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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639547

RESUMO

The relationship between chemical concentrations in indoor air and the human sense of comfort and relaxation have been reported. We investigated the effect of the sum of volatile organic compounds (ΣVOCs; sum of 79 VOCs) on the level of relaxation in two laboratory houses with almost identical interior and exterior appearances. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was monitored to evaluate the degree of personal relaxation objectively. The experiments were conducted in laboratory houses (LH) A and B with lower and higher levels of ΣVOCs, respectively. A total of 168 healthy volunteers participated, who each performed the task for 20 min, followed by a 10-min break, and EEG was measured during the break. Simultaneously as subjective evaluations, the participants were asked to fill a questionnaire regarding the intensity of odor and preference for the air quality in each LH. The subjective evaluation showed a significant association between ΣVOCs and participants' relaxation (OR: 2.86, 95%CI: 1.24-6.61), and the objective evaluation indicated that the participants were more relaxed in the LH with lower levels of ΣVOCs than that with higher levels (OR: 3.03, 95%CI: 1.23-7.50). Therefore, the reduction of ΣVOCs and odors in indoor air would have an effect, which is the promotion of relaxation.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18949, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556740

RESUMO

Maternal tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy impairs fetal body size, including head circumference (HC) at birth; however, the mechanism still remains unclear. This analysis using a large prospective cohort study evaluated the impact of maternal tobacco exposure on their offspring's HC and the relationship with placental weight ratio (PWR) and placental abnormalities. Parents-children pairs (n = 84,856) were included from the 104,065 records of the Japan Environmental and Children's Study. Maternal perinatal clinical and social information by self-administered questionnaires, offspring's body size, and placental information were collected. Data were analyzed with binominal logistic regression analysis and path analysis. Logistic regression showed significantly elevated adjusted odds ratio (aOR) (1.653, 95% CI 1.387-1.969) for the impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy on their offspring's smaller HC at birth. Maternal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the non-smoking group did not increase aOR for the smaller HC. Path analysis showed that maternal smoking during pregnancy decreased the offspring's HC directly, but not indirectly via PWR or placental abnormalities. The quitting smoking during pregnancy group did not increase aOR for the smaller HC than the non-smoking group, suggesting that quitting smoking may reduce their offspring's neurological impairment even after pregnancy.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416000

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Maternal cholesterol is important for fetal development. Whether maternal serum total cholesterol (maternal TC) levels in mid-pregnancy are associated with small- (SGA) or large- (LGA) for-gestational-age independent of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association between maternal TC in mid-pregnancy and SGA or LGA. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Japan Environment and Children's Study is a nationwide prospective birth cohort study in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 37,449 non-diabetic, non-hypertensive mothers with singleton birth at term without congenital abnormalities. OUTCOME MEASURES: Birth weight for the gestational age <10 percentile and ≥90 percentile were respectively defined as SGA and LGA by the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts. RESULTS: The mean gestational age at blood sampling was 22.7±4.0 weeks. After adjustment for maternal age, sex of child, parity, weight gain during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood glucose levels, household income, and Study Areas, one standard deviation decrement of maternal TC was linearly associated with SGA [odds ratio (OR): 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.20: 1.15-1.25]. In contrast, one standard deviation increment of maternal TC was linearly associated with LGA [OR: 95% CI = 1.13: 1.09-1.16]. Associations did not differ according to pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (p for interaction>0.20). CONCLUSION: Maternal TC levels in mid-pregnancy were associated with SGA or LGA in Japanese. Maternal TC in mid-pregnancy may help to predict SGA and LGA. Favorable maternal lipid profiles for fetal development must be explored.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444997

RESUMO

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) is a pro-allergic factor: high CCL17 levels in cord blood (CB) precede later allergic predisposition. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) treatment during pregnancy has been shown to protect mouse pups against allergic diseases. The maternal microbial metabolome during pregnancy may affect fetal allergic immune responses. We therefore examined the associations between CB CCL17 and gut SCFA levels in healthy pregnant Japanese women. CB CCL17 serum levels at birth, and maternal non-specific IgE levels in maternal sera at 32 weeks of gestation were measured. Maternal stool samples were collected at 12 (n = 59) and 32 (n = 58) weeks of gestation for gut microbiota analysis, based on barcoded 16S rRNA sequencing and metabolite levels. The CB CCL17 levels correlated negatively with butyrate concentrations and positively with isobutyrate at 12 weeks; CB CCL17 correlated positively with valerate and lactate at 32 weeks. Similarly, butyrate levels correlated negatively with maternal non-specific IgE levels, whereas the lactate concentration correlated positively with IgE levels. At 32 weeks, the Shannon diversity index (SDI) of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria correlated negatively with CB CCL17 levels, while those of the total microbiota correlated positively with the CB CCL17 levels. These metabolites may alter fetal immune responses. This study provides the first link between maternal metabolites during pregnancy and the risk of allergic diseases in human offspring.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148643, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198080

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of problems associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in children, and there has been a growing interest in the relationship between environmental chemicals and children's health. The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between occupational or environmental prenatal maternal exposure to volatile organic compounds and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children using Japanese translations of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (J-ASQ-3). An increase in the risk of neurodevelopmental delay in 12-month-old children associated with maternal exposure to formalin or formaldehyde was identified in terms of problem-solving (odds ratio (OR): 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-3.12) and personal-social skills (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.46-7.55). It is not clear whether or not this tendency is reversible, and whether it is observed past 12 months of age. Further research and a preventive approach are needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
6.
J Hum Genet ; 66(7): 671-679, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495570

RESUMO

To conduct a long-term birth cohort study that includes genetic analysis, it is crucial to understand the attitudes of participants to genetic analysis and then take appropriate approaches for addressing their ambiguous and negative attitudes. This study aimed to explore participants' attitudes toward genetic analysis and associated background factors among mothers who were enrolled in a large Japanese birth cohort. A questionnaire was sent to participants' households, and the responses of 1762 mothers (34.0%) were used for the study. The majority of mothers recognized genetic analysis for themselves and their children and sharing of genetic data as beneficial. A low knowledge level of genomic terminology was associated with ambiguous attitudes toward genetic analysis and data sharing. Education level was positively associated with the recognition of the benefits of genetic analysis. Concern about handling genetic information was associated with the unacceptability of data sharing. Trust was associated with the approval of genetic analysis. Most mothers preferred that genetic analysis results be returned. These findings suggest the need for multiple efforts to maximize participants' acceptance of genetic analysis, such as utilizing an educational approach to encourage familiarity with genetics/genomics, optimizing explanations for different educational levels, and explicitly disclosing the handling policy for genetic information.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Testes Genéticos/ética , Genética Médica/ética , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético/ética , Genômica/ética , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 30(2): 359-364, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ulnar collateral ligament complex, particularly the anterior oblique ligament (AOL), is mainly a static stabilizer controlling valgus. Various studies have been conducted on the kinematics of elbow joints after ligament cutting; however, no biomechanical studies have measured the tension applied to the ligament. Finite element modeling (FEM) is a very useful tool for biomechanical evaluation of the elbow. However, an accurate FEM of elbow joints cannot be developed without information on the potential tension of ligaments applied during the flexion and extension of elbow joints. We believe that FEM of the elbow joint could be obtained by measuring the material properties and potential tension of the ligament applied during the flexion and extension of the elbow joint. This study aimed to measure the potential tension and material properties of the ligament during the flexion and extension of the elbow, by identifying the relation between ligament length and tension using mechanical testing. METHODS: We included 10 elbows harvested from 7 fresh-frozen cadavers. The average age of the cadavers was 83.7 ± 5.65 years, and the samples included 8 elbows from 6 male cadavers and 2 elbows from 1 female cadaver. We measured the ligament length at each elbow angle by changing the elbow joint from 0° to 120° in 15° intervals. Thereafter, we extracted the AOL and divided into an anterior band (AB) and a posterior band (PB) and performed a mechanical test to calculate ligament stress. RESULTS: The ligament length of the AB gradually decreased as the flexion angle increased. Conversely, the ligament length of the PB gradually increased as the flexion angle increased. AB and PB lengths were approximately the same between 60° and 75°. The average ligament tension and stress of the AB gradually increased with elbow extension. In contrast, the average ligament tension and stress of the PB gradually increased with elbow flexion. The tension and stress of the AB and PB were balanced around the elbow joint at 60°. CONCLUSION: The AB was tenser on elbow extension, and the PB was tenser following elbow flexion. Also, the angle at which the AOL stress was equalized was 60°, suggesting that ∼60° is the angle at which the AOL is unlikely to be damaged.


Assuntos
Ligamento Colateral Ulnar , Ligamentos Colaterais , Articulação do Cotovelo , Instabilidade Articular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
8.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 12(1): 124-131, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241331

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to mercury in utero causes abnormal foetal growth and adverse outcomes. DNA methylation is currently considered a possible mechanism through which this occurs. However, few studies have investigated the association between prenatal exposure to mercury and DNA methylation in detail. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between prenatal exposure to total mercury (Hg) and DNA methylation and its associations with sex-specific characteristics in male and female offspring. In a birth cohort study known as the Chiba study of Mother and Child Health, the DNA methylation status in cord tissue and Hg concentrations in cord serum were examined. A total of 67 participants (27 males and 40 females) were analysed based on Spearman's correlations, adjusted by a false discovery rate of the sex of each offspring. Only one methylated locus was positively correlated with Hg concentrations in cord serum in male offspring, but not in female offspring, and was annotated to the haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase domain-containing protein 1 (HDHD1) gene on chromosome X. This locus was located in the intron of the HDHD1 gene body and is a binding site for the zinc finger protein CCCTC-binding factor. One of the other loci, located in HDHD1, was highly methylated in the group with higher mercury concentrations, and this locus was in the gene body of HDHD1. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to Hg might affect the epigenetic status of male foetuses.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141635, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882497

RESUMO

It is well known that the indoor environment, particularly indoor air quality (IAQ), has significant effects on building-related symptoms (BRSs) in humans, such as irritation of mucosal membranes, headaches, and allergies, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. In 2017, Chiba University launched the "Chemiless Town Project Phase 3" to investigate the relationship between IAQ and human health. Two laboratory houses (LHs) were built on a university campus in which the interiors and exteriors were similar, but the levels of indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were different. A total of 141 participants evaluated IAQ using their sensory perception. There was a significant relationship between differences in VOC levels and BRSs occurrence (OR: 6.89, 95% CI: 1.40-33.98). It was suggested that people with a medical history of allergies (OR: 5.73, 95% CI: 1.12-29.32) and those with a high sensitivity to chemicals (OR: 8.82, 95% CI: 1.16-67.16) tended to experience BRSs. Thus, when buildings are constructed, people with a history of allergies or with a sensitivity to chemicals may be at high risk to BRSs, and it is important to pay attention to IAQ to prevent BRSs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Humanos , Laboratórios , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
10.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492914

RESUMO

"Total" folate in blood has usually been measured to evaluate the folate status of pregnant women. However, folate is composed of many metabolites. The main substrate is 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), with folic acid (FA) representing a very small component as an unmetabolized species in blood. We longitudinally evaluated 5-MTHF, FA and total homocysteine in maternal and cord blood from Japanese pregnant women. Subjects were 146 pregnant women who participated in the Chiba study of Mother and Child Health (C-MACH) prospective cohort study. Sera were obtained in early and late pregnancy, at delivery, and from cord blood. Species levels were measured by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. Both 5-MTHF and FA levels were lower than reported levels from pregnant women in populations from countries with mandatory FA fortification. As gestational age progressed, serum 5-MTHF levels decreased, whereas serum FA levels were slightly reduced only at delivery compared to early pregnancy. A significant negative association between serum 5-MTHF and total homocysteine was shown at all examined times, but no associations with FA were evident. At delivery, cord 5-MTHF was significantly higher than maternal levels, while FA again showed no significant correlation. These results suggest that 5-MTHF is actively transported to the fetus through placental transporters and may reflect folate status during pregnancy as a physiologically important species.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Troca Materno-Fetal , Gestantes , Tetra-Hidrofolatos/sangue , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Japão , Estudos Longitudinais , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pediatr Int ; 62(9): 1086-1093, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are growing concerns about the increasing rate of caesarean section (CS) worldwide. Various strategies have been implemented to reduce the proportion of CS to a reasonable level. Most research on medical indications for CS focuses on nationwide evaluations. Comparative research between different countries is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the rate and indications for CS between Japan and Germany in 2012 and 2013. METHODS: Comparison of the overall rate and medical indications for CS in two cohort studies from Germany and Japan. We used data from the German Perinatal Survey and the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). RESULTS: We analyzed data of 1 335 150 participants from the German perinatal survey and of 62 533 participants from JECS and found significant differences between the two countries in CS rate (30.6% vs 20.6%) and main medical indications: cephalopelvic disproportion (3.2% vs 1.3%; OR: 2.4 [95% CI: 2.2-2.6]), fetal distress (7.3% vs 2.3%; OR: 3.4 [95%-CI: 3.2-3.6]), and past uterine surgery/repeat CS (8.4% vs 8.8%; OR: 0.9 [95%-CI: 0.9-1]). CONCLUSION: There are differences in the rate and medical indications for CS between Germany and Japan at the population level. Fetal distress was identified as a medical indication for CS more often Germany than in Japan. Considering the substantial diagnostic uncertainty of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) as the major indicator for fetal distress, it would seem to be reasonable to rethink CS decision algorithms.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Desproporção Cefalopélvica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Sofrimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188069

RESUMO

Herein, the concentrations of formic acid, acetic acid, and ammonia in samples of indoor air for 47 new houses were measured two weeks after completion. The houses were fabricated with light-gauge steel structures. The measurements were performed in living rooms and bedrooms without furniture and outdoors. Air samples were analyzed using ion chromatography. The mean values were 28 (living room), 30 (bedroom), and 20 µg m-3 (outdoor air) for formic acid; 166 (living room), 151 (bedroom), and 51 µg m-3 (outdoor air) for acetic acid; and 73 (living room), 76 (bedroom), and 21 µg m-3 (outdoor air) for ammonia. The total values of the three substances accounted for 39.4-40.7% of the sum of chemical compound values. The analyzed compounds were indicated by two principal components (PC), PC1 (30.1%) and PC2 (9%), with 39.1% total variance. Formic acid, acetic acid, and ammonia were positively aligned with PC1 and negatively aligned with PC2. Factors such as room temperature, aldehydes, and phthalates were positively aligned with PC1 and negatively aligned with PC2. Furthermore, concentrations of formic acid, acetic acid, and ammonia were significantly and positively correlated with room temperature (p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Amônia , Ácido Acético , Monitoramento Ambiental , Formiatos , Habitação
13.
J Diabetes Investig ; 11(3): 699-706, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721478

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Gut microbiota have various effects on human health. Some previous reports have shown that gut microbiota change during pregnancy and affect metabolism, but others have shown that microbiota do not change. Here, we examined the gut microbiota and glycoalbumin levels of 45 healthy Japanese women during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses of maternal stool samples and compared the gut microbiota composition of samples from women in early and late pregnancy. We also examined the association between gut microbiota and maternal characteristics, including glycoalbumin. RESULTS: Microbiota composition in early and late pregnancy did not differ, according to principal coordinate analysis of weighted and unweighted UniFrac distances. Shannon indices were not different between early and late pregnancy. The proportion of one phylum, TM7, significantly decreased in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy, but the proportions of other major phyla did not change. The Shannon index of late pregnancy was negatively associated with pregestational body mass index and positively correlated with glycoalbumin level, with adjustment of covariates. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that Japanese women did not show obvious differences in gut microbiota during pregnancy, except for TM7, and that the diversity of gut microbiota might affect maternal metabolism. As this study had limited statistical power, further large-scale studies are required.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Glicemia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez
15.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 77, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the aim to prevent sick building syndrome and worsening of allergic symptoms, primarily resulting from the indoor environment, the relationships among people's residential environment in recent years, their lifestyle habits, their awareness, and their symptoms were investigated using an online survey. METHODS: In the survey, respondents experiencing symptoms specific to sick building syndrome, although they were not diagnosed with sick building syndrome, were categorized in the pre-sick building syndrome group. The relationships among individual characteristics, residential environment, and individual awareness were analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that the prevalence of pre-sick building syndrome was high among young (aged 20-29 years) population of both sexes. In addition, "condensation," "moisture," "musty odors" in the house, and the "use of deodorant and fragrance" were all significantly associated with pre-sick building syndrome. Conversely, there was no significant association with recently built "wooden" houses that are highly airtight and have thermal insulation. CONCLUSIONS: Efficient "ventilation" plans and "ventilation" improvement and air conditioning systems to prevent mold and condensation in rooms are necessary to maintain a good, indoor environment that is beneficial for health. Efforts should also be made to encourage individuals to regularly clean and effectively ventilate their homes.


Assuntos
Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Edifício Doente/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Conscientização , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome do Edifício Doente/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
World Allergy Organ J ; 12(10): 100065, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719945

RESUMO

Background: The prenatal maternal microbiome, including the gut microbiota, has been suggested to influence the incidence of allergies in offspring. Moreover, epidermal barrier dysfunction in early infancy has been attributed to the development of subsequent allergies. We hypothesized that the prenatal microbiome may affect the gut microbiota, acting as an initial trigger to alter immune development in the foetus. The maternal microbial composition may be linked to the prevalence of dermatitis in early infancy (DEI) of the offspring, leading to subsequent allergic symptoms. Methods: This study was conducted as part of the Chiba Study of Mother and Child Health (C-MACH) birth cohort that was initiated in 2013; 434 healthy pregnant women at < 13 weeks of gestation were recruited. DEI was assessed for up to 4 months after birth, and allergic symptoms were determined in 10-month-old infants using questionnaires. Other information related to the maternal microbiome was obtained from questionnaires filled out during pregnancy. Stool samples were collected from pregnant women at 12 (n = 59) and 32 weeks (n = 58) of gestation, which were used for gut microbiota analysis using barcoded 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Symptoms of allergy, especially of inherited allergies, show a higher prevalence at 10 months after birth in the DEI group. DEI occurrence was negatively correlated with family size and cat ownership. The diversity of Proteobacteria at 12 weeks of gestation and the relative abundance of Actinobacteria at 32 weeks of gestation in maternal feces were lower at both time points of gestation in the DEI group. In addition, the diversity of Proteobacteria in prenatal feces was negatively correlated with family size at 12 weeks, and with dog ownership at both gestational time points. Conclusions: The composition of the maternal microbiome may influence the risk of allergies in offspring, even before birth. Furthermore, the diversity of Proteobacteria and the relative abundance of Actinobacteria in maternal feces were negatively associated with DEI, which may be associated with the risk of allergy development in infancy. This early trigger may be a good predictor of allergy development during infancy and childhood.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661790

RESUMO

Recently, people have become increasingly aware of potential health issues related to indoor environments. In this study, we measure the concentrations of various volatile organic compounds, carbonyl compounds, and semi-volatile organic compounds, as well as the ventilation rates, in 49 new houses with light-gauge steel structures one week after completion. The proper indoor air quality of new residential environments can be ensured by characterizing people's exposure to certain chemicals and assessing future risks. Our results show that the concentrations of the measured compounds were lower than the guideline values set by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan, and would continue to decrease. However, we observed that unregulated compounds, assumed to be substitutes for regulated solvents, contributed substantially to the total volatile organic compounds. To reduce indoor chemical exposure risks, the concentrations of these unregulated compounds should also be minimized. In addition, their sources need to be identified, and manufacture and use must be monitored. We believe it is important to select low-emission building materials for reducing residents' exposure to indoor chemicals.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Indústria da Construção , Síndrome do Edifício Doente , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Materiais de Construção/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Ventilação
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382687

RESUMO

Maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) results in abnormal fetal development, possibly because of epigenetic alterations. However, the association between PCB levels in cord serum with fetal DNA methylation status in cord tissue is unclear. This study aims to identify alterations in DNA methylation in cord tissue potentially associated with PCB levels in cord serum from a birth cohort in Chiba, Japan (male neonates = 32, female neonates = 43). Methylation array analysis identified five sites for female neonates (cg09878117, cg06154002, cg06289566, cg12838902, cg01083397) and one site for male neonates (cg13368805) that demonstrated a change in the methylation degree. This result was validated by pyrosequencing analysis, showing that cg06154002 (tudor domain containing 9: TDRD9) in cord tissue from female neonates is significantly correlated with total PCB levels in cord serum. These results indicate that exposure to PCBs may alter TDRD9 methylation levels, although this hypothesis requires further validation using data obtained from female neonates. However, since the present cohort is small, further studies with larger cohorts are required to obtain more data on the effects of PCB exposure and to identify corresponding biomarkers.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Exposição Materna , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Cordão Umbilical/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Helicases/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino
19.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 10(6): 659-666, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106719

RESUMO

Maternal gut microbiota is thought to be one of the important factors in the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) concept, but the effects of maternal gut microbiota on foetal growth are not well known. In this study, the association between maternal gut microbiota and foetal growth was investigated. Maternal and newborn information, as well as stool samples at the third trimester of pregnancy, were obtained from 51 mother-newborn pairs from the Chiba study of Mother and Child Health (C-MACH). Gut microbiota was analysed by 16S rRNA sequencing of stool samples and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in stool were analysed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After adjustment for covariates, it was found that maternal gut microbial diversity had a positive association with head circumference in newborn males (Chao 1: adjusted r = 0.515, p = 0.029). Genus Parabacteroides and genus Eggerthella showed negative associations with newborn head circumference and weight, respectively in males (genus Parabacteroides: adjusted r = -0.598, p = 0.009, genus Eggerthella: adjusted r = -0.481, p = 0.043). On the other hand, genus Streptococcus showed a negative association with newborn height in females (adjusted r = -0.413, p = 0.040). In addition, hexanoate was involved in the association between maternal gut microbiota and newborn anthropometrics in the univariate analysis, but not in the multivariate analysis. These data suggest that maternal gut microbiota has sex-specific effects on foetal growth. Maternal gut microbiota is an important factor for optimal intrauterine growth.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Peso Corporal , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mães , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
20.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0214307, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063509

RESUMO

The DOHaD (developmental origins of health and disease) hypothesis claims that fetal malnutrition or exposure to environmental pollutants may affect their lifelong health. Epigenetic changes may play significant roles in DOHaD; however, access to human fetuses for research has ethical and technical hurdles. Umbilical cord blood (CB) has been commonly used as an epigenetic surrogate of fetuses, but it does not provide direct evidence of fetal exposure to pollutants. Here, we propose umbilical cord tissue (UC), which accumulates substances delivered to fetuses during gestation, as an alternative surrogate for epigenetic studies on fetuses. To explore the feasibility to examine UC epigenome by deep sequencing, we determined CpG methylation profiles of human postnatal UC by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. Principal component analysis clearly separated the DNA methylomes of UC and CB pairs isolated from the same newborn (n = 10). Although all UC chromosomes were modestly hypomethylated compared to CB chromosomes, GO analysis revealed strong enrichment of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) at promoter-associated CpG islands in the HOX gene clusters and other genes encoding transcription factors involved in determination of the body pattern. DNA methylomes of UC autosomes were largely comparable between males and females. Deficiency of folate during pregnancy has been suggested to affect fetal DNA methylation to cause congenital anomalies. Whereas DNA methylome of UC was not significantly affected by early-gestational (12 weeks) low levels of maternal plasma folate (< 8 ng/ml, n = 10) compared to controls (>19 ng/mL, n = 10), two specific loci of LTR12C endogenous retroviruses in chromosome 12 were significantly hypermethylated in the low-folate group. Our study suggests that UC is useful as an alternative surrogate for studying environmental effects on DNA methylation in human fetuses, compensating CB by providing additional information about epigenetic regulation of genes involved in developmental body patterning and endogenous retroviruses.


Assuntos
Padronização Corporal/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Sangue Fetal , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/genética , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Idade Gestacional , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
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