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Waste Manag Res ; 29(6): 602-11, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21447612


Nitrification of mature sanitary landfill leachate with high-strength of N-NH(4) + (1080-2350 mg L(-1)) was performed in a 10 L continuous nitrification activated sludge reactor. The nitrification system was acclimatized with synthetic leachate during feed batch operation to avoid substrate inhibition before being fed with actual mature leachate. Successful nitrification was achieved with an approximately complete ammonium removal (99%) and 96% of N-NH(4) + conversion to N-NO(-) (3) . The maximum volumetric and specific nitrification rates obtained were 2.56 kg N-NH(4) (+) m(-3) day(-1) and 0.23 g N-NH(4) ( +) g(-1) volatile suspended solid (VSS) day(-1), respectively, at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12.7 h and solid retention time of 50 days. Incomplete nitrification was encountered when operating at a higher nitrogen loading rate of 3.14 kg N-NH(4) (+) m(-3) day(-1). The substrate overloading and nitrifiers competition with heterotrophs were believed to trigger the incomplete nitrification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results supported the syntrophic association between the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. FISH results also revealed the heterotrophs as the dominant and disintegration of some AOB cell aggregates into single cells which further supported the incomplete nitrification phenomenon.

Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Malásia , Nitrificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 12(3): 12-13, July 2009. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-551890


16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-targeted fluorescent in situ hybridization combined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-cloning, light microscopy using Gram stains, scanning electron microscopy and denatured gradient gel electrophoresis were used to reveal the distribution of methanogens within an anaerobic closed digester tank fed with palm oil mill effluent. For specific detection of methanogens, 16S rRNA-cloning analysis was conducted followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for presumptive identification of methanogens. To cover the drawbacks of the PCR-cloning study, the organization of the microorganisms was visualized in the activated sludge sample by using fluorescent oligonucleotide probes specific to several different methanogens, and a probe for bacteria. In situ hybridization with methanogens and bacterial probes and denatured gradient gel electrophoresis within activated sludge clearly confirmed the presence of Methanosaeta sp. and Methanosarcina sp. cells. Methanosaeta concilii was found to be the dominant species in the bioreactor. These results revealed the presence of possibly new strain of Methanosaeta in the bioreactor for treating palm oil mill effluent called Methanosaeta concilii SamaliEB (Gene bank accession number: EU580025). In addition, fluorescent hybridization pictured the close association between the methanogens and bacteria and that the number of methanogens was greater than the number of bacteria.

Óleo de Palmeira/análise , Clonagem Molecular , Digestão Anaeróbia/análise , Genes de RNAr , Methanosarcina/isolamento & purificação , Methanosarcinales/isolamento & purificação , Óleo de Palmeira , Tanques Imhoff/análise , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
J Biosci Bioeng ; 98(1): 48-56, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16233665


Reproducible amounts of lactic acid accumulate in minced kitchen refuse under open conditions with intermittent pH neutralization [Sakai et al., Food Sci. Technol. Res., 6, 140 (2000)]. Here, we showed that such pH-controlled open fermentation of kitchen refuse reproducibly resulted a selective proliferation of a major lactic acid bacterial (LAB) species. In one experiment, the predominant microorganisms isolated during the early phase (6 h) were Gammaproteobacteria. In contrast, those that predominated during the late phase (48 h) were always Lactobacillus plantarum in three independent experiments. To further quantify the microbial community within open lactic acid fermentation, we performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis targeting 16S (23S) rRNA. We designed two new group-specific DNA probes: LAC722(L) was active for most LAB including the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc and Weisella, whereas Lplan477 was specific for L. plantarum and its related species. We then optimized sample preparation using lysozyme and hybridization conditions including temperature, as well as the formamide concentration and the salt concentration in the washing buffer. We succeeded in quantification of microorganisms in semi-solid, complex biological materials such as minced kitchen refuse by taking color microphotographs in modified RGB balance on pre-coated slides. FISH analysis of the fermentation of kitchen refuse indicated that control of the pH swing leads to domination by the LAB population in minced kitchen refuse under open conditions. We also confirmed that L. plantarum, which generates lactic acid in high quantities but with low optical activity, became the dominant microorganism in kitchen refuse during the late phase of open fermentation.