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1.
J Gastroenterol ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: False-positivity rates in faecal immunochemical test (FIT) can be affected by drug exposure. We aimed to assess the association between proton pump inhibitors (PPI) consumption and false positive (FP) results in a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme using electronic prescription records. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study within a population-based screening program for CRC from 2010 to 2016 was performed. Participants with a conclusive FIT result and with prescription electronic data were included. An FP result was defined as having a positive FIT (≥ 20 µg haemoglobin/g faeces) and a follow-up colonoscopy without intermediate or high-risk lesions or CRC. Screening data were anonymously linked to the public data analysis program for health research and innovation (PADRIS) database that recorded patient diseases history and reimbursed medication. PPI exposure was defined as having retrieved at least one dispensation of PPI three months prior to the FIT. RESULTS: A total of 89,199 tests (of 46,783 participants) were analysed, 4824 (5.4%) tested positive and the proportion of FP was 53.5%. Overall, 17,544 participants (19.7%) were PPI users prior to FIT performance. PPI exposure increased the probability of obtaining an FP FIT result from 50.4 to 63.3% (adjusted OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.18-1.65). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetylsalicylic acid, antibiotics, and laxatives were also associated with an FP result. The effect of PPI was independent and showed a synergistic interaction with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. CONCLUSION: PPIs increase FIT positivity at the expense of FP results. The recommendation to avoid their use before FIT performance could reduce up to 3% of colonoscopies and 9% of FP results.

2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This phase 1/2a study (NCT02737475) evaluated the safety and activity of BMS-986178, a fully human OX40 agonist immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody, ± nivolumab and/or ipilimumab in patients with advanced solid tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients (with non-small cell lung, renal cell, bladder, other advanced cancers) received BMS-986178 (20-320 mg) ± nivolumab (240-480 mg) and/or ipilimumab (1-3 mg/kg). The primary endpoint was safety. Additional endpoints included immunogenicity, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity per RECIST version 1.1. RESULTS: Twenty patients received BMS-986178 monotherapy, and 145 received combination therapy in various regimens (including 2 patients receiving nivolumab monotherapy). With a follow-up of 1.1 to 103.6 weeks, the most common (≥ 5%) treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) included fatigue, pruritus, rash, pyrexia, diarrhea, and infusion-related reactions. Overall, grade 3-4 TRAEs occurred in 1 of 20 patients (5%) receiving BMS-986178 monotherapy, 6 of 79 (8%) receiving BMS-986178 plus nivolumab, 0 of 2 receiving nivolumab monotherapy, 6 of 41 (15%) receiving BMS-986178 plus ipilimumab, and 3 of 23 (13%) receiving BMS-986178 plus nivolumab plus ipilimumab. No deaths occurred. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed with monotherapy, and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached in either the monotherapy or the combination escalation cohorts. No objective responses were seen with BMS-986178 alone; objective response rates ranged from 0% to 13% across combination therapy cohorts. CONCLUSION: In this study, BMS-986178 ± nivolumab and/or ipilimumab appeared to have a manageable safety profile, but no clear efficacy signal was observed above that expected for nivolumab and/or ipilimumab.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202919

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of tumors and net survival is increasing. Achieving a higher survival probability reinforces the importance of studying health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). The main aim of this work is to test the relationship between different sociodemographic, clinical and tumor-intrinsic characteristics, and treatment received with HR-QoL measured using SF-12 and the FACT/NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network/Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy) Breast Symptom Index (FBSI). Women with breast cancer recruited between 2008 and 2013 and followed-up until 2017-2018 in a prospective cohort answered two HR-QoL surveys: the SF-12 and FBSI. The scores obtained were related to woman and tumor characteristics using linear regression models. The telephone survey was answered by 1078 women out of 1685 with medical record follow-up (64%). Increases in all three HR-QoL scores were associated with higher educational level. The score differences between women with university qualifications and women with no schooling were 5.43 for PCS-12, 6.13 for MCS-12 and 4.29 for FBSI. Histological grade at diagnosis and recurrence in the follow-up displayed a significant association with mental and physical HR-QoL, respectively. First-line treatment received was not associated with HR-QoL scores. On the other hand, most tumor characteristics were not associated with HR-QoL. As breast cancer survival is improving, further studies are needed to ascertain if these differences still hold in the long run.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19273, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159156

RESUMO

Several studies have examined environmental factors and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) using traditional approaches; however, provided results are still conflicting. Our aim was to determine whether lifestyle and nutrient exposures, related to IBD in observational meta-analyses, influence IBD risk using a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. A two-sample MR approach was applied on summary-level genome-wide association results. Genetic variants strongly associated with measures of tobacco smoking, obesity and fat distribution, physical activity, and blood levels of vitamins and fatty acids were evaluated on genetic data from international IBD consortia including a total of 25,042 IBD cases (12,194 cases of Crohn's disease (CD) and 12,366 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC)) and 34,915 controls. Our results indicated that, among lifestyle exposures, being a smoker was positively associated with CD (OR 1.13, P = 0.02), but it was not associated with UC risk (OR 0.99, P = 0.88). Body-mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage were positively associated with CD (OR 1.11, P = 0.02, per standard deviation (SD) of 4.6 kg/m2; and OR 1.50, P = 3 × 10-10, per SD of 6.6%; respectively); while for UC, BMI was inversely associated (OR 0.85, P = 5 × 10-5; per SD) and body fat percentage showed a OR of 1.11 (P = 0.11; per SD). Additionally, among nutrient exposures, omega-3 fatty acids levels were inversely associated with CD (OR 0.67, P = 2 × 10-6). Our MR results did not support a protective effect for being a smoker on UC risk; however, they are compatible with a risk effect for higher body fat proportion and a protective role for higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids on CD etiology.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152124

RESUMO

We evaluated the association between germline genetic variants located within the 3'-untranlsated region (polymorphic 3'UTR, ie, p3UTR) of candidate genes involved in multiple myeloma (MM). We performed a case-control study within the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMEnSE) consortium, consisting of 3056 MM patients and 1960 controls recruited from eight countries. We selected p3UTR of six genes known to act in different pathways relevant in MM pathogenesis, namely KRAS (rs12587 and rs7973623), VEGFA (rs10434), SPP1 (rs1126772), IRF4 (rs12211228) and IL10 (rs3024496). We found that IL10-rs3024496 was associated with increased risk of developing MM and with a worse overall survival of MM patients. The variant allele was assayed in a vector expressing eGFP chimerized with the IL10 3'-UTR and it was found functionally active following transfection in human myeloma cells. In this experiment, the A-allele caused a lower expression of the reporter gene and this was also in agreement with the in vivo expression of mRNA measured in whole blood as reported in the GTEx portal. Overall, these data are suggestive of an effect of the IL10-rs3024496 SNP on the regulation of IL10 mRNA expression and it could have clinical implications for better characterization of MM patients in terms of prognosis.

6.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the safety and efficacy of the anti-colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (anti-CSF1R) monoclonal antibody AMG 820 in combination with pembrolizumab in patients with select solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients had advanced, refractory mismatch repair-proficient colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with low (<50%) programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and were naïve to anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 or had relapsed/refractory NSCLC after anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment with low or high (≥50%) PD-L1 expression; all were anti-CSF1/CSF1R naïve. Patients received 1100 mg or 1400 mg AMG 820 plus 200 mg pembrolizumab intravenously every 3 weeks. The primary endpoints were incidence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and adverse events (AEs) and objective response rate per immune-related Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours at the recommended combination dose. RESULTS: Overall, 116 patients received ≥1 dose of AMG 820 plus pembrolizumab (18 at 1400 mg AMG 820; 98 at 1100 mg AMG 820). Most patients (64%) were male; the median age was 64 (range 30-86) years. Seven patients had DLTs (1 at 1400 mg AMG 820; 6 at 1100 mg AMG 820). Almost all patients (99.1%) had AEs, 87.9% with grade ≥3 AEs. The most common AEs were increased aspartate aminotransferase (59.5%), fatigue (48.3%), periorbital/face edema (48.3%), and rash/maculopapular rash (37.1%). The best response was immune-related partial response in 3 patients (3%; duration of response 9.2, 10.0, 12.5 months) and immune-related stable disease in 39 patients (34%). None of the completed phase II cohorts met the predefined threshold for efficacy. Post-treatment there was accumulation of serum colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) and interleukin-34, reduction in CSF1-dependent CD16-expressing monocytes, and increased PD-L1 expression and CD4 and CD8 cell numbers in tumor biopsies. CONCLUSIONS: The recommended combination dose of 1100 mg AMG 820 plus 200 mg pembrolizumab had an acceptable safety profile. Although pharmacodynamic effects were observed, antitumor activity was insufficient for further evaluation of this combination in selected patient populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02713529.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2235-2242, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterial carcinogen and the leading risk factor for noncardia gastric cancer (NCGC). Detecting antibodies against specific H. pylori proteins in peripheral blood can be applied to characterize infection and determine disease associations. Most studies analyzing the association between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer have focused on previously identified antigens, predominantly the virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA). Selecting antigens in an unbiased approach may, however, allow the identification of novel biomarkers. METHODS: Using a combination of multiple spotting technique and cell-free, on-chip protein expression, we displayed the H. pylori genome (strain 26695) on high-density microarrays. Immunogenic proteins were identified by serum pool incubations and henceforth analyzed in individual samples. To test its applicability, we used sera from a multicase-control (MCC)-Spain study. Serologic responses between NCGC cases and controls were assessed by conditional logistic regression estimating ORs and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We successfully expressed 93% of the 1,440 H. pylori open reading frames in situ. Of these, 231 (17%) were found to be immunogenic. By comparing 58 NCGC cases with 58 matched controls, we confirmed a higher seroprevalence of CagA among cases (66%) than controls (31%). We further identified a potential novel marker, the Helicobacter outer membrane protein A (HopA). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we provide evidence that our H. pylori whole-proteome microarray offers a platform for unbiased de novo identification of serologic biomarkers. IMPACT: Given its versatile workflow, antibody responses against other H. pylori strains and possible associations with diverse H. pylori-related outcomes can be systematically analyzed.

8.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is a first-in-human study with TAS-119, an Aurora A kinase (AurA) inhibitor. METHODS: Patients with advanced, refractory, solid tumours were enrolled into 5 dose escalation cohorts (70-300 mg BID, 4 days on/3 days off, 3 out of 4 weeks or 4 out of 4 weeks). The expansion part consisted of patients with small-cell lung cancer, HER2-negative breast cancer, MYC-amplified/ß-catenin-mutated (MT) tumours or other (basket cohort). RESULTS: In the escalation part (n = 34 patients), dose-limiting toxicities were one grade 3 nausea, two grade 2 and one grade 3 ocular toxicity and a combination of fatigue, ocular toxicity and nausea in one patient (all grade 2) at dose levels of 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg, respectively. Most frequent treatment-related adverse events were fatigue (32%), diarrhoea (24%) and ocular toxicity (24%). Toxicity grade ≥3 in ≥10% of patients were diarrhoea (15%) and increased lipase (12%). The maximum tolerated dose was 250 mg BID. Due to one additional grade 1 ocular toxicity, the RP2D was set at 200 mg BID (4 days on/3 days off, 3 out of 4 weeks), which was further explored in the expansion part (n = 40 patients). Target inhibition in paired skin biopsies was shown. CONCLUSIONS: TAS-119 has a favourable and remarkably distinct safety profile from other AurA inhibitors. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02448589.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108504

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study assessed the effect of lurbinectedin, a highly selective inhibitor of oncogenic transcription, on the change from baseline in Fridericia's corrected QT interval (∆QTcF) and electrocardiography (ECG) morphological patterns, and lurbinectedin concentration-∆QTcF (C-∆QTcF) relationship, in patients with advanced solid tumors. METHODS: Patients with QTcF ≤ 500 ms, QRS < 110 ms, PR < 200 ms, and normal cardiac conduction and function received lurbinectedin 3.2 mg/m2 as a 1-h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks. ECGs were collected in triplicate via 12-lead digital recorder in treatment cycle 1 and 2 and analyzed centrally. ECG collection time-matched blood samples were drawn to measure lurbinectedin plasma concentration. No effect on QTc interval was concluded if the upper bound (UB) of the least square (LS) mean two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CI) for ΔQTcF at each time point was < 20 ms. C-∆QTcF was explored using linear mixed-effects analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1707 ECGs were collected from 39 patients (females, 22; median age, 56 years). The largest UB of the 90% CI of ΔQTcF was 9.6 ms, thus lower than the more conservative 10 ms threshold established at the ICH E14 guideline for QT studies in healthy volunteers. C-∆QTcF was better fit by an effect compartment model, and the 90% CI of predicted ΔQTcF at Cmax was 7.81 ms, also below the 10 ms threshold of clinical concern. CONCLUSIONS: ECG parameters and C-ΔQTcF modelling in this prospective study indicate that lurbinectedin was not associated with a clinically relevant effect on cardiac repolarization.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038280

RESUMO

Obesity is considered a chronic inflammatory state characterized by continued secretion of adipokines and cytokines. Experimental and epidemiological evidence indicates that circulating adipokines may be associated with the development of obesity-related cancers, but it is unclear if these associations are causal or confounded. We examined potential causal associations of specific adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, soluble leptin receptor [sOB-R] and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]) with five obesity-related cancers (colorectal, pancreatic, renal cell carcinoma [RCC], ovarian and endometrial) using Mendelian randomization (MR) methods. We used summary-level data from large genetic consortia for 114 530 cancer cases and 245 284 controls. We constructed genetic instruments using 18 genetic variants for adiponectin, 2 for leptin and 4 for both sOB-R and PAI-1 (P value for inclusion<5 × 10-8 ). Causal estimates were obtained using two-sample MR methods. In the inverse-variance weighted models, we found an inverse association between adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer (odds ratio per 1 µg/mL increment in adiponectin concentration: 0.90 [95% confidence interval = 0.84-0.97]; P = .01); but, evidence of horizontal pleiotropy was detected and the association was not present when this was taken into consideration. No association was found for adiponectin and risks of pancreatic cancer, RCC, ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer. Leptin, sOB-R and PAI-1 were also similarly unrelated to risk of obesity-related cancers. Despite the large sample size, our MR analyses do not support causal effects of circulating adiponectin, leptin, sOB-R and PAI-1 concentrations on the development of five obesity-related cancers.

11.
Gut ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Germline TP53 pathogenic (P) variants cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), an aggressive multitumor-predisposing condition. Due to the implementation of multigene panel testing, TP53 variants have been detected in individuals without LFS suspicion, for example, patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to decipher whether these findings are the result of detecting the background population prevalence or the aetiological basis of CRC. DESIGN: We analysed TP53 in 473 familial/early-onset CRC cases and evaluated the results together with five additional studies performed in patients with CRC (total n=6200). Control population and LFS data were obtained from Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD V.2.1.1) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) TP53 database, respectively. All variants were reclassified according to the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP), following the ClinGen TP53 Expert Panel specifications. RESULTS: P or likely pathogenic (LP) variants were identified in 0.05% of controls (n=27/59 095) and 0.26% of patients with CRC (n=16/6200) (p<0.0001) (OR=5.7, 95% CI 2.8 to 10.9), none of whom fulfilled the clinical criteria established for TP53 testing. This association was still detected when patients with CRC diagnosed at more advanced ages (>50 and>60 years) were excluded from the analysis to minimise the inclusion of variants caused by clonal haematopoiesis. Loss-of-function and missense variants were strongly associated with CRC as compared with controls (OR=25.44, 95% CI 6.10 to 149.03, for loss of function and splice-site alleles, and OR=3.58, 95% CI 1.46 to 7.98, for missense P or LP variants). CONCLUSION: TP53 P variants should not be unequivocally associated with LFS. Prospective follow-up of carriers of germline TP53 P variants in the absence of LFS phenotypes will define how surveillance and clinical management of these individuals should be performed.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046517

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is implicated in multiple tumor types and its expression in cancer stem cells is associated with chemoresistance. CC-90011 is a potent, selective, and reversible oral LSD1 inhibitor. We examined CC-90011 in advanced solid tumors and relapsed/refractory (R/R) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CC-90011-ST-001 (NCT02875223; 2015-005243-13) is a phase I, multicenter, first-in-human dose escalation study. Nine dose levels of CC-90011 (1.25 mg to 120 mg) given once/week (QW) were explored. Primary objectives were to determine safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and/or recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). Secondary objectives were to evaluate preliminary efficacy and pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Fifty patients were enrolled, 49 with solid tumors (27 neuroendocrine tumors/carcinomas [NETs/NECs]) and 1 with R/R NHL. Median age was 61 years (range, 22-75). Patients received a median of 3 (range, 1-9) prior anticancer regimens. The RP2D was 60 mg QW; the nontolerated dose (NTD) and MTD were 120 mg QW and 80 mg QW, respectively. Grade 3/4 treatment-related toxicities were thrombocytopenia (20.0%; an on-target effect unassociated with clinically significant bleeding), neutropenia (8.0%; in the context of thrombocytopenia at the highest doses), and fatigue (2.0%). The patient with R/R NHL had a complete response, currently ongoing in cycle 27; 8 patients with NETs/NECs had stable disease ≥6 months, including bronchial NETs, kidney tumor, and paraganglioma. CONCLUSIONS: CC-90011 is well-tolerated, with the RP2D established as 60 mg QW. The MTD and NTD were determined to be 80 mg QW and 120 mg QW, respectively. Further evaluation of CC-90011 is warranted.

13.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001143

RESUMO

Importance: Deficient mismatch mutation repair mechanisms may sensitize endometrial cancers to anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) therapies. Dostarlimab (TSR-042) is an investigational anti-PD-1 antibody that binds with high affinity to the PD-1 receptor. Objective: To assess the antitumor activity and safety of dostarlimab for patients with deficient mismatch repair endometrial cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This ongoing, open-label, single-group, multicenter study began part 1 on March 7, 2016, and began enrolling patients with deficient mismatch mutation repair endometrial cancer on May 8, 2017. Median follow-up was 11.2 months (range, 0.03 [ongoing] to 22.11 [ongoing] months; based on radiological assessments). Statistical analysis was performed July 8 to August 9, 2019. Interventions: Patients received 500 mg of dostarlimab intravenously every 3 weeks for 4 doses, then 1000 mg every 6 weeks until disease progression, treatment discontinuation, or withdrawal. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was objective response rate and duration of response by blinded independent central review using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Results: As of the data cutoff, 104 women (median age, 64.0 years [range, 38-80 years]) with deficient mismatch mutation repair endometrial cancers were enrolled and treated with dostarlimab. Of these, 71 had measurable disease at baseline and at 6 months or more of follow-up and were included in the analysis. There was a confirmed response in 30 patients (objective response rate, 42.3%; 95% CI, 30.6%-54.6%); 9 patients (12.7%) had a confirmed complete response, and 21 patients (29.6%) had a confirmed partial response. Responses were durable; the median duration of response was not reached (median follow-up was 11.2 months). The estimated likelihood of maintaining a response was 96.4% at 6 months and 76.8% at 12 months. Anemia (3 of 104 [2.9%]), colitis (2 of 104 [1.9%]), and diarrhea (2 of 104 [1.9%]) were the most common grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: In this nonrandomized trial, dostarlimab was associated with clinically meaningful and durable antitumor activity with an acceptable safety profile for patients with deficient mismatch mutation repair endometrial cancers after prior platinum-based chemotherapy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02715284.

14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082210

RESUMO

T cell-engagers are a rapidly evolving novel group of treatments that have in common the concurrent engagement of a T cell-surface molecule and a tumoral cell antigen. Bispecific antibodies and genetically engineered adoptive cell therapies, as chimeric antigen receptor or T cell receptor T cells, have similarities and differences among their mechanisms of action, toxicity profiles, and resistance pathways. Nevertheless, the success observed in the hematological field has not been obtained with solid tumors yet, as they are biologically more complex and have few truly tumor-specific cell surface antigens that can be targeted with high avidity T cells. Different strategies are under study to improve their short-term perspective, such as new generations of more active T cell-engagers, multi-target or combination of different treatments approaches, or to improve the manufacturing processes. A comprehensive review of T cell-engagers as a grouped treatment class, current status, and research directions in their application to solid tumors therapeutics are discussed here.

15.
Lung Cancer ; 150: 90-96, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096421

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend re-challenge with the first-line treatment for relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with chemotherapy-free interval (CTFI)≥180 days. A phase II study (NCT02454972) showed remarkable antitumor activity in SCLC patients treated with lurbinectedin 3.2 mg/m2 1 -h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks as second-line therapy. We report results for the pre-planned subset of patients with CTFI ≥ 180 days. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty patients aged ≥18 years with pathologically proven SCLC diagnosis, pretreated with only one prior platinum-containing line, no CNS metastases, and with CTFI ≥ 180 days were evaluated. The primary efficacy endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR) assessed by the Investigators according to RECIST v1.1. RESULTS: ORR was 60.0 % (95 %CI, 36.1-86.9), with a median duration of response of 5.5 months (95 %CI, 2.9-11.2) and disease control rate of 95.0 % (95 %CI, 75.1-99.9). Median progression-free survival was 4.6 months (95 %CI, 2.6-7.3). With a censoring of 55.0 %, the median overall survival was 16.2 months (95 %CI, 9.6-upper level not reached). Of note, 60.9 % and 27.1 % of patients were alive at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events and laboratory abnormalities were hematological disorders (neutropenia, 55.0 %; anemia; 10.0 % thrombocytopenia, 10.0 %), fatigue (10.0 %) and increased liver function tests (GGT, 10 %; ALT and AP, 5.0 % each). No febrile neutropenia was reported. CONCLUSION: Lurbinectedin is an effective treatment for platinum-sensitive relapsed SCLC, especially in patients with CTFI ≥ 180 days, with acceptable safety and tolerability. These encouraging results suggest that lurbinectedin can be another valuable therapeutic option rather than platinum re-challenge.

17.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; : 1-15, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946312

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In colorectal carcinogenesis, genetic alterations in RAS and BRAF oncogenes play an important role for cancer initiation and/or progression and represent a key focus in the search for targeted therapies. Despite many years of research and a great amount of studies, until very recently this pathway was considered extremely hard to downregulate to obtain a significant clinical impact in colorectal cancer patients. But better times are coming with the advent of new promising drugs and combinations strategies. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we go over the biological characteristics of the MAPK pathway in colorectal tumors, while illustrating the clinical correlation of RAS and BRAF mutations, particularly its prognostic and predictive value. We also present newly data about recent improvements in the treatment strategy for patients harboring these types of tumors. EXPERT COMMENTARY: With great advances in the knowledge of molecular basis of RAS and BRAF mutant colorectal cancer in conjunction with biotechnology development and the constant effort for improvement, in the near future many new therapeutic options would be available for the management of this group of patient with dismal prognosis.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976649

RESUMO

Experimental evidence indicates that exercise performed at different times of the day may affect circadian rhythms and circadian disruption has been linked to breast and prostate cancer. We examined in a population-based case-control study (MCC-Spain) if the time-of-day when physical activity is done affects prostate and breast cancer risk. Lifetime recreational and household physical activity was assessed by in-person interviews. Information on time-of-day of activity (assessed approximately 3 years after the assessment of lifetime physical activity and confounders) was available for 781 breast cancer cases, 865 population female controls, 504 prostate cases and 645 population male controls from 10 Spanish regions, 2008-2013. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for different activity timings compared to inactive subjects using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for confounders. Early morning (8-10 am) activity was associated with a protective effect compared to no physical activity for both breast (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.48-1.15) and prostate cancer (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.44-1.20); meta-OR for the two cancers combined 0.74 (95%CI = 0.53-1.02). There was no effect observed for breast or prostate cancer for late morning to afternoon activity while a protective effect was also observed for evening activity only for prostate cancer (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.45-1.24). Protective effects of early morning activity were more pronounced for intermediate/evening chronotypes for both cancers. This is the first population-based investigation identifying a differential effect of timing of physical activity on cancer risk with more pronounced effects for morning hour activity. Our results, if confirmed, may improve current physical activity recommendations for cancer prevention.

19.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; : 100654, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989425

RESUMO

The disease produced by the new coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2), named COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019) has recently been classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, scarce clinical data is available and generally limited to the Chinese population due to the first cases were identified in Wuhan (Hubei, China).This article describes the rationale and design of the HOPE COVID-19 (Health Outcome Predictive Evaluation for COVID 19) registry (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04334291). With an ambispective cohort design, eligible patients are those discharged, deceased or alive, from any hospital center with a confirmed diagnosis or a COVID-19 high suspicion. With a current recruitment of more than 7000 cases, in 46 hospitals in 8 countries, since it is not possible to estimate the sample size based on literature reports, the investigators will try to get the maximum numbers of patients possible. The study primary objective is all cause mortality and aims to characterize the clinical profile of patients infected in order to develop a prognostic clinical score allowing, rapid logistic decision making. As secondary objectives, the analysis of other clinical events, the risk-adjusted influence of treatments and previous comorbidities of patients infected with the disease will be performed.The results of HOPE COVID-19 will contribute to a better understanding of this condition. We aim to describe the management of this condition as well as the outcomes in relation to the therapy chosen, in order to gain insight into improving patient care in the coming months. Clinical Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT04334291.

20.
Epigenomics ; 12(18): 1593-1610, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957849

RESUMO

Aim: Gain insight about the role of DNA methylation in the malignant growth of colon cancer. Patients & methods: Methylation and gene expression from 90 adjacent-tumor paired tissues and 48 healthy tissues were analyzed. Tumor genes whose change in expression was explained by changes in methylation were identified using linear models adjusted for tumor stromal content. Results: No differences in methylation were found between adjacent and healthy tissues, but clear differences were found between adjacent and tumor samples. We identified hypermethylated CpG islands located in promoter regions that drive differential gene expression of transcription factors and their target genes. Conclusion: Changes in methylation of a few genes provoke important changes in gene expression, by expanding the signal through transcription activation/repression.

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