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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among individuals aged less than 50 years has been increasing. As screening guidelines lower the recommended age of screening initiation, concerns including the burden on screening capacity and costs have been recognized, suggesting that an individualized approach may be warranted. We developed risk prediction models for early-onset CRC that incorporate an environmental risk score (ERS), including 16 lifestyle and environmental factors, and a polygenic risk score (PRS), of 141 variants. METHODS: Relying on risk score weights for ERS and PRS derived from studies of CRC at all ages, we evaluated risks for early-onset CRC in 3,486 cases and 3,890 controls aged less than 50 years. Relative and absolute risks for early-onset CRC were assessed according to values of the ERS and PRS. The discriminatory performance of these scores was estimated using the covariate-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Increasing values of ERS and PRS were associated with increasing relative risks for early-onset CRC (odds ratio per standard deviation of ERS = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.20; odds ratio per standard deviation of PRS = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.51, 1.68), both contributing to case-control discrimination (area under the curve = 0.631, 95% CI = 0.615, 0.647). Based on absolute risks, we can expect 26 excess cases per 10,000 men and 21 per 10,000 women, among those scoring at the 90th percentile for both risk scores. CONCLUSIONS: Personal risk scores have the potential to identify individuals at differential relative and absolute risk for early-onset CRC. Improved discrimination may aid in targeted CRC screening of younger, high-risk individuals, potentially improving outcomes.

2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(12)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment outcomes remain poor in recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Enadenotucirev, a tumor-selective and blood stable adenoviral vector, has demonstrated a manageable safety profile in phase 1 studies in epithelial solid tumors. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, open-label, phase 1 dose-escalation and dose-expansion study (OCTAVE) to assess enadenotucirev plus paclitaxel in patients with platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer. During phase 1a, the maximum tolerated dose of intraperitoneally administered enadenotucirev monotherapy (three doses; days 1, 8 and 15) was assessed using a 3+3 dose-escalation model. Phase 1b included a dose-escalation and an intravenous dosing dose-expansion phase assessing enadenotucirev plus paclitaxel. For phase 1a/b, the primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of enadenotucirev (with paclitaxel in phase 1b). In the dose-expansion phase, the primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Additional endpoints included response rate and T-cell infiltration. RESULTS: Overall, 38 heavily pretreated patients were enrolled and treated. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed at any doses. However, frequent catheter complications led to the discontinuation of intraperitoneal dosing during phase 1b. Intravenous enadenotucirev (1×1012 viral particles; days 1, 3 and 5 every 28-days for two cycles) plus paclitaxel (80 mg/m2; days 9, 16 and 23 of each cycle) was thus selected for dose-expansion. Overall, 24/38 (63%) patients experienced at least 1 Grade ≥3 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE); most frequently neutropenia (21%). Six patients discontinued treatment due to TEAEs, including one patient due to a grade 2 treatment-emergent serious AE of catheter site infection (intraperitoneal enadenotucirev monotherapy). Among the 20 patients who received intravenous enadenotucirev plus paclitaxel, 4-month PFS rate was 64% (median 6.2 months), objective response rate was 10%, 35% of patients achieved stable disease and 65% of patients had a reduction in target lesion burden at ≥1 time point. Five out of six patients with matched pre-treatment and post-treatment biopsies treated with intravenous enadenotucirev plus paclitaxel had increased (mean 3.1-fold) infiltration of CD8 +T cells in post-treatment biopsies. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenously dosed enadenotucirev plus paclitaxel demonstrated manageable tolerability, an encouraging median PFS and increased tumor immune-cell infiltration in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02028117.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836419

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) has observationally been shown to decrease colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, that rapidly deacetylates to SA) is an effective primary and secondary chemopreventive agent. Through a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, we aimed to address whether levels of SA affected CRC risk, stratifying by aspirin use. A two-sample MR analysis was performed using GWAS summary statistics of SA (INTERVAL and EPIC-Norfolk, N = 14,149) and CRC (CCFR, CORECT, GECCO and UK Biobank, 55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). The DACHS study (4410 cases and 3441 controls) was used for replication and stratification of aspirin-use. SNPs proxying SA were selected via three methods: (1) functional SNPs that influence the activity of aspirin-metabolising enzymes; (2) pathway SNPs present in enzymes' coding regions; and (3) genome-wide significant SNPs. We found no association between functional SNPs and SA levels. The pathway and genome-wide SNPs showed no association between SA and CRC risk (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.84-1.27 and OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.86-1.34, respectively). Results remained unchanged upon aspirin use stratification. We found little evidence to suggest that an SD increase in genetically predicted SA protects against CRC risk in the general population and upon stratification by aspirin use.

5.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 261, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different risk-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies, such as the use of polygenic risk scores (PRS), have been evaluated to improve effectiveness of these programs. However, few studies have previously assessed its usefulness in a fecal immunochemical test (FIT)-based screening study. METHODS: A PRS of 133 single nucleotide polymorphisms was assessed for 3619 participants: population controls, screening controls, low-risk lesions (LRL), intermediate-risk (IRL), high-risk (HRL), CRC screening program cases, and clinically diagnosed CRC cases. The PRS was compared between the subset of cases (n = 648; IRL+HRL+CRC) and controls (n = 956; controls+LRL) recruited within a FIT-based screening program. Positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (aROC) were estimated using cross-validation. RESULTS: The overall PRS range was 110-156. PRS values increased along the CRC tumorigenesis pathway (Mann-Kendall P value 0.007). Within the screening subset, the PRS ranged 110-151 and was associated with higher risk-lesions and CRC risk (ORD10vsD1 1.92, 95% CI 1.22-3.03). The cross-validated aROC of the PRS for cases and controls was 0.56 (95% CI 0.53-0.59). Discrimination was equal when restricted to positive FIT (aROC 0.56), but lower among negative FIT (aROC 0.55). The overall PPV among positive FIT was 0.48. PPV were dependent on the number of risk alleles for positive FIT (PPVp10-p90 0.48-0.57). CONCLUSIONS: PRS plays an important role along the CRC tumorigenesis pathway; however, in practice, its utility to stratify the general population or as a second test after a FIT positive result is still doubtful. Currently, PRS is not able to safely stratify the general population since the improvement on PPV values is scarce.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , Sangue Oculto , Fatores de Risco
6.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724226

RESUMO

Molibresib is an orally bioavailable, selective, small molecule BET protein inhibitor. Results from a first time in human study in solid tumors resulted in the selection of a 75 mg once daily dose of the besylate formulation of molibresib as the recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D). Here we present the results of Part 2 of our study, investigating safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical activity of molibresib at the RP2D for nuclear protein in testis carcinoma (NC), small cell lung cancer, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), triple-negative breast cancer, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The primary safety endpoints were incidence of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs; the primary efficacy endpoint was overall response rate. Secondary endpoints included plasma concentrations and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Molibresib 75 mg once daily demonstrated no unexpected toxicities. The most common treatment-related AEs (any grade) were thrombocytopenia (64%), nausea (43%) and decreased appetite (37%); 83% of patients required dose interruptions and 29% required dose reductions due to AEs. Antitumor activity was observed in NC and CRPC (one confirmed partial response each, with observed reductions in tumor size), although predefined clinically meaningful response rates were not met for any tumor type. Total active moiety median plasma concentrations after single and repeated administration were similar across tumor cohorts. GSEA revealed that gene expression changes with molibresib varied by patient, response status and tumor type. Investigations into combinatorial approaches that use BET inhibition to eliminate resistance to other targeted therapies are warranted.

7.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(11): 1428-1436, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Second-line treatment of endometrial cancer is an unmet medical need. We conducted a phase I study evaluating lurbinectedin and doxorubicin intravenously every 3 weeks in patients with solid tumors. The aim of this study was to characterise the efficacy and safety of lurbinectedin and doxorubicin for patients with endometrial cancer. METHODS: Thirty-four patients were treated: 15 patients in the escalation phase (doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 and lurbinectedin 3.0-5.0 mg) and 19 patients in the expansion cohort (doxorubicin 40 mg/m2 and lurbinectedin 2.0 mg/m2). All histological subtypes were eligible and patients had received one to two prior lines of chemotherapy for advanced disease. Antitumor activity was evaluated every two cycles according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. Adverse events were graded according to the National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4. RESULTS: Median age (range) was 65 (51-78) years. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was up to 1 in 97% of patients. In the escalation phase, 4 (26.7%) of 15 patients had confirmed response: two complete and two partial responses (95% CI 7.8% to 55.1%). Median duration of response was 19.5 months. Median progression-free survival was 7.3 (2.5 to 10.1) months. In the expansion cohort, confirmed partial response was reported in 8 (42.1%) of 19 patients (95% CI 20.3% to 66.5%). Median duration of response was 7.5 (6.4 to not reached) months, median progression-free survival was 7.7 (2.0 to 16.7) months and median overall survival was 14.2 (4.5 to not reached) months. Fatigue (26.3% of patients), and transient and reversible myelosuppression (neutropenia, 78.9%; febrile neutropenia, 21.1%; thrombocytopenia, 15.8%) were the main grade 3 and higher toxicities in the expanded cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recurrent advanced endometrial cancer treated with doxorubicin and lurbinectedin, response rates (42%) and duration of response (7.5 months) were favorable. Further evaluation of doxorubicin and lurbinectedin is warranted in this patient population.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639619

RESUMO

Questionnaires are tools of interest in the evaluation of pelvic floor dysfunctions, but their success depends on their readability. Evaluating symptoms associated with such dysfunctions through questionnaires validated in Spanish with adequate readability indices will be useful for subsequent therapeutic work with these patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the readability of symptomatology questionnaires on pelvic floor dysfunctions adapted to Spanish. This descriptive study included a total of 19 questionnaires, whose readability was analyzed according to four indices: Fernández-Huerta, Szigriszt-Pazos, Inflesz and readability µ (mu). In total, 50% of the questionnaires for fecal incontinence symptoms were found to have inadequate scores in terms of readability, according to the Inflesz index. If we take the readability mu index as a reference, the number of questionnaires that do not meet the minimum readability limit are as follows: 20% in urinary incontinence, 50% in fecal incontinence, 66.6% in sexual function, 100% in general pelvic floor, 25% in overactive bladder and 100% in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Therefore, it is necessary to review and adapt health questionnaires on pelvic floor dysfunctions to improve their readability and ease of understanding by conducting studies with the people who fill out these questionnaires.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico , Incontinência Urinária , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Diafragma da Pelve , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(23): 6393-6404, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465599

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint inhibitors show high response rates and durable clinical benefit in microsatellite instability-high/mismatch repair-deficient (MSI-H/dMMR) tumors. However, 50%-60% do not respond to single-agent anti-programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) antibodies, and approximately 50% of responders relapse within 6-12 months. This phase Ib trial evaluated safety and antitumor activity of anti-PD-L1 antibody LY3300054 monotherapy or in combination with anti-TIM-3 antibody LY3321367 in patients with MSI-H/dMMR advanced solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients ≥18 years without prior anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy received LY3300054 monotherapy (N = 40) or combination (N = 20); patients with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-resistant/refractory tumors received the combination (N = 22). LY3300054 (700 mg) and anti-TIM-3 antibody (cycles 1-2: 1,200 mg, cycle 3 onward: 600 mg) were administered intravenously every 2 weeks. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients were enrolled. Most had colorectal (n = 39, 47.6%) or endometrial (n = 14, 17.1%) tumors. More than 70% of patients in the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-resistant/refractory combination cohort had received ≥3 treatment lines. Treatment-related adverse events (TRAE) occurred in 22 patients (55.0%) receiving monotherapy, 13 (65.0%) in the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-naïve combination cohort, and 6 (27.3%) in the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-resistant/refractory combination cohort. A total of 2 patients (5.0%) receiving monotherapy and 3 (7.1%) receiving the combination experienced grade ≥3 TRAEs. Objective responses occurred in 13 patients (32.5%) with monotherapy, 9 (45.0%) in the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-naïve combination cohort, and 1 patient (4.5%) in the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-resistant/refractory combination cohort. CONCLUSIONS: LY3300054 monotherapy and combined LY3300054/anti-TIM-3 had manageable safety profiles. Both regimens showed promising clinical activity against PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-naïve MSI-H/dMMR tumors. The combination had limited clinical benefit in patients with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-resistant/refractory MSI-H/dMMR tumors.

10.
Oncotarget ; 12(19): 1863-1877, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548904

RESUMO

Tobacco smoke and red/processed meats are well-known risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Most research has focused on studies of normal colon biopsies in epidemiologic studies or treatment of CRC cell lines in vitro. These studies are often constrained by challenges with accuracy of self-report data or, in the case of CRC cell lines, small sample sizes and lack of relationship to normal tissue at risk. In an attempt to address some of these limitations, we performed a 24-hour treatment of a representative carcinogens cocktail in 37 independent organoid lines derived from normal colon biopsies. Machine learning algorithms were applied to bulk RNA-sequencing and revealed cellular composition changes in colon organoids. We identified 738 differentially expressed genes in response to carcinogens exposure. Network analysis identified significantly different modules of co-expression, that included genes related to MSI-H tumor biology, and genes previously implicated in CRC through genome-wide association studies. Our study helps to better define the molecular effects of representative carcinogens from smoking and red/processed meat in normal colon epithelial cells and in the etiology of the MSI-H subtype of CRC, and suggests an overlap between molecular mechanisms involved in inherited and environmental CRC risk.

11.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(4): pkab056, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377935

RESUMO

Background: Smoking is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Previous studies suggested this association may be restricted to certain molecular subtypes of CRC, but large-scale comprehensive analysis is lacking. Methods: A total of 9789 CRC cases and 11 231 controls of European ancestry from 11 observational studies were included. We harmonized smoking variables across studies and derived sex study-specific quartiles of pack-years of smoking for analysis. Four somatic colorectal tumor markers were assessed individually and in combination, including BRAF mutation, KRAS mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and microsatellite instability (MSI) status. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between smoking and risk of CRC subtypes by molecular characteristics, adjusting for age, sex, and study. All statistical tests were 2-sided and adjusted for Bonferroni correction. Results: Heavier smoking was associated with higher risk of CRC overall and stratified by individual markers (P trend < .001). The associations differed statistically significantly between all molecular subtypes, which was the most statistically significant for CIMP and BRAF. Compared with never-smokers, smokers in the fourth quartile of pack-years had a 90% higher risk of CIMP-positive CRC (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval = 1.60 to 2.26) but only 35% higher risk for CIMP-negative CRC (odds ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval = 1.22 to 1.49; P difference = 2.1 x 10-6). The association was also stronger in tumors that were CIMP positive, MSI high, or KRAS wild type when combined (P difference < .001). Conclusion: Smoking was associated with differential risk of CRC subtypes defined by molecular characteristics. Heavier smokers had particularly higher risk of CRC subtypes that were CIMP positive and MSI high in combination, suggesting that smoking may be involved in the development of colorectal tumors via the serrated pathway.

12.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(19): e2004673, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378358

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasizes mainly to the liver, which accounts for the majority of CRC-related deaths. Here it is shown that metastatic cells undergo specific chromatin remodeling in the liver. Hepatic growth factor (HGF) induces phosphorylation of PU.1, a pioneer factor, which in turn binds and opens chromatin regions of downstream effector genes. PU.1 increases histone acetylation at the DPP4 locus. Precise epigenetic silencing by CRISPR/dCas9KRAB or CRISPR/dCas9HDAC revealed that individual PU.1-remodeled regulatory elements collectively modulate DPP4 expression and liver metastasis growth. Genetic silencing or pharmacological inhibition of each factor along this chromatin remodeling axis strongly suppressed liver metastasis. Therefore, microenvironment-induced epimutation is an important mechanism for metastatic tumor cells to grow in their new niche. This study presents a potential strategy to target chromatin remodeling in metastatic cancer and the promise of repurposing drugs to treat metastasis.

13.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 14(12): 1089-1100, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389629

RESUMO

Mechanisms underlying aspirin chemoprevention of colorectal cancer remain unclear. Prior studies have been limited because of the inability of preclinical models to recapitulate human normal colon epithelium or cellular heterogeneity present in mucosal biopsies. To overcome some of these obstacles, we performed in vitro aspirin treatment of colon organoids derived from normal mucosal biopsies to reveal transcriptional networks relevant to aspirin chemoprevention. Colon organoids derived from 38 healthy individuals undergoing endoscopy were treated with 50 µmol/L aspirin or vehicle control for 72 hours and subjected to bulk RNA sequencing. Paired regression analysis using DESeq2 identified differentially expressed genes (DEG) associated with aspirin treatment. Cellular composition was determined using CIBERSORTx. Aspirin treatment was associated with 1,154 significant (q < 0.10) DEGs prior to deconvolution. We provide replication of these findings in an independent population-based RNA-sequencing dataset of mucosal biopsies (BarcUVa-Seq), where a significant enrichment for overlap of DEGs was observed (P < 2.2E-16). Single-cell deconvolution revealed changes in cell composition, including a decrease in transit-amplifying cells following aspirin treatment (P = 0.01). Following deconvolution, DEGs included novel putative targets for aspirin such as TRABD2A (q = 0.055), a negative regulator of Wnt signaling. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified 12 significant modules, including two that contained hubs for EGFR and PTGES2, the latter being previously implicated in aspirin chemoprevention. In summary, aspirin treatment of patient-derived colon organoids using physiologically relevant doses resulted in transcriptome-wide changes that reveal altered cell composition and improved understanding of transcriptional pathways, providing novel insight into its chemopreventive properties. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Numerous studies have highlighted a role for aspirin in colorectal cancer chemoprevention, though the mechanisms driving this association remain unclear. We addressed this by showing that aspirin treatment of normal colon organoids diminished the transit-amplifying cell population, inhibited prostaglandin synthesis, and dysregulated expression of novel genes implicated in colon tumorigenesis.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359758

RESUMO

A large proportion of familial and/or early-onset cancer patients do not carry pathogenic variants in known cancer predisposing genes. We aimed to assess the contribution of previously validated low-risk colorectal cancer (CRC) alleles to familial/early-onset CRC (fCRC) and to serrated polyposis. We estimated the association of CRC with a 92-variant-based weighted polygenic risk score (wPRS) using 417 fCRC patients, 80 serrated polyposis patients, 1077 hospital-based incident CRC patients, and 1642 controls. The mean wPRS was significantly higher in fCRC than in controls or sporadic CRC patients. fCRC patients in the highest (20th) wPRS quantile were at four-fold greater CRC risk than those in the middle quantile (10th). Compared to low-wPRS fCRC, a higher number of high-wPRS fCRC patients had developed multiple primary CRCs, had CRC family history, and were diagnosed at age ≥50. No association with wPRS was observed for serrated polyposis. In conclusion, a relevant proportion of mismatch repair (MMR)-proficient fCRC cases might be explained by the accumulation of low-risk CRC alleles. Validation in independent cohorts and development of predictive models that include polygenic risk score (PRS) data and other CRC predisposing factors will determine the implementation of PRS into genetic testing and counselling in familial and early-onset CRC.

15.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 162, 2021 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of gene expression and phenotypic variation, but the inter-relationship between genetic variation, DNA methylation and gene expression remains poorly understood. Here we combine the analysis of genetic variants related to methylation markers (methylation quantitative trait loci: mQTLs) and gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci: eQTLs) with methylation markers related to gene expression (expression quantitative trait methylation: eQTMs), to provide novel insights into the genetic/epigenetic architecture of colocalizing molecular markers. RESULTS: Normal mucosa from 100 patients with colon cancer and 50 healthy donors included in the Colonomics project have been analyzed. Linear models have been used to find mQTLs and eQTMs within 1 Mb of the target gene. From 32,446 eQTLs previously detected, we found a total of 6850 SNPs, 114 CpGs and 52 genes interrelated, generating 13,987 significant combinations of co-occurring associations (meQTLs) after Bonferromi correction. Non-redundant meQTLs were 54, enriched in genes involved in metabolism of glucose and xenobiotics and immune system. SNPs in meQTLs were enriched in regulatory elements (enhancers and promoters) compared to random SNPs within 1 Mb of genes. Three colorectal cancer GWAS SNPs were related to methylation changes, and four SNPs were related to chemerin levels. Bayesian networks have been used to identify putative causal relationships among associated SNPs, CpG and gene expression triads. We identified that most of these combinations showed the canonical pathway of methylation markers causes gene expression variation (60.1%) or non-causal relationship between methylation and gene expression (33.9%); however, in up to 6% of these combinations, gene expression was causing variation in methylation markers. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we provided a characterization of the regulation between genetic variants and inter-dependent methylation markers and gene expression in a set of 150 healthy colon tissue samples. This is an important finding for the understanding of molecular susceptibility on colon-related complex diseases.

16.
Future Oncol ; 17(29): 3781-3785, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427115

RESUMO

This document provides a short summary of the GARNET trial which was published in JAMA Oncology in October 2020. At the end of this document, there are links to websites where you can find more information about this study. The trial enrolled adult participants with advanced solid tumors. This report is restricted to patients with a particular type of endometrial cancer that has a deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) status. Patients received a trial treatment called dostarlimab (also known by the brand name Jemperli). In the US, dostarlimab is approved as a single therapy in adult patients with dMMR recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer that has progressed on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. In the EU, dostarlimab is approved as a single therapy in adult patients with recurrent or advanced dMMR/microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) endometrial cancer that has progressed on or after treatment with a platinum-containing regimen. The GARNET trial looked at dostarlimab given intravenously to patients with dMMR endometrial cancer from 7 countries. The trial showed that dostarlimab was successful in shrinking the tumor in 42% of these patients. In general, the percentage of participants who experienced medical problems (referred to as side effects) was low and within expectations for this type of treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT number: NCT02715284. To read the full Plain Language Summary of this article, click on the View Article button above and download the PDF. Link to original article here.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites
17.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(4): 884-899, 2021. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341523

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: el Dr. Mario E. Dihigo Llanos, junto a un grupo de colegas emprendedores, fundó en Matanzas, en 1921, la revista Médica (devenida Revista Médica Electrónica en 1997). Objetivos: resaltar el centenario de la publicación y contribuir a la preservación de la memoria del eximio pedagogo. Materiales y métodos: fueron utilizados métodos de la investigación histórica, como el analítico-sintético y el deductivo-inductivo, así como los submétodos cronológico y geográfico. Se realizaron entrevistas y se revisó el legado documental del Dr. Dihigo. La información fue triangulada con las fuentes referenciadas y con otras bibliografías y documentos consultados. Resultados: se resaltaron algunos de los aspectos más significativos relacionados con la vida y la obra del Dr. Dihigo, y se realizó una caracterización de las primeras etapas de la revista, donde se abordan su significación histórica y científica. Conclusiones: sus aportes en Medicina y Pedagogía, así como sus esfuerzos por establecer la revista Médica, son los mayores legados de Dihigo.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Dr. Mario E. Dihigo Llanos, and a group of colleagues-enterprisers, founded the journal Medica (renamed Revista Medica Electronica in 1997) in Matanzas, in 1921. Objectives: to highlight the centenary of the journal and to contribute to keep the memory of the prominent pedagogue up. Materials and methods: methods of the historical research were used like the analytic-synthetic and the deductive-inductive ones, and also the chronological and geographic sub-methods. Interviews were made and the documental legacy of Dr. Mario Dihigo was reviewed. The information was compared with the referenced sources and the other referred bibliography and documents. Results: some of the most significant features of Dr. Dihigo's life and work were emphasized. A characterization of the first stages of the journal was carried out, approaching its historical and scientific significance. Conclusions: the main Dihigo's legacies were his contributions to Medicine and Pedagogy, and his efforts for founding the journal Medica.

18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285382

RESUMO

Germline variants that affect the proofreading activity of polymerases epsilon (POLE) and delta (POLD1) predispose to colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, among other cancers. All cancer-associated pathogenic variants reported to date consist of non-disruptive genetic changes affecting the sequence that codifies the exonuclease domain (ED). Generally, disruptive (frameshift, stop-gain) POLE and POLD1 variants and missense variants outside the ED do not predispose to cancer. However, this statement may not be true for some, very specific variants that would indirectly affect the proofreading activity of the corresponding polymerase. We evaluated, by using multiple approaches, the possibility that POLD1 c.883G>A; p.(Val295Met), -a variant located 9 amino acids upstream the ED and present in ~0.25% of hereditary cancer patients-, affects POLD1 proofreading activity. Our findings show cumulative evidence that support no alteration of the proofreading activity and lack of association with cancer. The variant is classified as likely benign according to the ACMG/AMP guidelines.

19.
20.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 28: 100405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agents targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have been approved as monotherapy for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In preclinical models, the combined targeting of PD-1 and delta-like protein 3 resulted in enhanced antitumor activity. Herein, we report results from the expansion arm of study NCT03000257 evaluating the combination of the anti-PD-1 antibody budigalimab and the targeted antibody-drug conjugate rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova-T) in patients with previously treated SCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This expansion arm of a multicenter, open-label, multi-arm, first-in-human phase 1 clinical trial enrolled adult patients with progressive SCLC. The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability. Patients received budigalimab 375 mg via intravenous infusion every 3 weeks, and Rova-T was administered as a dose of 0.3 mg/kg intravenously, on day 1 of the first and third 3-week cycle. RESULTS: As of October 2019, 31 patients with SCLC were enrolled and treated with budigalimab plus Rova-T. The combination was tolerated, with the most common treatment-emergent adverse events (in >30%) being pleural effusion, fatigue, and cough. The overall response rate was 24.1%, with one confirmed complete response and six confirmed partial responses. The overall response rate in patients with high delta-like protein 3 expression was similar (21.1%). The median progression-free survival was 3.48 months. CONCLUSION: Combination therapy with budigalimab and Rova-T had promising efficacy and appeared to be tolerated in patients with SCLC. Although Rova-T development has been discontinued, development of budigalimab combined with other anticancer agents is ongoing. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03000257 Statement on originality of the work The manuscript represents original work and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere nor previously published. Statement of prior presentation Data from this study were previously presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2019.

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