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J Am Chem Soc ; 134(30): 12675-84, 2012 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22725838


This work illustrates a simple approach for optimizing long-lived near-infrared lanthanide-centered luminescence using trivalent chromium chromophores as sensitizers. Reactions of the segmental ligand L2 with stoichiometric amounts of M(CF(3)SO(3))(2) (M = Cr, Zn) and Ln(CF(3)SO(3))(3) (Ln = Nd, Er, Yb) under aerobic conditions quantitatively yield the D(3)-symmetrical trinuclear [MLnM(L2)(3)](CF(3)SO(3))(n) complexes (M = Zn, n = 7; M = Cr, n = 9), in which the central lanthanide activator is sandwiched between the two transition metal cations. Visible or NIR irradiation of the peripheral Cr(III) chromophores in [CrLnCr(L2)(3)](9+) induces rate-limiting intramolecular intermetallic Cr→Ln energy transfer processes (Ln = Nd, Er, Yb), which eventually produces lanthanide-centered near-infrared (NIR) or IR emission with apparent lifetimes within the millisecond range. As compared to the parent dinuclear complexes [CrLn(L1)(3)](6+), the connection of a second strong-field [CrN(6)] sensitizer in [CrLnCr(L2)(3)](9+) significantly enhances the emission intensity without perturbing the kinetic regime. This work opens novel exciting photophysical perspectives via the buildup of non-negligible population densities for the long-lived doubly excited state [Cr*LnCr*(L2)(3)](9+) under reasonable pumping powers.

Cromo/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos/química , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Transferência de Energia , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos/síntese química , Luz , Luminescência , Substâncias Luminescentes/síntese química , Modelos Moleculares , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
Chemistry ; 17(24): 6753-64, 2011 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21547967


Self-assembly processes between a tripodal ligand and Ln(III) cations have been investigated by means of supramolecular analytical methods. At an equimolar ratio of components, tetranuclear tetrahedral complexes are readily formed in acetonitrile. The structural analysis of the crystallographic data shows a helical wrapping of binding strands around metallic cations. The properties of this series of highly charged 3D compounds were examined by using NMR spectroscopy and optical methods in solution and in the solid state. In the presence of excess metal, a new trinuclear complex was identified. The X-ray crystal structure elucidated the coordination of metallic cations with two ligands of different conformations. By varying the metal/ligand ratio, a global speciation of this supramolecular system has been evidenced with different spectroscopic methods. In addition, these rather complicated equilibria were successfully characterised with the thermodynamic stability constants. A rational analysis of the self-assembly processes was attempted by using the thermodynamic free energy model and the impact of the ligand structure on the effective concentration is discussed.

Chemistry ; 13(6): 1674-91, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17225230


The opposite orientation of the ester spacers in the rodlike ligands L 4C12 (benzimidazole-OOC-phenyl) and L 5C12 (benzimidazole-COO-phenyl) drastically changes the electronic structure of the aromatic systems, without affecting their meridional tricoordination to trivalent lanthanides, Ln(III), and their thermotropic liquid crystalline (i.e., mesomorphic) behaviors. However, the rich mesomorphism exhibited by the complexes [Ln(L 4C12)(NO3)3] (Ln=La-Lu) vanishes in [Ln(L 5C12)(NO3)3], despite superimposable molecular structures and comparable photophysical properties. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependant DFT calculations performed in the gas phase show that the inversion of the ester spacers has considerable effects on the electronic structure and polarization of the aromatic groups along the strands, which control residual intermolecular interactions responsible for the formation of thermotropic liquid-crystalline phases. As a rule of thumb, an alternation of electron-poor and electron-rich aromatic rings favors intermolecular interactions between the rigid cores and consequently mesomorphism, a situation encountered for L 4C12, L 5C12, [Ln(L 4C12)(NO3)3], but not for [Ln(L 5C12)(NO3)3]. The intercalation of an additional electron-rich diphenol ring on going from [Ln(L 5C12)(NO3)3] to [Ln(L 6C12)(NO3)3] restores mesomorphism despite an unfavorable orientation of the ester spacers, in agreement with our simple predictive model.

Dalton Trans ; (5): 723-33, 2004 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15252492


The unsymmetrical tridentate benzimidazole-pyridine-carboxamide units in ligands L1-L4 react with trivalent lanthanides, Ln(III), to give the nine-co-ordinate triple-helical complexes [Ln(Li)3]3+ (i = 1-4) existing as mixtures of C3-symmetrical facial and C1-symmetrical meridional isomers. Although the beta13 formation constants are 3-4 orders of magnitude smaller for these complexes than those found for the D3-symmetrical analogues [Ln(Li)3]3+ (i = 5-6) with symmetrical ligands, their formation at the millimolar scale is quantitative and the emission quantum yield of [Eu(L2)3]3+ is significantly larger. The fac-[Ln(Li)3]3+ <--> mer-[Ln(Li)3]3+ (i = 1-4) isomerisation process in acetonitrile is slow enough for Ln = Lu(III) to be quantified by 1H NMR below room temperature. The separation of enthalpic and entropic contributions shows that the distribution of the facial and meridional isomers can be tuned by the judicious peripheral substitution of the ligands affecting the interstrand interactions. Molecular mechanics (MM) calculations suggest that one supplementary interstrand pi-stacking interaction stabilises the meridional isomers, while the facial isomers benefit from more favourable electrostatic contributions. As a result of the mixture of facial and meridional isomers in solution, we were unable to obtain single crystals of 1:3 complexes, but the X-ray crystal structures of their nine-co-ordinate precursors [Eu(L1)2(CF3SO3)2(H2O)](CF3SO3)(C3H5N)2(H2O) (6, C45H54EuF9N10O13S3, monoclinic, P2(1)/c, Z = 4) and [Eu(L4)2(CF3SO3)2(H2O)](CF3SO3)(C4H4O)(1.5) (7, C51H66EuF9N8O(15.5)S3, triclinic, P1, Z = 2) provide crucial structural information on the binding mode of the unsymmetrical tridentate ligands.

Inorg Chem ; 42(15): 4680-95, 2003 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12870960


The hydrolysis of terminal (t)butyl-ester groups provides the novel nonadentate podand tris[2-[N-methylcarbamoyl-(6-carboxypyridine-2)-ethyl]amine] (L13) which exists as a mixture of slowly interconverting conformers in solution. At pH = 8.0 in water, its deprotonated form [L13 - 3H](3-) reacts with Ln(ClO(4))(3) to give the poorly soluble and stable podates [Ln(L13 - 3H)] (log(beta(110)) = 6.7-7.0, Ln = La-Lu). The isolated complexes [Ln(L13 - 3H)](H(2)O)(7) (Ln = Eu, 8; Tb, 9; Lu, 10) are isostructural, and their crystal structures show Ln(III) to be nine-coordinate in a pseudotricapped trigonal prismatic site defined by the donor atoms of the three helically wrapped tridentate binding units of L13. The Ln-O(carboxamide) bonds are only marginally longer than the Ln-O(carboxylate) bonds in [Ln(L13 - 3H)], thus producing a regular triple helix around Ln(III) which reverses its screw direction within the covalent Me-TREN tripod. High-resolution emission spectroscopy demonstrates that (i) the replacement of terminal carboxamides with carboxylates induces only minor electronic changes for the metallic site, (ii) the solid-state structure is maintained in water, and (iii) the metal in the podate is efficiently protected from interactions with solvent molecules. The absolute quantum yields obtained for [Eu(L13 - 3H)] (Phi(Eu)(tot)= 1.8 x 10(-3)) and [Tb(L13 - 3H)] (Phi(Eu)(tot)= 8.9 x 10(-3)) in water remain modest and strongly contrast with that obtained for the lanthanide luminescence step (Phi(Eu) = 0.28). Detailed photophysical studies assign this discrepancy to the small energy gap between the ligand-centered singlet ((1)pi pi*) and triplet ((3)pi pi*) states which limits the efficiency of the intersystem crossing process. Theoretical TDDFT calculations suggest that the connection of a carboxylate group to the central pyridine ring prevents the sizable stabilization of the triplet state required for an efficient sensitization process. The thermodynamic and electronic origins of the advantages (stability, lanthanide quantum yield) and drawbacks (solubility, sensitization) brought by the "carboxylate effect" in lanthanide complexes are evaluated for programming predetermined properties in functional devices.

Inorg Chem ; 41(6): 1436-45, 2002 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11896712


Variable-temperature (1)H and (13)C NMR measurements of the D(3)-symmetrical triple-helical complexes [Ln(L1-2H)(3)](3)(-) (L1 = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid; Ln = La-Lu) show evidence of dynamic intermolecular ligand-exchange processes whose activation energies depend on the size of the metal ion. At 298 K, the use of diastereotopic probes in [Ln(L3-2H)(3)](3)(-) (L3 = 4-ethyl-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) shows that fast intramolecular P <==> M interconversion between the helical enantiomers occurs on the NMR time scale. Detailed analyses of the paramagnetic NMR hyperfine shifts according to crystal-field independent techniques demonstrate the existence of two different helical structures, one for large lanthanides (Ln = La-Eu) and one for small lanthanides (Ln = Tb-Lu), in complete contrast with the isostructurality proposed 25 years ago. A careful reconsideration of the original crystal-field-dependent analysis shows that an abrupt variation of the axial crystal-field parameter A(0)2 parallels the structural change leading to some accidental compensation effects that prevent the detection of structural variations according to the classical one-nucleus method. Crystal structures in the solid state and density functional theory calculations in the gas phase provide structural models that rationalize the paramagnetic NMR data. A regular triple-helical structure is found for small lanthanides (Ln = Tb-Lu) in which the terdentate chelating ligands are rigidly tricoordinated to the metals. A flexible and distorted structure is evidenced for Ln = La-Eu in which the central pyridine rings interact poorly with the metal ion. The origin of the simultaneous variation of structural parameters and crystal-field and hyperfine constants near the middle of the lanthanide series is discussed together with the use of crystal-field-independent techniques for the interpretation of paramagnetic NMR spectra in axial lanthanide complexes.