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1.
Nat Immunol ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716452

RESUMO

Prevention of viral escape and increased coverage against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern require therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting multiple sites of vulnerability on the coronavirus spike glycoprotein. Here we identify several potent neutralizing antibodies directed against either the N-terminal domain (NTD) or the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. Administered in combinations, these mAbs provided low-dose protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the K18-human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 mouse model, using both neutralization and Fc effector antibody functions. The RBD mAb WRAIR-2125, which targets residue F486 through a unique heavy-chain and light-chain pairing, demonstrated potent neutralizing activity against all major SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. In combination with NTD and other RBD mAbs, WRAIR-2125 also prevented viral escape. These data demonstrate that NTD/RBD mAb combinations confer potent protection, likely leveraging complementary mechanisms of viral inactivation and clearance.

2.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576893

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced to the Americas in 2013, causing two million infections across over thirty countries. CHIKV causes a chronic debilitating arthritis in one fourth of infected individuals and currently evidence-based targeted therapies for the treatment of CHIKV arthritis are lacking. Multiple mouse models of chikungunya have been developed to study acute CHIKV infection. In humans, post-CHIKV arthritis may persist for months to years after viremia from a CHIKV infection has resolved. Therefore, the development of a mouse model of post-acute arthritis of chikungunya may facilitate the study of potential novel therapeutics for this arthritis. In this article we describe the development of a wild-type immunocompetent C57BL/6 mouse model for post-acute arthritis of chikungunya, including a histologic inflammation scoring system, as well as suggestions for how this mouse model may be used to examine the efficacy of novel therapies for CHIKV arthritis.

3.
J Cell Immunol ; 3(3): 191-197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322686

RESUMO

Objective: The primary objective of this research was to explore the link between sleep and flare pain associated with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. The secondary objective was to investigate if cytokines and T regulatory (Treg) cells have an influence on this relationship. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using data collected in Barranquilla, Colombia, which enrolled patients with and without chronic arthritis with a history of chikungunya infection. Flare severity was measured by a version of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials (OMERACT) flare questionnaire adapted for CHIKV arthritis, including metrics for pain, difficulty with physical activity, fatigue, stiffness and difficulty maintaining social activities due to arthritis that contribute to flare severity. In addition, four sleep disturbance items, five inflammatory cytokine levels, four anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, and six Treg levels were measured. Then, multivariable linear regression models were used to test the direct and indirect effects of flare-pain on sleep disturbance, and to determine whether this relationship was mediated by cytokines or Tregs. Finally, the SAS CALIS procedure was used to test path models showing possible causal effects with mediators and confounds. Results: The analysis showed that sleep disturbance is positively correlated with CHIKV arthritis flare pain, and that it is a significant predictor of flare severity after adjusting for demographic variables, cytokine, and T cell levels. Further, neither T cells nor cytokines mediate the pain/sleep relationship in CHIKV arthritis. Conclusion: There is a strong association between sleep disturbance and arthritis flare pain and severity; however, this relationship is not mediated by cytokines or T cells. Since this study is unable to determine causation, further research is needed to determine the mechanism underlying the relationship between sleep disturbances and CHIKV arthritis flares.

4.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-10, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate masks and respirators exposed to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus. DESIGN: The 2 arms of the study included (1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment and (2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination to determine maintenance of PPE performance. METHODS: MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on 3 N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and 2 medical mask models. We inoculated FFR and medical mask materials with 3 coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and we treated them with 10 µM MB and exposed them to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5 cycles of decontamination using multiple US and international test methods, and the process was compared with the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method. RESULTS: Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all 3 coronaviruses with 99.8% to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and medical masks tested. FFR and medical mask integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas 1 FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3. CONCLUSIONS: MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating 3 tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5 cycles of decontamination. MBL decontamination is effective, is low cost, and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in low- to high-resource settings.

6.
Andrology ; 9(1): 30-32, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471002

RESUMO

Research is needed to understand the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in semen, sexual transmissibility, and impact on sperm quality. Several studies have examined men recovering from COVID-19, but large-scale community-based testing is needed to ascertain the effects on the male reproductive tract, and the potential for prolonged transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Sêmen/virologia , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/virologia , Espermatozoides/virologia , Animais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/transmissão , Teste para COVID-19 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Espermatozoides/patologia , Virulência
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008191, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267846

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted by infectious mosquitoes during blood-feeding via saliva containing biologically-active proteins. Here, we examined the effect of varying DENV infection modality in rhesus macaques in order to improve the DENV nonhuman primate (NHP) challenge model. NHPs were exposed to DENV-1 via subcutaneous or intradermal inoculation of virus only, intradermal inoculation of virus and salivary gland extract, or infectious mosquito feeding. The infectious mosquito feeding group exhibited delayed onset of viremia, greater viral loads, and altered clinical and immune responses compared to other groups. After 15 months, NHPs in the subcutaneous and infectious mosquito feeding groups were re-exposed to either DENV-1 or DENV-2. Viral replication and neutralizing antibody following homologous challenge were suggestive of sterilizing immunity, whereas heterologous challenge resulted in productive, yet reduced, DENV-2 replication and boosted neutralizing antibody. These results show that a more transmission-relevant exposure modality resulted in viral replication closer to that observed in humans.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Dengue/imunologia , Animais , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Cinética , Macaca mulatta/imunologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Glândulas Salivares/virologia , Vacinação , Carga Viral , Viremia/prevenção & controle , Replicação Viral
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007756, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human mobility plays a central role in shaping pathogen transmission by generating spatial and/or individual variability in potential pathogen-transmitting contacts. Recent research has shown that symptomatic infection can influence human mobility and pathogen transmission dynamics. Better understanding the complex relationship between symptom severity, infectiousness, and human mobility requires quantification of movement patterns throughout infectiousness. For dengue virus (DENV), human infectiousness peaks 0-2 days after symptom onset, making it paramount to understand human movement patterns from the beginning of illness. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through community-based febrile surveillance and RT-PCR assays, we identified a cohort of DENV+ residents of the city of Iquitos, Peru (n = 63). Using retrospective interviews, we measured the movements of these individuals when healthy and during each day of symptomatic illness. The most dramatic changes in mobility occurred during the first three days after symptom onset; individuals visited significantly fewer locations (Wilcoxon test, p = 0.017) and spent significantly more time at home (Wilcoxon test, p = 0.005), compared to when healthy. By 7-9 days after symptom onset, mobility measures had returned to healthy levels. Throughout an individual's symptomatic period, the day of illness and their subjective sense of well-being were the most significant predictors for the number of locations and houses they visited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is one of the first to collect and analyze human mobility data at a daily scale during symptomatic infection. Accounting for the observed changes in human mobility throughout illness will improve understanding of the impact of disease on DENV transmission dynamics and the interpretation of public health-based surveillance data.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Doença , Locomoção , Adolescente , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Masculino , Peru/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Malar J ; 18(1): 176, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri are regarded as less virulent forms of malaria with a geographic distribution including Southeast Asia, Central and West Africa, and is increasingly reported as an infection in returning travellers. A species of malaria that may have delayed or relapsing presentations similar to Plasmodium vivax, the clinical presentation of P. ovale spp. has been described to have prepatent periods of 2 weeks or slightly longer with reports of relapse following primary infection out to 8-9 months. This presentation may be obscured further in the setting of anti-malarial exposure, with report of delayed primary infection out to 4 years. Presented is a cluster of 4 imported P. ovale spp. cases in returning Peruvian military personnel assigned to United Nations peace-keeping operations in the Central African Republic. CASE PRESENTATION: From January to December 2016, Peruvian peace-keepers were deployed in support of United Nations (UN) operations in the Central African Republic (CAR). While serving abroad, Navy, Army, and Air Force members experienced 223 episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria following interruption of prophylaxis with mefloquine. Diagnosis was made using rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs) and/or smear with no coinfections identified. Cases of malaria were treated with locally-procured artemether-lumefantrine. Returning to Peru in January 2017, 200 peace-keepers were screened via thick and thin smear while on weekly mefloquine prophylaxis with only 1 showing nucleic acid within red blood cells consistent with Plasmodium spp. and 11 reporting syndromes of ill-defined somatic complaints. Between a period of 5 days to 11 months post return, 4 cases of P. ovale spp. were diagnosed using smear and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) following febrile complaints. All cases were subsequently treated with chloroquine and primaquine, with cure of clinical disease and documented clearance of parasitaemia. CONCLUSION: These patients represent the first imported cases in Peru of this species of malaria as well as highlight the challenges in implementing population level prophylaxis in a deployed environment, and the steps for timely diagnosis and management in a non-endemic region where risk of introduction for local transmission exists.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium ovale/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , República Centro-Africana/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Peru , Plasmodium ovale/genética , Nações Unidas
11.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0208455, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601814

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus responsible for a significant number of deaths in Latin America. This virus is transmitted through the bite of Aedes aegypti, the main mosquito vector, and Ae. albopictus. During blood uptake, the mosquito injects its saliva into the host to facilitate the feeding process. Mosquito saliva contains potent immunogens capable of inducing antibody production directly related to mosquito bite exposure intensity and disease risk. In this study, we first determined the DENV infection status by two different DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) based rapid tests and qRT-PCR, then measured the levels of IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies against salivary proteins of Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes in volunteers living in a dengue endemic area. Our results show that people with a positive DENV diagnosis present higher levels of IgG4 antibodies than people with a negative diagnostic test, and that these antibody levels were higher in people with secondary DENV infections. With this study, we show that detection of IgG4 antibodies against mosquito saliva may be a reliable method to evaluate the risk of dengue infection.


Assuntos
Aedes/imunologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Vet Sci ; 5: 69, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707545

RESUMO

Bunyamwera (BUNV), Batai (BATV), and Ngari (NRIV) are mosquito-borne viruses of the Bunyamwera serogroup in the Orthobunyavirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. These three viruses have been found to cause disease in both livestock animals, avian species, and humans. Thus, these viruses pose a potential threat to human public health, animal health, and food security. This is especially the case in the developing nations, where BUNV and NRIV are found, mainly in Africa. BUNV and BATV are fairly well characterized, while NRIV is not well characterized owing to only sporadic detection in human and animal populations in Africa. Reassortment is common among bunyaviruses, but NRIV is believed to be the only natural reassortant of the Bunyamwera serogroup. It resulted from a combination of BUNV S and L segments and the BATV M segment. This indicates at least some level co-circulation of BUNV and BATV, which have no historically been reported to overlap in geographic distributions. But as these viruses are undercharacterized, there remains a gap in the understanding of how such reassortment could occur, and the consequences of such. Due to their combined wide range of hosts and vectors, geographic distributions, potential severity of associated diseases, and potential for transmissibility between vertebrate hosts, these viruses represent a significant gap in knowledge with important One Health implications. The goal of this review is to report available knowledge of and identify potential future directions for study of these viruses. As these are collectively understudied viruses, there is a relative paucity of data; however, we use available studies to discuss different perspectives in an effort to promote a better understanding of these three viruses and the public and One Health threat(s) they may pose.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 214(suppl 5): S466-S470, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27920175

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has experienced 2 major expansion events in the last decade. The most recently emerged sublineage (ECSA-V) was shown to have increased efficiency in a historically secondary vector, Aedes albopictus, leading to speculation that this was a major factor in expansion. Subsequently, a number of experimental studies focused on the vector competence of CHIKV, as well as transmission modeling efforts. Mathematical models have used these data to inform their own investigations, but some have incorrectly parameterized the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) of the mosquitoes, using vector competence data. Vector competence and EIP are part of the same process but are not often correctly reported together. Thus, the way these metrics are used for model parameterization can be problematic. We offer suggestions for bridging this gap for the purpose of standardization of reporting and to promote appropriate use of experimental data in modeling efforts.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/classificação , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Replicação Viral
14.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0161365, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27532496

RESUMO

Expansion of mosquito-borne pathogens into more temperate regions of the world necessitates tools such as mathematical models for understanding the factors that contribute to the introduction and emergence of a disease in populations naïve to the disease. Often, these models are not developed and analyzed until after a pathogen is detected in a population. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit stochastic model parameterized with publicly available U.S. Census data for studying the potential for disease spread in Urbanized Areas of the United States. To illustrate the utility of the model, we specifically study the potential for introductions of dengue to lead to autochthonous transmission and outbreaks in a population representative of the Miami Urbanized Area, where introductions of dengue have occurred frequently in recent years. We describe seasonal fluctuations in mosquito populations by fitting a population model to trap data provided by the Miami-Dade Mosquito Control Division. We show that the timing and location of introduced cases could play an important role in determining both the probability that local transmission occurs as well as the total number of cases throughout the entire region following introduction. We show that at low rates of clinical presentation, small outbreaks of dengue could go completely undetected during a season, which may confound mitigation efforts that rely upon detection. We discuss the sensitivity of the model to several critical parameter values that are currently poorly characterized and motivate the collection of additional data to strengthen the predictive power of this and similar models. Finally, we emphasize the utility of the general structure of this model in studying mosquito-borne diseases such as chikungunya and Zika virus in other regions.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Dengue/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Modelos Teóricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Mosquitos , Estações do Ano , Viagem , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
15.
Environ Health Insights ; 10: 119-23, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27478382

RESUMO

The extrinsic incubation period is a critical component in the assessment of arboviral transmission potential. It defines the time it takes for a mosquito to become infectious following exposure to an arbovirus. Since this is a temporal process, the lifespan of a mosquito is intimately tied to the extrinsic incubation period and thus transmission potential of these viruses. Temperature is a known effector of both vector competence (the ability of a vector to transmit a pathogen) and mosquito mortality, but the interaction among temperature, vector competence, and mosquito mortality is not well characterized. Herein, we investigate this interaction for dengue virus, serotype 2, and its primary vector Aedes aegypti where we found that at 30 °C, infection and/or dissemination shortened the average lifespan of the mosquito and that when considering only mosquitoes with a disseminated infection, those incubated at 26 °C lived significantly longer.

16.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0155243, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27182740

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus is an arbovirus spread predominantly by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, and causes debilitating arthralgia and arthritis. While these are common manifestations during acute infection and it has been suggested they can recur in patients chronically, gaps in knowledge regarding the pathogenesis still exist. Two established mouse models were utilized (adult IRF 3/7 -/- -/- and wild-type C57BL/6J mice) to evaluate disease manifestations in bones and joints at various timepoints. Novel lesions in C57BL/6J mice consisted of periostitis (91%) and foci of cartilage of necrosis (50% of mice at 21 DPI). Additionally, at 21 DPI, 50% and 75% of mice exhibited periosteal bone proliferation affecting the metatarsal bones, apparent via histology and µCT, respectively. µCT analysis did not reveal any alterations in trabecular bone volume measurements in C57BL/6J mice. Novel lesions demonstrated in IRF 3/7 -/- -/- mice at 5 DPI included focal regions of cartilage necrosis (20%), periosteal necrosis (66%), and multifocal ischemic bone marrow necrosis (100%). Contralateral feet in 100% of mice of both strains had similar, though milder lesions. Additionally, comparison of control IRF 3/7 -/- -/- and wild-type C57BL/6J mice demonstrated differences in cortical bone. These experiments demonstrate novel manifestations of disease similar to those occurring in humans, adding insight into disease pathogenesis, and representing new potential targets for therapeutic interventions. Additionally, results demonstrate the utility of µCT in studies of bone and joint pathology and illustrate differences in bone dynamics between mouse strains.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/etiologia , Doenças Ósseas/patologia , Febre de Chikungunya/complicações , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya , Artropatias/etiologia , Artropatias/patologia , Animais , Biópsia , Doenças Ósseas/diagnóstico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/deficiência , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/deficiência , Artropatias/diagnóstico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Necrose/etiologia , Necrose/patologia , Fenótipo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(4): e0004613, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27116605

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) is thought to have emerged from a sylvatic cycle in Africa but has since become adapted to an urban-centric transmission cycle. These urban areas include villages in West Africa where DENV is not often routinely considered for patients presenting with febrile illnesses, as other endemic diseases (malaria, Lassa fever, e.g.) present with similar non-specific symptoms. Thus, dengue is likely under diagnosed in the region. These plaque reduction neutralization test-50 (PRNT50) screening results of patients presenting with fevers of unknown origin (FUO) at a clinic in Kenema, Sierra Leone indicate that all four serotypes of DENV likely circulate in areas surrounding Kenema. Using a more conservative PRNT80 cut-off value, our results still indicate the presence of antibody to all four serotypes in the region. Identifying alternate etiologies of FUOs in this region will assist clinicians in plan-of-care decisions as well as follow-up priorities. This is particularly relevant given the Ebola outbreak in the region, where diagnosis has a range of downstream effects ranging from correct allocation of medical resources, appropriate isolation of patients, and ultimately, a better informed public health sector.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Humanos , Testes de Neutralização , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
18.
Open Rheumatol J ; 10: 129-140, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28077980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that circulates predominantly in tropical and subtropical regions, potentially affecting over 1 billion people. Recently, an outbreak began in the western hemisphere and has resulted in over 1.8 million reported suspected cases. Infection often results in severe fever, rash and debilitating polyarthralgia lasting weeks to months. Additionally, the current literature reports that CHIKV can result in a severe chronic arthralgia and/or arthritis that can last months to years following the initial infection. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the literature and summarize the current state of knowledge regarding CHIKV-associated disease, including clinical presentation, diagnosis, risk factors for development of severe disease, treatment, and pathogenesis in human patients. Additionally, recommendations are presented regarding avenues for clinical research to help further elucidate the pathogenesis of joint disease associated with CHIKV infection. CONCLUSION: While there is an association between initial CHIKV infection and acute disease, a causal relationship with development of chronic arthralgia has not been established at this time. Potential causes of chronic CHIKV-induced arthritis have been postulated, including viral persistence, induction of autoimmune disease, and exacerbation of pre-existing joint disease. While there are numerous reports of chronic CHIKV-associated arthralgia and/or arthritis, there is currently no evidence of a definitive link between initial infection and development of chronic disease. Additional, prospective clinical research on CHIKV-associated disease is necessary to further determine the potential role of virus and development of chronic joint disease.

19.
Vaccine ; 33(50): 7069-74, 2015 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26478199

RESUMO

Development and deployment of a successful dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has confounded research and pharmaceutical entities owing to the complex nature of DENV immunity and concerns over exacerbating the risk of DENV hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as a consequence of vaccination. Thus, consensus is growing that a combination of mitigation strategies will be needed for DENV to be successfully controlled, likely involving some form of vector control to enhance a vaccine program. We present here a deterministic compartmental model to illustrate that vector control may enhance vaccination campaigns with imperfect coverage and efficacy. Though we recognize the costs and challenges associated with continuous control programs, simultaneous application of vector control methods coincident with vaccine roll out can have a positive effect by further reducing the number of human cases. The success of such an integrative strategy is predicated on closing gaps in our understanding of the DENV transmission cycle in hyperedemic locations.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Dengue/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Vacinas contra Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 93(4): 869-74, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26195460

RESUMO

Outdoor exposure to mosquitoes is a risk factor for many diseases, including malaria and dengue. We have previously shown that long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing protects against tick and chigger bites in a double-blind randomized controlled trial in North Carolina outdoor workers. Here, we evaluated whether this clothing is protective against mosquito bites by measuring changes in antibody titers to mosquito salivary gland extracts. On average, there was a 10-fold increase in titer during the spring and summer when mosquito exposure was likely to be the highest. During the first year of the study, the increase in titer in subjects wearing treated uniforms was 2- to 2.5-fold lower than that of control subjects. This finding suggests that long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing provided protection against mosquito bites.


Assuntos
Aedes/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas , Permetrina , Roupa de Proteção , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Western Blotting , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Saliva/imunologia
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