standard deviation width of 8.6 ± 1.8 mm under LOC (controls: 8.6 ± 1.6 mm; P = .85) and 11.5 ± 2.1 mm under maximum contraction (controls: 11.7 ± 1.9 mm; P = .86). The analagous measures in the left masseter muscle were 8.6 ± 1.6 mm under LOC (controls: 8.2 ± 1.5 mm; P = .42) and 11.3 ± 1.8 mm under maximum contraction (controls: 11.5 ± 1.8 mm) (P = .79), respectively. The increase in width of the right masseter muscle was 2.9 ± 2.1 mm (controls: 3.1 ± 1.2 mm; P = .67) in absolute terms and 1.4 ± 0.3 mm (controls: 1.4 ± 0.2 mm; P = .91) in relative values (width at maximum contraction/LOC width). In the case of the left masseter muscle, the respective values were 2.8 ± 1.7 mm (controls: 3.2 ± 0.9 mm; P = .25) and 1.3 ± 0.2 mm (controls: 1.4 ± 0.1 mm; P = .32). CONCLUSION: There were no statistically significant differences in masseter muscle width between MFP subjects and control subjects under LOC conditions or maximum contraction. The increase in width under maximum contraction was likewise not significantly different between the groups.


Assuntos
Músculo Masseter/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome da Disfunção da Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Masseter/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Síndrome da Disfunção da Articulação Temporomandibular/patologia
14.
Genome Biol Evol ; 9(12): 3282-3296, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177504

RESUMO

Recent disease outbreaks caused by (re-)emerging plant pathogens have been associated with expansions in pathogen geographic distribution and increased virulence. For example, in the past two decades' wheat yellow (stripe) rust, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has seen the emergence of new races that are adapted to warmer temperatures, have expanded virulence profiles, and are more aggressive than previous races, leading to wide-scale epidemics. Here, we used field-based genotyping to generate high-resolution data on P. striiformis genetics and carried out global population analysis. We also undertook comparative analysis of the 2014 and 2013 UK populations and assessed the temporal dynamics and host specificity of distinct pathogen genotypes. Our analysis revealed that P. striiformis lineages recently detected in Europe are extremely diverse and in fact similar to globally dispersed populations. In addition, we identified a considerable shift in the UK P. striiformis population structure including the first identification of one infamous race known as Kranich. Next, by establishing the genotype of both the pathogen and host within a single infected field sample, we uncovered evidence for varietal specificity for genetic groups of P. striiformis. Finally, we found potential seasonal specificity for certain genotypes of the pathogen with several lineages identified only in samples collected in late spring and into the summer, whereas one lineage was identified throughout the wheat growing season. Our discovery of which wheat varieties are susceptible to which specific P. striiformis isolates, and when those isolates are prevalent throughout the year, represents a powerful tool for disease management.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/classificação , Basidiomycota/genética , Genômica/métodos , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Fúngico , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , Estações do Ano , Virulência
15.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (41): 107-119, nov. 2017. tab
Artigo em Catalão | IBECS | ID: ibc-167499

RESUMO

La pràctica mèdica i l'atenció al pacient poden estar associades a conflictes d'índole diversa: personals, professionals, ètics. Les polítiques d'austeritat derivades dels reajustaments econòmics arran de la crisi global han vingut a incrementar aquests conflictes. Amb intenció de detectar, definir i proposar solució a alguns d'ells, el CèAVOC va promoure un debat que va generar un treball de prospecció en l'entorn laboral dels seus membres, per esbrinar la realitat quotidiana i els principis ètics que aquesta vulnerava. Es van identificar múltiples factors estressors ètics. De l'anàlisi d'ells se'n desprèn un increment de sensació de vulnerabilitat personal i social. Es fa necessària una major implicació dels professionals de la salut en la gestió sanitària des de la visió de servei a les persones


La práctica médica y la atención al paciente pueden estar asociadas a conflictos de distinta índole: personales, profesionales, éticos. Las políticas de austeridad derivadas de los reajustes económicos a raíz de la crisis global han incrementado estos conflictos. Con intención detectar, definir y proponer solución a algunos de ellos, el CèAVOC promovió un debate que generó un trabajo de prospección en el entorno laboral de sus miembros, para averiguar la realidad cotidiana y los principios éticos que ésta vulneraba. Se identificaron múltiples factores estresores éticos. De su análisis se desprende un incremento de sensación de vulnerabilidad personal y social. Se hace necesaria una mayor implicación de los profesionales de la salud en la gestión sanitaria des de la visión de servicio a las personas


Medical practices and patient's care activities may be associated with conflicts of different nature, such as personal, professional, or ethical. These conflicts, furthermore, may have even increased due to the arrival of austerity policies devised to deal with the effects of the global economic crisis. With the purpose of detecting, defining and proposing solutions to some of these conflicts, CèAVOC encouraged a debate, which afterwards resulted in exploring its staffs' work environment, in examining their daily realities as well as the ethical principles that affected them. Multiple ethical stressor factors were identified, one of which reflected higher awareness of their personal and social vulnerability. It seems necessary that health professionals are deeper involved in the management of health by adopting a patient service approach


Assuntos
Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente/ética , Administração da Prática Médica/ética , Ética Profissional , Relações Profissional-Paciente/ética , Prática Profissional/ética , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 65(12): 2685-2690, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether muscle quality based on echo intensity (EI) is associated with muscle strength (MS) and correlates with risk of frailty in elderly outpatients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, experimental study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 20 to 90 (N = 112). Individuals aged 20 to 59 participated as controls. Those aged 60 and older participated in the experimental group and were subdivided into robust, prefrail, and frail according to the Fried frailty criteria. MEASUREMENTS: EI, muscle thickness (MT), and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) of the anterior compartment of the thigh were measured using ultrasound images. MS was quantified using a hand dynamometer. Participants responded to a questionnaire asking about demographic and physical characteristics, frailty criteria, and quality of life. RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation between EI and MS (Women: correlation coefficient (r) = -.522, P < .001; Men: r = -.355, P < .001). A similar trend was found for MT but not SFT. Statistically significant differences were also found between EI values, MT, MS, and quality of life and the different stages of frailty (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of EI were associated with lower levels of strength and greater frailty. These results, although needing to be replicated in larger and more-diverse populations, suggest that EI obtained using ultrasound images might be used as noninvasive imaging biomarker of frailty in elderly adults and opens the possibility of accurately testing interventions performed to prevent it.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Força Muscular , Ultrassonografia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Front Microbiol ; 7: 1667, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27812357

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) closely related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. ZIKV remained neglected, confined to enzootic transmission cycles in Africa and Asia, until the first significant outbreak was reported in Micronesia in 2007. Subsequent epidemics of growing incidence occurred in French Polynesia and other South Pacific Islands, and recently, in the Americas. The latter and currently ongoing outbreak of unprecedented incidence revealed the association of ZIKV infection with the occurrence of severe congenital malformations and neurological diseases, leading to a widespread concern about its potential to pose a global public health threat. Serological and molecular data suggest that the genetic and geographic diversification of ZIKV may be greatly underestimated. Here we discuss several ecological and epidemiological aspects, together with the evolutionary processes that may have driven the emergence and abrupt spread of ZIKV in the Americas.

18.
Virus Res ; 223: 140-6, 2016 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27449600

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 130-150 million infected individuals worldwide. HCV is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatment options in developing countries involve pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin as dual therapy or in combination with one or more direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA). The emergence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) after treatment reveals the great variability of this virus leading to a great difficulty in developing effective antiviral strategies. Baseline RAVs detected in DAA treatment-naïve HCV-infected patients could be of great importance for clinical management and outcome prediction. Although the frequency of naturally occurring HCV NS3 protease inhibitor mutations has been addressed in many countries, there are only a few reports on their prevalence in South America. In this study, we investigated the presence of RAVs in the HCV NS3 serine protease region by analysing a cohort of Uruguayan patients with chronic hepatitis C who had not been treated with any DAAs and compare them with the results found for other South American countries. The results of these studies revealed that naturally occurring mutations conferring resistance to NS3 inhibitors exist in a substantial proportion of Uruguayan treatment-naïve patients infected with HCV genotype 1 enrolled in these studies. The identification of these baseline RAVs could be of great importance for patients' management and outcome prediction in developing countries.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química
19.
J Med Virol ; 88(10): 1672-6, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27278855

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the family Flaviviridae. In 2015, ZIKV triggered an epidemic in Brazil and spread across Latin America. By May of 2016, the World Health Organization warns over spread of ZIKV beyond this region. Detailed studies on the mode of evolution of ZIKV strains are extremely important for our understanding of the emergence and spread of ZIKV populations. In order to gain insight into these matters, a Bayesian coalescent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of complete genome sequences of recently isolated ZIKV strains was performed. The results of these studies revealed a mean rate of evolution of 1.20 × 10(-3) nucleotide substitutions per site per year (s/s/y) for ZIKV strains enrolled in this study. Several variants isolated in China are grouped together with all strains isolated in Latin America. Another genetic group composed exclusively by Chinese strains were also observed, suggesting the co-circulation of different genetic lineages in China. These findings indicate a high level of diversification of ZIKV populations. Strains isolated from microcephaly cases do not share amino acid substitutions, suggesting that other factors besides viral genetic differences may play a role for the proposed pathogenesis caused by ZIKV infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1672-1676, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Microcefalia/virologia , Método de Monte Carlo , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
20.
J Glaucoma ; 25(10): 854-859, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26950577

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness in high-tension glaucoma (HTG) and low-tension glaucoma (LTG). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Glaucoma was defined as glaucomatous optic neuropathy and reproducible visual field defects. Patients were classified as having LTG if untreated intraocular pressure was ≤21 mm Hg on 2 different occasions. Only eyes with early glaucoma (mean deviation <-6 dB) were included. All patients underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) imaging. RESULTS: A total of 56 normal subjects, 64 HTG patients, and 35 LTG patients were enrolled. Overall, after adjusting for mean deviation and age, the average pRNFL thickness in eyes with LTG was 18.7 µm thinner than in eyes with HTG (17% difference, P<0.01). In the HTG group, no significant difference was found between areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) for average GCC and average pRNFL thicknesses (0.77 vs. 0.68, P=0.06). In the LTG group, average pRNFL thickness had a significantly larger AUC compared with average GCC thickness (0.95 vs. 0.81, P<0.001). Comparing AUCs between HTG and LTG groups, although the average GCC had similar AUCs in both groups (P=0.47), the average pRNFL thickness had a significantly larger AUC in the LTG group (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In eyes with early glaucoma, the pRNFL thickness scan seems to be a more accurate SDOCT protocol to identify those with LTG compared with the GCC thickness scan.


Assuntos
Pressão Intraocular , Glaucoma de Baixa Tensão/diagnóstico , Disco Óptico/patologia , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Glaucoma de Baixa Tensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/etiologia , Curva ROC , Tonometria Ocular
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA