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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to estimate the cumulative risk of a false-positive (FP) result in a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) through 7 screening rounds and to identify its associated factors in a population-based colorectal cancer screening program. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, which included participants ages 50 to 69 years of a colorectal cancer screening program in Catalonia, Spain. During this period, 2 FOBTs were used (guaiac and immunochemical). A discrete-time survival model was performed to identify risk factors of receiving a positive FOBT with no high-risk adenoma or colorectal cancer in the follow-up colonoscopy. We estimated the probability of having at least 1 FP over 7 screening rounds. RESULTS: During the period of 2000 to 2017, the cumulative FP risk was 16.3% (IC95%: 14.6%-18.3%), adjusted by age, sex, and type of test. The median number of screens was 2. Participants who began screening at age 50 years had a 7.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 6.35-8.51] and a 12.4% (95% CI, 11.00-13.94) probability of an FP with 4 screening rounds of guaiac-based test and immunochemical test, respectively. Age, the fecal immunochemical test, first screening, and number of personal screens were factors associated with an FP result among screenees. CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative risk of an FP in colorectal screening using FOBT seems acceptable as the colonoscopy, with its high accuracy, lengthens the time until additional colorectal screening is required, while complication rates remain low. IMPACT: It is useful to determine the cumulative FP risk in cancer screening for both advising individuals and for health resources planning.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494577

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome (LS) and constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) are hereditary cancer syndromes associated with mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. Tumours show microsatellite instability (MSI), also reported at low levels in non-neoplastic tissues. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of high-sensitivity MSI (hs-MSI) assessment for the identification of LS and CMMRD in non-neoplastic tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood DNA samples from 131 individuals were grouped into three cohorts: baseline (22 controls), training (11 CMMRD, 48 LS and 15 controls) and validation (18 CMMRD and 18 controls). Custom next generation sequencing panel and bioinformatics pipeline were used to detect insertions and deletions in microsatellite markers. An hs-MSI score was calculated representing the percentage of unstable markers. RESULTS: The hs-MSI score was significantly higher in CMMRD blood samples when compared with controls in the training cohort (p<0.001). This finding was confirmed in the validation set, reaching 100% specificity and sensitivity. Higher hs-MSI scores were detected in biallelic MSH2 carriers (n=5) compared with MSH6 carriers (n=15). The hs-MSI analysis did not detect a difference between LS and control blood samples (p=0.564). CONCLUSIONS: The hs-MSI approach is a valuable tool for CMMRD diagnosis, especially in suspected patients harbouring MMR variants of unknown significance or non-detected biallelic germline mutations.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13407, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527690

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia and statin use have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but prospective studies have shown mixed results. We aimed to determine whether dyslipidemia is causally linked to CRC risk using a Mendelian randomization approach and to explore the association of statins with CRC. A case-control study was performed including 1336 CRC cases and 2744 controls (MCC-Spain). Subjects were administered an epidemiological questionnaire and were genotyped with an array which included polymorphisms associated with blood lipids levels, selected to avoid pleiotropy. Four genetic lipid scores specific for triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), or total cholesterol (TC) were created as the count of risk alleles. The genetic lipid scores were not associated with CRC. The ORs per 10 risk alleles, were for TG 0.91 (95%CI: 0.72-1.16, p = 0.44), for HDL 1.14 (95%CI: 0.95-1.37, p = 0.16), for LDL 0.97 (95%CI: 0.81-1.16, p = 0.73), and for TC 0.98 (95%CI: 0.84-1.17, p = 0.88). The LDL and TC genetic risk scores were associated with statin use, but not the HDL or TG. Statin use, overall, was a non-significant protective factor for CRC (OR 0.84; 95%CI: 0.70-1.01, p = 0.060), but lipophilic statins were associated with a CRC risk reduction (OR 0.78; 95%CI 0.66-0.96, p = 0.018). Using the Mendelian randomization approach, our study does not support the hypothesis that lipid levels are associated with the risk of CRC. This study does not rule out, however, a possible protective effect of statins in CRC by a mechanism unrelated to lipid levels.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13560, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537841

RESUMO

There is extensive debate regarding the protective effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) on colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to assess the association between CRC risk and exposure to statins using a large cohort with prescription data. We carried out a case-control study in Catalonia using the System for Development of Primary Care Research (SIDIAP) database that recorded patient diseases history and linked data on reimbursed medication. The study included 25 811 cases with an incident diagnosis of CRC between 2010 and 2015 and 129 117 frequency-matched controls. Subjects were classified as exposed to statins if they had ever been dispensed statins. Analysis considering mean daily defined dose, cumulative duration and type of statin were performed. Overall, 66 372 subjects (43%) were exposed to statins. There was no significant decrease of CRC risk associated to any statin exposure (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.95-1.01). Only in the stratified analysis by location a reduction of risk for rectal cancer was observed associated to statin exposure (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.81-0.92). This study does not support an overall protective effect of statins in CRC, but a protective association with rectal cancer merits further research.

5.
Euro Surveill ; 24(31)2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387672

RESUMO

IntroductionInfluenza immunisation is recommended for elderly people each season. The influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) varies annually due to influenza viruses evolving and the vaccine composition.AimTo estimate, in inpatients ≥ 60 years old, the 2017/18 trivalent IVE, overall, by vaccine type and by strain. The impact of vaccination in any of the two previous seasons (2016/17 and 2015/16) on current (2017/18) IVE was also explored.MethodsThis was a multicentre prospective observational study within the Valencia Hospital Surveillance Network for the Study of Influenza and Respiratory Viruses Disease (VAHNSI, Spain). The test-negative design was applied taking laboratory-confirmed influenza as outcome and vaccination status as main exposure. Information about potential confounders was obtained from clinical registries and/or by interviewing patients; vaccine information was only ascertained by registries.ResultsOverall, 2017/18 IVE was 9.9% (95% CI: -15.5 to 29.6%), and specifically, 48.3% (95% CI: 13.5% to 69.1%), -29.9% (95% CI: -79.1% to 5.8%) and 25.7% (95% CI: -8.8% to 49.3%) against A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B/Yamagata lineage, respectively. For the adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted vaccines, overall IVE was 10.0% (95% CI: -24.4% to 34.9%) and 7.8% (95% CI: -23.1% to 31.0%) respectively. Prior vaccination significantly protected against influenza B/Yamagata lineage (IVE: 50.2%; 95% CI: 2.3% to 74.6%) in patients not vaccinated in the current season. For those repeatedly vaccinated against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, IVE was 46.4% (95% CI: 6.8% to 69.2%).ConclusionOur data revealed low vaccine effectiveness against influenza in hospitalised patients ≥60 years old in 2017/18. Prior vaccination protected against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and B/Yamagata-lineage.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 477-492, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402092

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified hundreds of genetic risk variants for human cancers. However, target genes for the majority of risk loci remain largely unexplored. It is also unclear whether GWAS risk-loci-associated genes contribute to mutational signatures and tumor mutational burden (TMB) in cancer tissues. We systematically conducted cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) analyses for 294 GWAS-identified variants for six major types of cancer-colorectal, lung, ovary, prostate, pancreas, and melanoma-by using transcriptome data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) Project, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and other public data sources. By using integrative analysis strategies, we identified 270 candidate target genes, including 99 with previously unreported associations, for six cancer types. By analyzing functional genomic data, our results indicate that 180 genes (66.7% of 270) had evidence of cis-regulation by putative functional variants via proximal promoter or distal enhancer-promoter interactions. Together with our previously reported associations for breast cancer risk, our results show that 24 genes are shared by at least two cancer types, including four genes for both breast and ovarian cancer. By integrating mutation data from TCGA, we found that expression levels of 33 and 66 putative susceptibility genes were associated with specific mutational signatures and TMB of cancer-driver genes, respectively, at a Bonferroni-corrected p < 0.05. Together, these findings provide further insight into our understanding of how genetic risk variants might contribute to carcinogenesis through the regulation of susceptibility genes that are related to the biogenesis of somatic mutations.

7.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 177: 219-229, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Risk prediction models aim at identifying people at higher risk of developing a target disease. Feature selection is particularly important to improve the prediction model performance avoiding overfitting and to identify the leading cancer risk (and protective) factors. Assessing the stability of feature selection/ranking algorithms becomes an important issue when the aim is to analyze the features with more prediction power. METHODS: This work is focused on colorectal cancer, assessing several feature ranking algorithms in terms of performance for a set of risk prediction models (Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines (SVM), Logistic Regression, k-Nearest Neighbors and Boosted Trees). Additionally, their robustness is evaluated following a conventional approach with scalar stability metrics and a visual approach proposed in this work to study both similarity among feature ranking techniques as well as their individual stability. A comparative analysis is carried out between the most relevant features found out in this study and features provided by the experts according to the state-of-the-art knowledge. RESULTS: The two best performance results in terms of Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) are achieved with a SVM classifier using the top-41 features selected by the SVM wrapper approach (AUC=0.693) and Logistic Regression with the top-40 features selected by the Pearson (AUC=0.689). Experiments showed that performing feature selection contributes to classification performance with a 3.9% and 1.9% improvement in AUC for the SVM and Logistic Regression classifier, respectively, with respect to the results using the full feature set. The visual approach proposed in this work allows to see that the Neural Network-based wrapper ranking is the most unstable while the Random Forest is the most stable. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that stability and model performance should be studied jointly as Random Forest turned out to be the most stable algorithm but outperformed by others in terms of model performance while SVM wrapper and the Pearson correlation coefficient are moderately stable while achieving good model performance.

8.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(8): 1124-1135, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab duocarmazine is a novel HER2-targeting antibody-drug conjugate comprised of trastuzumab covalently bound to a linker drug containing duocarmycin. Preclinical studies showed promising antitumour activity in various models. In this first-in-human study, we assessed the safety and activity of trastuzumab duocarmazine in patients with advanced solid tumours. METHODS: We did a phase 1 dose-escalation and dose-expansion study. The dose-escalation cohort comprised patients aged 18 years or older enrolled from three academic hospitals in Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumours with variable HER2 status who were refractory to standard cancer treatment. A separate cohort of patients were enrolled to the dose-expansion phase from 15 hospitals in Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain, and the UK. Dose-expansion cohorts included patients aged 18 years or older with breast, gastric, urothelial, or endometrial cancer with at least HER2 immunohistochemistry 1+ expression and measurable disease according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Trastuzumab duocarmazine was administered intravenously on day 1 of each 3-week cycle. In the dose-escalation phase, trastuzumab duocarmazine was given at doses of 0·3 mg/kg to 2·4 mg/kg (3 + 3 design) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint of the dose-escalation phase was to assess safety and ascertain the recommended phase 2 dose, which would be the dose used in the dose-expansion phase. The primary endpoint of the dose-expansion phase was the proportion of patients achieving an objective response (complete response or partial response), as assessed by the investigator using RECIST version 1.1. This ongoing study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02277717, and is fully recruited. FINDINGS: Between Oct 30, 2014, and April 2, 2018, 39 patients were enrolled and treated in the dose-escalation phase and 146 patients were enrolled and treated in the dose-expansion phase. One dose-limiting toxic effect (death from pneumonitis) occurred at the highest administered dose (2·4 mg/kg) in the dose-escalation phase. One further death occurred in the dose-escalation phase (1·5 mg/kg cohort) due to disease progression, which was attributed to general physical health decline. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events reported more than once in the dose-escalation phase were keratitis (n=3) and fatigue (n=2). Based on all available data, the recommended phase 2 dose was set at 1·2 mg/kg. In the dose-expansion phase, treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in 16 (11%) of 146 patients, most commonly infusion-related reactions (two [1%]) and dyspnoea (two [1%]). The most common treatment-related adverse events (grades 1-4) were fatigue (48 [33%] of 146 patients), conjunctivitis (45 [31%]), and dry eye (45 [31%]). Most patients (104 [71%] of 146) had at least one ocular adverse event, with grade 3 events reported in ten (7%) of 146 patients. No patients died from treatment-related adverse events and four patients died due to disease progression, which were attributed to hepatic failure (n=1), upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (n=1), neurological decompensation (n=1), and renal failure (n=1). In the breast cancer dose-expansion cohorts, 16 (33%, 95% CI 20·4-48·4) of 48 assessable patients with HER2-positive breast cancer achieved an objective response (all partial responses) according to RECIST. Nine (28%, 95% CI 13·8-46·8) of 32 patients with HER2-low, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and six (40%, 16·3-67·6) of 15 patients with HER2-low, hormone receptor-negative breast cancer achieved an objective response (all partial responses). Partial responses were also observed in one (6%, 95% CI 0·2-30·2) of 16 patients with gastric cancer, four (25%, 7·3-52·4) of 16 patients with urothelial cancer, and five (39%, 13·9-68·4) of 13 patients with endometrial cancer. INTERPRETATION: Trastuzumab duocarmazine shows notable clinical activity in heavily pretreated patients with HER2-expressing metastatic cancer, including HER2-positive trastuzumab emtansine-resistant and HER2-low breast cancer, with a manageable safety profile. Further investigation of trastuzumab duocarmazine for HER2-positive breast cancer is ongoing and trials for HER2-low breast cancer and other HER2-expressing cancers are in preparation. FUNDING: Synthon Biopharmaceuticals.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10847, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350458

RESUMO

Antibodies to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (SGG) have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Because SGG may correlate with impaired gut epithelia, we assessed the association of antibodies to bacterial flagellin C (FliC), a measure potentially related to this impairment, with CRC and the CRC-specific interaction with antibodies to SGG proteins. Antibodies to FliC and SGG pilus proteins Gallo2178 and Gallo2179 were measured in two independent studies, a combined study from Nijmegen and Detroit (93 CRC cases, 74 controls) and a replication data set including 576 cases and 576 controls from the Spanish multicenter multicase-control study (MCC-Spain). Logistic regression was applied to assess whether antibodies to FliC were associated with CRC and modified the association of antibodies to SGG proteins with CRC. Antibodies to FliC were associated with those to SGG Gallo2178 among CRC cases, resulting in an interaction in the association of antibodies to Gallo2178 with CRC (p = 0.007). This association was only present among individuals with high antibody responses to FliC (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.45-4.06). In conclusion, our findings suggest that colorectal tumorigenesis could be accompanied by an impaired integrity of the epithelium that could result in associated increased antibody responses to bacterial proteins.

10.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 749-760, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317349

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Literature on the separate effects of physical activities (PA) on risk of breast cancer (BC) sub-types is heterogeneous. We investigated domain-specific associations between PA and BC risk by menopausal status and molecular subtype. METHODS: 1389 histologically confirmed invasive BC cases and 1712 controls from the MCC-Spain study were included (age: 20-85 years). Questionnaire information on PA at work, at home, and during leisure time, including recreational PA and sedentary time, and data on reproductive history, anthropometry, family history of BC, diet, and lifestyles were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Information on the expression of oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and HER2 receptors was available for > 95% of the cases. Mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of BC sub-types. RESULTS: Occupational PA (OPA) intensity was associated with higher BC risk. Associations were stronger for pre-menopausal (ORactive/very active vs. sedentary job 1.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22, 2.91) and ER+/PR+, HER2- tumours (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.28, 2.53). Sedentary time was associated with higher risk of post-menopausal BC (OR6-9 vs. <3 h/day 1.69; 95% CI 1.22, 2.32). Moderate-to-high-intensity household (HPA) and recreational PA (RPA) were inversely associated with BC occurrence in pre- and post-menopausal women, with estimated 14-33% lower risks (P for trend < 0.001) above 1000 MET·min/week. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of HPA and RPA were associated with lower risk of BC, with heterogeneity by molecular type, whereas sitting time was a consistent independent risk factor of BC risk. The positive association found for OPA with ER+/PR+ BC deserves further investigation.

11.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(8): 1148-1159, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathological complete response to preoperative treatment in adults with soft-tissue sarcoma can be achieved in only a few patients receiving radiotherapy. This phase 2-3 trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of the hafnium oxide (HfO2) nanoparticle NBTXR3 activated by radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone as a pre-operative treatment in patients with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma. METHODS: Act.In.Sarc is a phase 2-3 randomised, multicentre, international trial. Adults (aged ≥18 years) with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity or trunk wall, of any histological grade, and requiring preoperative radiotherapy were included. Patients had to have a WHO performance status of 0-2 and a life expectancy of at least 6 months. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by an interactive web response system to receive either NBTXR3 (volume corresponding to 10% of baseline tumour volume at a fixed concentration of 53·3 g/L) as a single intratumoural administration before preoperative external-beam radiotherapy (50 Gy in 25 fractions) or radiotherapy alone, followed by surgery. Randomisation was stratified by histological subtype (myxoid liposarcoma vs others). This was an open-label study. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a pathological complete response, assessed by a central pathology review board following European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines in the intention-to-treat population full analysis set. Safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one puncture and injection of NBTXR3 or at least one dose of radiotherapy. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02379845, and is ongoing for long-term follow-up, but recruitment is complete. FINDINGS: Between March 3, 2015, and Nov 21, 2017, 180 eligible patients were enrolled and randomly assigned and 179 started treatment: 89 in the NBTXR3 plus radiotherapy group and 90 in the radiotherapy alone group. Two patients in the NBTXR3 group and one patient in the radiotherapy group were excluded from the efficacy analysis because they were subsequently discovered to be ineligible; thus, a total of 176 patients were analysed for the primary endpoint in the intention-to-treat full analysis set (87 in the NBTXR3 group and 89 in the radiotherapy alone group). A pathological complete response was noted in 14 (16%) of 87 patients in the NBTXR3 group and seven (8%) of 89 in the radiotherapy alone group (p=0·044). In both treatment groups, the most common grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse event was postoperative wound complication (eight [9%] of 89 patients in the NBTXR3 group and eight [9%] of 90 in the radiotherapy alone group). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events related to NBTXR3 administration were injection site pain (four [4%] of 89) and hypotension (four [4%]) and the most common grade 3-4 radiotherapy-related adverse event was radiation skin injury in both groups (five [6%] of 89 in the NBTXR3 group and four [4%] of 90 in the radiotherapy alone group). The most common treatment-emergent grade 3-4 adverse event related to NBTXR3 was hypotension (six [7%] of 89 patients). Serious adverse events were observed in 35 (39%) of 89 patients in the NBTXR3 group and 27 (30%) of 90 patients in the radiotherapy alone group. No treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: This trial validates the mode of action of this new class of radioenhancer, which potentially opens a large field of clinical applications in soft-tissue sarcoma and possibly other cancers. FUNDING: Nanobiotix SA.

12.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(10): 1828-1838, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260835

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This first-time-in-humans study assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and clinical activity of GSK2879552 in patients with relapsed or refractory SCLC. METHODS: This phase I, multicenter, open-label study (NCT02034123) enrolled patients (≥18 years old) with relapsed or refractory SCLC (after ≥1 platinum-containing chemotherapy or refusal of standard therapy). Part 1 was a dose-escalation study; Part 2 was a dose-expansion study. Dose escalations were based on safety, PK, and PD. The primary end point (Part 1) was to determine the safety, tolerability, and recommended dose and regimen of GSK2879552. Secondary end points were to characterize PK and PD parameters and measure disease control rate at week 16. Part 2 was not conducted. RESULTS: Between February 4, 2014, and April 18, 2017, a total of 29 patients were allocated to one of nine dose cohorts (0.25 mg-3 mg once daily and 3-mg or 4-mg intermittent dosing). In all, 22 patients completed the study; 7 withdrew, primarily owing to adverse events (AEs). Most patients (24 of 29 [83%]) had at least one treatment-related AE, most commonly thrombocytopenia (12 of 29 [41%]). Twelve serious AEs (SAEs) were reported by nine patients; six were considered treatment related, the most common of which was encephalopathy (four SAEs). Three patients died; one death was related to SAEs. PK was characterized by rapid absorption, slow elimination, and a dose-proportional increase in exposure. CONCLUSIONS: GSK2879552 is a potent, selective inhibitor of lysine demethylase 1A and has demonstrated favorable PK properties but provided poor disease control and a high AE rate in patients with SCLC. The study was terminated, as the risk-benefit profile did not favor continuation.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9020, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227763

RESUMO

The cancer-predisposing syndrome caused by biallelic mutations in NTHL1 may not be a solely colorectal cancer (CRC) and polyposis syndrome but rather a multi-tumor recessive disease. The presence of ≤10 adenomas in several mutation carriers suggests a possible causal role of NTHL1 in hereditary or early-onset nonpolyposis CRC. The involvement of NTHL1 in serrated/hyperplastic polyposis remains unexplored. The aim of our study is to elucidate the role of NTHL1 in the predisposition to personal or familial history of multiple tumor types, familial/early-onset nonpolyposis CRC, and serrated polyposis. NTHL1 mutational screening was performed in 312 cancer patients with personal or family history of multiple tumor types, 488 with hereditary nonpolyposis CRC, and 96 with serrated/hyperplastic polyposis. While no biallelic mutation carriers were identified in patients with personal and/or family history of multiple tumor types or with serrated polyposis, one was identified among the 488 nonpolyposis CRC patients. The carrier of c.268C>T (p.Q90*) and 550-1G>A was diagnosed with CRC and meningioma at ages 37 and 45 respectively, being reclassified as attenuated adenomatous polyposis after the cumulative detection of 26 adenomas. Our findings suggest that biallelic mutations in NTHL1 rarely cause CRC, a personal/familial multi-tumor history, or serrated polyposis, in absence of adenomas.

14.
J Med Syst ; 43(8): 244, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236712

RESUMO

Communication is a corner stone of population-based breast cancer screening programs that need to invite all the women from their target population and provide them with balanced information on screening to guaranty informed participation. Invited women also need to be able to contact screening programs to get further information on screening procedures and/or cancel and reschedule appointments. This study describes the communication channels used by women invited for breast cancer screening to contact the program. The study population consisted of 141,684 women, aged 50-69 years, who were invited during 2015-2016 for screening by the Catalan Breast Cancer Screening Program (Spain). Multiple logistic regression models were performed to assess the association between age, screening history, socioeconomic status and reasons for contacting the program and the outcome variables (contact with the program; contact through information and communication technology (ICT) channels). Among the 141,684 women invited for BC screening, 22.5% contacted the screening office mainly to reschedule (42.2%) and cancel (29.2%) appointments. While the communication channel mostly used was the telephone, 24.8% of the women used ICT. ICT was more frequently used by women who had never been screened. Women who wanted to change their appointment were 65% (OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.54-1.76) more likely to use ICT than women who wanted to cancel it. This study showed the need to reinforce communication between women and breast cancer screening programs and the importance of offering communication channels suiting all women's needs to facilitate appointments' rescheduling and cancelling and therefore improve screening programs' efficiency.

16.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(6)2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146466

RESUMO

Background: Homozygosity for the X-allele in the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism results in the complete absence of α-actinin-3 in sarcomeres of fast-type muscle fibers. In elite athletes, the ACTN3 XX genotype has been related to inferior performance in speed and power-oriented sports; however, its influence on exercise phenotypes in recreational athletes has received less attention. We sought to determine the influence of ACTN3 genotypes on common exercise phenotypes in recreational marathon runners. Methods: A total of 136 marathoners (116 men and 20 women) were subjected to laboratory testing that included measurements of body composition, isometric muscle force, muscle flexibility, ankle dorsiflexion, and the energy cost of running. ACTN3 genotyping was performed using TaqMan probes. Results: 37 runners (27.2%) had the RR genotype, 67 (49.3%) were RX and 32 (23.5%) were XX. There was a difference in body fat percentage between RR and XX genotype groups (15.7 ± 5.8 vs. 18.8 ± 5.5%; effect size, ES, = 0.5 ± 0.4, p = 0.024), whereas the distance obtained in the sit-and-reach-test was likely lower in the RX than in the XX group (15.3 ± 7.8 vs. 18.4 ± 9.9 cm; ES = 0.4 ± 0.4, p = 0.046). Maximal dorsiflexion during the weight-bearing lunge test was different in the RR and XX groups (54.8 ± 5.8 vs. 57.7 ± 5.1 degree; ES = 0.5 ± 0.5, p = 0.044). Maximal isometric force was higher in the RR than in the XX group (16.7 ± 4.7 vs. 14.7 ± 4.0 N/kg; ES = -0.5 ± 0.3, p = 0.038). There was no difference in the energy cost of running between genotypes (~4.8 J/kg/min for all three groups, ES ~0.2 ± 0.4). Conclusions: The ACTN3 genotype might influence several exercise phenotypes in recreational marathoners. Deficiency in α-actinin-3 might be accompanied by higher body fatness, lower muscle strength and higher muscle flexibility and range of motion. Although there is not yet a scientific rationale for the use of commercial genetic tests to predict sports performance, recreational marathon runners who have performed such types of testing and have the ACTN3 XX genotype might perhaps benefit from personalized strength training to improve their performance more than their counterparts with other ACTN3 genotypes.

17.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234427

RESUMO

Inflammation and antioxidant capacity have been associated with colorectal and breast cancer. We computed the dietary inflammatory index (DII®), and the total dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) and associated them with colorectal and breast cancer risk in the population-based multi case-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain). We included 1852 colorectal cancer and 1567 breast cancer cases, and 3447 and 1486 population controls, respectively. DII score and NEAC were derived using data from a semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for energy-adjusted DII (E-DII), and a score combining E-DII and NEAC. E-DII was associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.93, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:1.60-2.32; p-trend: <0.001); this increase was observed for both colon and rectal cancer. Less pronounced increased risks were observed for breast cancer (OR = 1.22, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:0.99-1.52, p-trend: >0.10). The combined score of high E-DII scores and low antioxidant values were associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.48, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI: 1.26-1.74; p-trend: <0.001), but not breast cancer. This study provides evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk while findings for breast cancer were less consistent.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 61: 79-88, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to the recognized role of Helicobacter pylori in the etiology of non-cardia gastric cancer (GC), there is still insufficient epidemiological evidence for the involvement of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in gastric carcinogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the relation of antibody profile and antibody reactivity intensity against four individual EBV proteins to GC risk. METHODS: We used information from 281 GC cases and 2071 age and sex frequency matched controls recruited in the frame of the MCC-Spain multicase-control study, between 2008 and 2013. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and environmental factors were assessed in face-to-face interviews. Antibody responses to four EBV proteins (EBNA-1, ZEBRA, EA-D, and VCA-p18) were analyzed by multiplex serology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using logistic regression mixed models to evaluate the association of seropositivity and antibody reactivity against EBV proteins with GC, adjusting for GC risk factors. Stratified analyses by tumor location (cardia vs. non-cardia) and morphology (intestinal vs. diffuse) were done. RESULTS: Among controls, seropositivity for EA-D, ZEBRA, EBNA-1 and VCA-p18 was 85%, 91%, 97% and 99%, respectively. Even though seropositivity for none of the studied proteins was associated with a higher GC risk, increasing antibody reactivity against EBNA-1 and VCA-p18 was associated with higher OR of GC. This association was present for cardia and non-cardia cancer cases, and for intestinal and diffuse types. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that EBV may play a role in GC etiology, and highlight the importance of evaluating specific antibodies and the dose-response relations when studying widespread infections.

19.
Mol Aspects Med ; 69: 2-9, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233770

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence changes with time and by variations in diet and lifestyle, as evidenced historically by migrant studies and recently by extensive epidemiologic evidence. The worldwide heterogeneity in CRC incidence is strongly suggestive of etiological involvement of environmental exposures, particularly lifestyle and diet. It is established that physical inactivity, obesity and some dietary factors (red/processed meats, alcohol) are positively associated with CRC, while healthy lifestyle habits show inverse associations. Mechanistic evidence shows that lifestyle and dietary components that contribute to energy excess are linked with increased CRC via metabolic dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, bacterial dysbiosis and breakdown of gut barrier integrity while the reverse is apparent for components associated with decreased risk. This chapter will review the available evidence on lifestyle and dietary factors in CRC etiology and their underlying mechanisms in CRC development. This short review will also touch upon available information on potential gene-environment interactions, molecular sub-types of CRC and anatomical sub-sites within the colorectum.

20.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035601

RESUMO

Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between the dietary flavonoid intake and gastric cancer (GC) risk; however, the results remain inconclusive. Investigating the relationship between the different classes of flavonoids and the histological types and origin of GC can be of interest to the research community. We used data from a population-based multi-case control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from 12 different regions of Spain. 2700 controls and 329 GC cases were included in this study. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using the mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of flavonoid intakes and log2. Flavonoid intake was associated with a lower GC risk (ORlog2 = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.65-0.89; ORq4vsq1 = 0.60; 95%CI = 0.40-0.89; ptrend = 0.007). Inverse and statistically significant associations were observed with anthocyanidins, chalcones, dihydroflavonols and flavan-3-ols. The isoflavanoid intake was positively associated with higher cancer risk, but without reaching a statistical significance. In general, no differences were observed in the GC risk according to the location and histological type. The flavonoid intake seems to be a protective factor against GC within the MCC-study. This effect may vary depending on the flavonoid class but not by the histological type and location of the tumor. Broader studies with larger sample size and greater geographical variability are necessary.

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