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1.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170539

RESUMO

Differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among intellectually-able adults often presents a clinical challenge, particularly when individuals present in crisis without diagnostic history. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a multiscale personality and psychopathology instrument utilized across clinical settings, but to date there are no published normative data for use of the PAI with adults with ASD. This study provides normative PAI data for adults diagnosed with ASD, with effect size comparisons to the PAI clinical standardization sample and an inpatient sample. Additionally, a discriminant function was developed and cross-validated for identification of ASD-like symptomatology in a clinical population, which demonstrates promise as a screening tool to aid in the identification of individuals in need of specialized ASD assessment.

2.
Psychol Assess ; 32(2): 205-210, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478720

RESUMO

Although the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS; Morey, 1997) has garnered substantial research interest, the measure's temporal stability and sensitivity to change have remained largely uninvestigated. The present study employs a dynamic approach to investigating the convergent and discriminant validity of the PAS by examining relationships between temporal changes on the PAS and changes on external criterion measures, thereby exploring the extent to which changes on the PAS offer meaningful information regarding changes in psychological functioning. Data were obtained from a public dataset funded by the United States Department of Justice in which male inmates were administered various psychological measures at 5 time points spanning the course of a year. The PAS demonstrated appreciable stability across all testing intervals and the full study period, and temporal changes on the PAS correlated as expected with changes on both conceptually similar and distinct external criterion measures. These findings offer evidence to suggest that temporal variations across testing intervals are not fully explained by error, as conceptualized in classical test-retest analyses, but rather may indicate meaningful changes in functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Assessment ; 27(1): 40-56, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221975

RESUMO

The Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID) is a method in which trained observers continuously code the dominance and warmth of individuals who interact with one another in dyads. This method has significant promise for assessing dynamic interpersonal processes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of individual sex, dyadic familiarity, and situational conflict on patterns of interpersonal warmth, dominance, and complementarity as assessed via CAID. We used six samples with 603 dyads, including two samples of unacquainted mixed-sex undergraduates interacting in a collaborative task, two samples of couples interacting in both collaborative and conflict tasks, and two samples of mothers and children interacting in both collaborative and conflict tasks. Complementarity effects were robust across all samples, and individuals tended to be relatively warm and dominant. Results from multilevel models indicated that women were slightly warmer than men, whereas there were no sex differences in dominance. Unfamiliar dyads and dyads interacting in more collaborative tasks were relatively warmer, more submissive, and more complementary on warmth but less complementary on dominance. These findings speak to the utility of the CAID method for assessing interpersonal dynamics and provide norms for researchers who use the method for different types of samples and applications.

4.
J Pers Assess ; : 1-7, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860360

RESUMO

Much of the research on identifying feigning in psychological assessment has focused on adults with less attention to adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to expand the limited literature on detecting feigning in adolescents using the Personality Assessment Inventory - Adolescent. The study included 114 nonclinical adolescents (ages 15 to 18) recruited from high schools in the Midwest who were randomly assigned to experimental groups: honest nonclinical, uncoached feigning, and coached feigning. 50 randomly selected individuals with depression from the PAI-A clinical standardization sample were included as the honest clinical group. Sample demographics included a mean age of 16.64 years; 51.2% young men, 48.2% young women; 85.4% Caucasian, 6.7% African American, 5.5% Hispanic, and 2.4% Asian. 80% of feigning profiles reported clinical levels of depression. MANOVA results showed strong support for the Rogers Discriminant Function (RDF; d range = 1.85-2.05). The Negative Impression Management (NIM) scale also demonstrated promise (d range = 0.77-1.08), while the smallest effects for detecting feigning were found for the Malingering Index (d range = 0.58-0.70). The negative distortion indices showed good utility in differentiating between groups. Cut-scores and pragmatic implications are presented.

5.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(12): 1069-1084, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis is a cornerstone of clinical practice for mental health care providers, yet traditional diagnostic systems have well-known shortcomings, including inadequate reliability, high comorbidity, and marked within-diagnosis heterogeneity. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a data-driven, hierarchically based alternative to traditional classifications that conceptualizes psychopathology as a set of dimensions organized into increasingly broad, transdiagnostic spectra. Prior work has shown that using a dimensional approach improves reliability and validity, but translating a model like HiTOP into a workable system that is useful for health care providers remains a major challenge. METHOD: The present work outlines the HiTOP model and describes the core principles to guide its integration into clinical practice. RESULTS: Potential advantages and limitations of the HiTOP model for clinical utility are reviewed, including with respect to case conceptualization and treatment planning. A HiTOP approach to practice is illustrated and contrasted with an approach based on traditional nosology. Common barriers to using HiTOP in real-world health care settings and solutions to these barriers are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: HiTOP represents a viable alternative to classifying mental illness that can be integrated into practice today, although research is needed to further establish its utility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/classificação , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Modelos Teóricos , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
6.
Psychol Assess ; 31(10): 1192-1199, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580132

RESUMO

In a recent article, Sleep, Lynam, Widiger, Crowe, and Miller (2019) examined various properties of measures of Criterion A and Criterion B of the Alternative Model for Personality Disorders presented in DSM-5. This commentary discusses the suitability of certain indicators of factor structure, discriminant validity, and incremental validity as evaluative metrics for the assessment of personality disorder, both in general and as applied in that specific study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Psicopatologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade , Sono
7.
Psychol Assess ; 31(10): 1206-1207, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580134

RESUMO

Sleep, Lynam, Widiger, Crowe, and Miller (2019) discuss a number of concerns previously raised with respect to the distinction between impairment and trait in the Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD). In particular, they cite issues of overlap between the 2 as raising concerns about parsimony of representation. In this response, I briefly address both the importance of parsimony and its limitations as a consideration in the classification of personality disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Formação de Conceito , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade
8.
J Clin Psychol ; 75(10): 1838-1849, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study extends upon the investigation of the influence of response format on the convergence between performance-based and self-report assessments of similar mental health constructs, to further examine the role of method variance in poor heteromethod convergence. METHODS: An online sample of 455 participants (57% male; mean age = 35.5 years) completed a multiple-choice adaptation of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)-the Iowa Picture Interpretation Test (IPIT)-and two self-report instruments: the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) representation of the domain traits of the five-factor model. RESULTS: Several significant and meaningful interrelationships emerged between the IPIT and the PAI and IPIP five-factor scales. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that TAT methodology can correlate meaningfully with similar constructs assessed using self-report when comparable response formats are utilized, offering further support for the role of method variance in precluding heteromethod relationships.

10.
Personal Disord ; 10(3): 286-290, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714799

RESUMO

The present study was intended to assess the reliability of clinician judgments, with a particular interest in how such judgments vary by the gender of the case vignette and clinician. A national sample of 123 mental health professionals (57.7% male) provided clinical judgments on 12 case vignettes primarily representing personality pathology; two identical versions of each vignette were prepared, with the only difference being the use of masculine or feminine pronouns identifying the client. Clinical judgments included evaluations of adaptive functioning, long-term prognostic assessments, short-term risk evaluations, and treatment recommendations. Analyses included intraclass correlations between clinicians to assess reliability, as well as an examination of the variance of clinical judgments as a function of the identified gender of the case and the gender of the participating clinician. No significant two-way interactions were found between case gender and clinician gender in predicting the clinical judgments. A significant main effect of case gender in predicting vocational functioning was observed, such that female cases were rated as having better estimated vocational functioning than male cases. In addition, a significant main effect of clinician gender in predicting aggression and violence risk was found, such that ratings by female clinicians were higher than ratings by male clinicians. Results offer little if any evidence to suggest the influence of client or clinician gender on the majority of clinical judgments made in the present study. However, these results bear replication, particularly in light of the two significant main effects that did emerge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Sexismo , Ajustamento Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
11.
J Pers Disord ; : 1-8, 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650000

RESUMO

The authors asked 361 personality disorder experts to rank order their preferences for a categorical, dimensional, or mixed/hybrid approach to personality disorder diagnosis in manuals such as the DSM and ICD. Respondents reported a general preference for the mixed/hybrid approach over a purely dimensional approach, and a clear preference against a categorical model. Although there were some statistically significant differences in the rates across training background, age, and gender, this overall pattern of preferences held across these factors. Preferences were notably similar to those reported by Bernstein et al. (2007) prior to the beginnings of deliberations on DSM-5 that ultimately led to a hybrid model. Results are informative for discussions regarding how to classify personality disorders in diagnostic manuals.

12.
J Pers Disord ; 33(6): 721-S18, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650010

RESUMO

This study examined the interdiagnostician reliability and potential gender bias of the DSM-IV/DSM-5 Section II and DSM-5 Alternative Model definitions of borderline personality disorder. A national sample of 123 mental health professionals provided diagnostic judgments on 12 case vignettes selected to represent a range of personality pathology. Two versions of each case were included, one identified as male and the other as female, but which were otherwise identical. Analyses examined the intraclass correlation between clinicians and also examined rates of diagnostic assignments as a function of case gender. Reliability of diagnosis of borderline personality did not differ across the two diagnostic approaches, and concordance of diagnoses across the two systems was significant. The dimensional components of the DSM-5 Alternative Model demonstrated significantly more diagnostic reliability than the DSM-IV categorical diagnoses. The DSM-5 Alternative Model conceptualization of borderline personality can be diagnosed with comparable or greater reliability than the extant DSM-IV definition.

13.
Assessment ; 26(5): 759-766, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490470

RESUMO

As online data collection services such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) gain popularity, the quality and representativeness of such data sources have gained research attention. To date, the majority of existing studies have compared MTurk workers with undergraduate samples, localized community samples, or other Internet-based samples, and thus, there remains little known about the personality and mental health constructs of MTurk workers relative to a national representative sample. The present study addresses these limitations and broadens the scope of existing research through the use of the Personality Assessment Inventory, a multiscale, self-report questionnaire which provides information regarding data validity and personality and psychopathology features standardized against a national U.S. census-matched normative sample. Results indicate that MTurk workers generally provide high-quality data and are reasonably representative of the general population across most psychological dimensions assessed. However, several distinguishing features of MTurk workers emerged that were consistent with prior findings of such individuals, primarily involving somewhat higher negative affect and lower social engagement.

14.
J Clin Psychol ; 75(1): 202-220, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study presents an examination of the influence of response format on convergence between performance-based and self-report assessments of similar mental health constructs, to determine if such method variance might account for prior findings of lack of relationship. METHODS: An online sample of 455 participants (57% male; average age, 35.5) completed a multiple-choice version of the Rorschach and two self-report instruments, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) representation of the domain traits of the five-factor model (FFM). RESULTS: Several significant interrelationships emerged between the Rorschach Amplified Multiple Choice Test and the PAI and IPIP five-factor scales. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the Rorschach can correlate meaningfully with similar constructs assessed using self-report methodology when comparable response formats are utilized.

15.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; 26(3): 255-267, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29251998

RESUMO

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a diagnosis of particular significance for college students, as when present it can significantly compromise academic achievement. However, because high-stakes decisions may be riding on the outcome of an ADHD evaluation (such as access to educational accommodations or stimulant medication), the diagnosis is vulnerable to exaggeration or feigning of symptoms or impairment. This study evaluates a novel procedure, the Tests of Attentional Distraction (TOAD), which is a computer-based performance validity measure involving a low difficulty continuous performance task that directly and obviously targets attentional function. A group of college student simulators (n = 115) feigning ADHD were compared to 32 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 221 control participants on the TOAD, as well as on symptom validity indicators from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Moderate to large effects differentiating the feigning group from control participants, both ADHD and non-ADHD, were observed for both the TOAD and PAI indicators. Incremental validity analyses indicated that the two approaches to validity assessment contributed independently to the detection of suspect responding.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Simulação de Doença/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Pers Assess ; 101(4): 345-355, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746190

RESUMO

The categorical model of personality disorder classification in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ) is highly and fundamentally problematic. Proposed for DSM-5 and provided within Section III (for Emerging Measures and Models) was the Alternative Model of Personality Disorder (AMPD) classification, consisting of Criterion A (self-interpersonal deficits) and Criterion B (maladaptive personality traits). A proposed alternative to the DSM-5 more generally is an empirically based dimensional organization of psychopathology identified as the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP; Kotov et al., 2017 ). HiTOP currently includes, at the highest level, a general factor of psychopathology. Further down are the five domains of detachment, antagonistic externalizing, disinhibited externalizing, thought disorder, and internalizing (along with a provisional sixth somatoform dimension) that align with Criterion B. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential inclusion and placement of the self-interpersonal deficits of the DSM-5 Section III Criterion A within HiTOP.

17.
World Psychiatry ; 17(3): 282-293, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229571

RESUMO

Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is generally more dimensional than categorical. When the discreteness versus continuity of psychopathology is treated as a research question, as opposed to being decided as a matter of tradition, the evidence clearly supports the hypothesis of continuity. In addition, a related body of literature shows how psychopathology dimensions can be arranged in a hierarchy, ranging from very broad "spectrum level" dimensions, to specific and narrow clusters of symptoms. In this way, a quantitative approach solves the "problem of comorbidity" by explicitly modeling patterns of co-occurrence among signs and symptoms within a detailed and variegated hierarchy of dimensional concepts with direct clinical utility. Indeed, extensive evidence pertaining to the dimensional and hierarchical structure of psychopathology has led to the formation of the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) Consortium. This is a group of 70 investigators working together to study empirical classification of psychopathology. In this paper, we describe the aims and current foci of the HiTOP Consortium. These aims pertain to continued research on the empirical organization of psychopathology; the connection between personality and psychopathology; the utility of empirically based psychopathology constructs in both research and the clinic; and the development of novel and comprehensive models and corresponding assessment instruments for psychopathology constructs derived from an empirical approach.

18.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 127(6): 590-601, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952598

RESUMO

Borderline personality disorder (PD) has historically been cast as an unabating condition. Longitudinal data, however, support a more variable time course marked by remission and relapse. In the present study, we tested the possibility that borderline PD has both stable (i.e., consistently present across time and situation, as modern diagnostic systems stipulate) and dynamic (i.e., episodic and situational) elements. Participants were 668 patients from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study who were administered semistructured diagnostic interviews 5 times over a decade. Trait-state-occasion modeling dissected borderline pathology into time-invariant (i.e., trait) and time-varying (i.e., state) components. Contradicting traditional views of PD intransigence, less than half of borderline PD variability (approximately 45%) was time-invariant (i.e., perfectly stable) over the study timeframe. Furthermore, we found that the time-invariant component of borderline pathology, which we termed borderline proneness, was very closely related (r = .81) to a previously validated Five Factor Model trait composite of borderline features. Moreover, the trait versus state components showed a clear pattern of discriminant validity in relation to several putative causal agents for borderline PD (i.e., environmental pathogens, temperament dimensions). We conclude that borderline pathology contains a stable core and sizable situational components, and that both elements relate systematically to normative personality dimensions and known risk factors. These findings have key implications for etiological research, prognosis, and treatment for borderline PD. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Modelos Psicológicos , Personalidade , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Personal Disord ; 9(6): 564-573, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939046

RESUMO

This study set out to create measures of the five personality disorder trait domains outlined in Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) from the Personality Assessment Inventory items (Morey, 2007). Rasch rating scale model analyses and classical test theory analyses were applied to existing data sets (N = 3,877; community, clinical, offender, college) to identify relevant items. Five scales were created that had acceptable unidimensionality and generally conformed to Rasch model expectations. The ability of the items to cover the underlying construct and their differential item function by sex were acceptable, though a few of the proposed scales had weaknesses in these areas. Internal consistency was acceptable for all scales and the factor structure was generally consistent with expectations, but some scales had concerning cross-loadings. Preliminary analyses demonstrated validity of the scales in relation to history of mental health treatment/current symptoms, substance abuse, and, for one scale, violent rearrests. There were small-to-moderate associations with noncorresponding traits, suggesting a degree of saturation with general personality impairment. The relevance of the proposed scales for the assessment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition personality disorder is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Determinação da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Inventário de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychol Assess ; 30(10): 1292-1299, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781665

RESUMO

As the research literature on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) has expanded, several supplemental indicators have been introduced to aid in the interpretation of PAI results for the purpose of addressing particular assessment questions, such as protocol validity or treatment-related considerations. However, many of these indicators have remained largely unexamined beyond the initial validation studies in which they were derived. The purpose of the present study was to provide normative data for these new supplemental indicators, as well as to cross-validate these indicators in other existing PAI data sets and provide information about incremental validity beyond existing PAI scales and indices. Comparison effect sizes indicated that nearly all of the new supplemental indicators discriminated as intended, with the majority of indicators also contributing significantly beyond existing PAI indicators. These results suggest that some of these supplemental indicators may prove to be useful additions to the standard scoring of the PAI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Inventário de Personalidade , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Simulação de Doença/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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