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PLoS One ; 14(2): e0213073, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818333


Research in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is increasingly focused on the discovery of biomarkers that could enable personalized treatments. The genetic biomarkers associated with the response to TNF inhibitors (TNFi) are among the most studied. They include 12 SNPs exhibiting promising results in the three largest genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, they still require further validation. With this aim, we assessed their association with response to TNFi in a replication study, and a meta-analysis summarizing all non-redundant data. The replication involved 755 patients with RA that were treated for the first time with a biologic drug, which was either infliximab (n = 397), etanercept (n = 155) or adalimumab (n = 203). Their DNA samples were successfully genotyped with a single-base extension multiplex method. Lamentably, none of the 12 SNPs was associated with response to the TNFi in the replication study (p > 0.05). However, a drug-stratified exploratory analysis revealed a significant association of the NUBPL rs2378945 SNP with a poor response to etanercept (B = -0.50, 95% CI = -0.82, -0.17, p = 0.003). In addition, the meta-analysis reinforced the previous association of three SNPs: rs2378945, rs12142623, and rs4651370. In contrast, five of the remaining SNPs were less associated than before, and the other four SNPs were no longer associated with the response to treatment. In summary, our results highlight the complexity of the pharmacogenetics of TNFi in RA showing that it could involve a drug-specific component and clarifying the status of the 12 GWAS-drawn SNPs.

PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196793, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734345


Genetic biomarkers are sought to personalize treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), given their variable response to TNF inhibitors (TNFi). However, no genetic biomaker is yet sufficiently validated. Here, we report a validation study of 18 previously reported genetic biomarkers, including 11 from GWAS of response to TNFi. The validation was attempted in 581 patients with RA that had not been treated with biologic antirheumatic drugs previously. Their response to TNFi was evaluated at 3, 6 and 12 months in two ways: change in the DAS28 measure of disease activity, and according to the EULAR criteria for response to antirheumatic drugs. Association of these parameters with the genotypes, obtained by PCR amplification followed by single-base extension, was tested with regression analysis. These analyses were adjusted for baseline DAS28, sex, and the specific TNFi. However, none of the proposed biomarkers was validated, as none showed association with response to TNFi in our study, even at the time of assessment and with the outcome that showed the most significant result in previous studies. These negative results are notable because this was the first independent validation study for 12 of the biomarkers, and because they indicate that prudence is needed in the interpretation of the proposed biomarkers of response to TNFi even when they are supported by very low p values. The results also emphasize the requirement of independent replication for validation, and the need to search protocols that could increase reproducibility of the biomarkers of response to TNFi.

Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Arthritis Res Ther ; 17: 63, 2015 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25885039


INTRODUCTION: We have hypothesized that incompatibility between the G1m genotype of the patient and the G1m1 and G1m17 allotypes carried by infliximab (INX) and adalimumab (ADM) could decrease the efficacy of these anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antibodies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The G1m genotypes were analyzed in three collections of patients with RA totaling 1037 subjects. The first, used for discovery, comprised 215 Spanish patients. The second and third were successively used for replication. They included 429 British and Greek patients and 393 Spanish and British patients, respectively. Two outcomes were considered: change in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joint (ΔDAS28) and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria. RESULTS: An association between less response to INX and incompatibility of the G1m1,17 allotype was found in the discovery collection at 6 months of treatment (P = 0.03). This association was confirmed in the replications (P = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively) leading to a global association (P = 0.001) that involved a mean difference in ΔDAS28 of 0.4 units between compatible and incompatible patients (2.3 ± 1.5 in compatible patients vs. 1.9 ± 1.5 in incompatible patients) and an increase in responders and decrease in non-responders according to the EULAR criteria (P = 0.03). A similar association was suggested for patients treated with ADM in the discovery collection, but it was not supported by replication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that G1m1,17 allotypes are associated with response to INX and could aid improved therapeutic targeting in RA.

Adalimumab/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Infliximab/genética , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Alótipos de Imunoglobulina , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
Arthritis Res Ther ; 16(2): R66, 2014 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24612463


INTRODUCTION: In this study, our aim was to elucidate the role of four polymorphisms identified in a prior large genome-wide association study (GWAS) in which the investigators analyzed the responses of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi). The authors of that study reported that the four genetic variants were significantly associated. However, none of the associations reached GWAS significance, and two subsequent studies failed to replicate these associations. METHODS: The four polymorphisms (rs12081765, rs1532269, rs17301249 and rs7305646) were genotyped in a total of 634 TNFi-treated RA patients of Spanish Caucasian origin. Four outcomes were evaluated: changes in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) after 6 and 12 months of treatment and classification according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria at the same time points. Association with DAS28 changes was assessed by linear regression using an additive genetic model. Contingency tables of genotype and allele frequencies between EULAR responder and nonresponder patients were compared. In addition, we combined our data with those of previously reported studies in a meta-analysis including 2,998 RA patients. RESULTS: None of the four genetic variants showed an association with response to TNFi in any of the four outcomes analyzed in our Spanish patients. In addition, only rs1532269 yielded a suggestive association (P = 0.0033) with the response to TNFi when available data from previous studies were combined in the meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the rs12081765, rs1532269, rs17301249 and rs7305646 genetic variants do not have a role as genetic predictors of TNFi treatment outcomes.

Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 24(1): 1-5, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24253594


BACKGROUND: The IL-6 -174G/C genetic variant has recently been associated with the clinical response to etanercept therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Considering previous results, the aim of our study was to validate the role of this polymorphism as a predictor of the antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatment outcome in RA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study population was composed of 199 Spanish patients with RA receiving anti-TNF therapy. The IL-6 -174G/C (rs1800795) genetic variant was genotyped using the TaqMan allelic discrimination technology. Patients were classified, according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria, as responders (good and moderate response) and nonresponders at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the first infusion. RESULTS: The -174*G allele was significantly associated with a good or moderate EULAR response at 12 [P=0.015, odds ratio (OR)=2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-6.70], 18 (P=4.54E-03, OR=5.17, 95% CI 1.80-14.85), and 24 months (P=4.54E-03, OR=14.86, 95% CI 2.91-75.91). A meta-analysis combining these data with the results from a previous study confirmed this association (P=1.89E-02, OR=1.80, 95% CI 1.13-2.87, at 12 months). CONCLUSION: Our results support the role of the -174G/C IL-6 polymorphism as a genetic marker of responsiveness to anti-TNF therapy.

Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-6/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adalimumab , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Citosina , Etanercepte , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Guanina , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Infliximab , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/administração & dosagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento